Varicose veins : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins, additionally called varicosities or varicosities, occur once your veins become enlarged, dilated, and overfilled with blood. unhealthy veins usually seem swollen and raised, and have a dark-blue-purple or red color. they're usually painful.

The condition is incredibly common, particularly in women. Around twenty five p.c of all adults have varicose veins. In most cases, varicose veins appear on the lower legs.Varicose veins are sometimes bulging, bluish cords running simply at a lower place on the surface of your skin. They nearly always have an effect on legs and feet. Visible swollen and twisted veins -- generally encircled by patches of flooded capillaries called spider veins -- are thought of as superficial unhealthy veins. though they'll be painful and disfiguring, they're sometimes harmless. Once inflamed, they become tender to the bite and may hinder circulation to the purpose of inflicting swollen ankles, fretful skin, and aching within the affected limb.

What are varicose veins?
varicose veins

Besides a surface network of veins, your legs have an indoor, or deep, blood vessel network. On rare occasions, an interior leg vein becomes varicose. Such deep varicose veins are usually not visible, however they can cause swelling or aching throughout the leg and may be sites wherever blood clots will form.

unhealthy veins are a comparatively common condition, and for several folks they're a family trait. girls are a minimum of double as seemingly as men to develop them. within the U.S. alone, they have an effect on 23% of adult Americans.

  1. Circulatory system

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

  • Varicose veins are twisted, enlarged veins. Any vein that's near to the skin' surface (superficial) will become varicose. unhealthy veins most ordinarily have an effect on the veins within the legs. That' as a result of standing and walking increases the pressure in the veins of the lower body. For several people, varicose veins and spider veins — a common, gentle variation of varicose veins — are merely a cosmetic concern. For alternative people, varicose veins can cause aching pain and discomfort. generally varicose veins result in more-serious problems.

  • Treatment may involve self-care measures or procedures done by a health care supplier to close or take away veins. unhealthy veins are swollen, twisted blood vessels that bulge just below your skin’s surface. These blue or purple bulges sometimes seem in your legs, feet and ankles. they'll be painful or itchy. Spider veins, which can surround venous blood vessels, are smaller red or purple lines that appear near to your skin’s surface. Though they can be ugly and uncomfortable, varicose veins aren’t dangerous for many people. In some cases, severe varicose veins can result in serious health problems, admire blood clots.

  • you'll relieve most varicose vein symptoms reception or your tending supplier will treat them with injections, optical maser medical aid or surgery. Varicose or spider veins are a common health problem that affects an estimated 40-60% of the population Veins come in all shapes and sizes but when they start to bulge or enlarge under the skin they're called varicose veins They can be painful itchy and unsightly — particularly on your legs And while some people may think they have to just bear with them there are treatments available to improve both simple and more complex cases of varicosity Learn more about these treatments here. 

Symptoms Varicose veins

The following are the most common symptoms of varicose veins. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.

Varicose veins might not cause pain. Signs of varicose veins include:

  • Veins that are dark purple or blue

  • Veins that appear twisted and bulging, often appearing like cords on the legs

When painful signs and symptoms of varicose veins occur, they might include:

  • An achy or heavy feeling in the legs

  • Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in the lower legs

  • Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time

  • Itching around one or more of the veins

  • Changes in skin color around a varicose vein

Spider veins are like unhealthy veins, however they're smaller. Spider veins are found nearer to the skin' surface and are often red or blue. Spider veins occur on the legs but may be found on the face. They vary in size and sometimes seem like a spider's web.

When to see a doctor

If you're involved however your veins look and feel and self-care measures haven't helped, see your healthcare provider. 

Causes Varicose veins

To help flow into oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to any or all elements of the body, your arteries have thick layers of muscle or elastic tissue. To push blood back to your heart, your veins believe primarily on close muscles and a network of unidirectional valves. As blood flows through a vein, the cup-like valves hospitable enable blood through, then on the brink of stopping backflow. In unhealthy veins, the valves don't work properly, permitting blood to pool within the vein and creating it tough for the muscles to push the blood "uphill." Rather than flowing from one valve to the next, the blood continues to pool within the vein, increasing blood pressure additionally the} chance of congestion whereas inflicting the vein to bulge and twist. As a result of superficial veins having less muscle support than deep veins, they're doubtlessly becoming unhealthy. Any condition that puts excessive pressure on the legs or abdomen can result in varicose veins. The foremost common pressure inducers are pregnancy, obesity, and standing for long periods. Chronic constipation and -- in rare cases, tumors -- can also cause varicose veins. Being inactive also might contribute to varix because muscles that are out of condition supply poor blood-pumping action. The chance of varix additionally will increase as veins weaken with age. A previous leg injury may harm the valves in an exceedingly vein, which may lead to a varicosity. Biology also plays a role, so if different members of the family have unhealthy veins, there's a bigger probability you will, too. Contrary to common belief, sitting with crossed legs won't cause varicose veins, though it can worsen an existing condition. Weak or broken valves can result in varicose veins. Arteries carry blood from the center to the remainder of the body. Veins come from the remainder of the body to the heart. To return blood to the heart, the veins within the legs should work against gravity. Muscle contractions in the lower legs act as pumps, and elastic vein walls facilitate blood return to the heart. little valves in the veins open as blood flows toward the heart, then on the brink of stopping blood from flowing backward. If these valves are weak or damaged, blood will flow backward and pool in the veins, inflicting the veins to stretch or twist.

Risk factors Varicose veins

Varicose veins may be more common in some families (inherited). Increased pressure in the veins may cause varicose veins.

The following can increase the risk of developing varicose veins:

  • Age. Aging causes wear and tear on the valves within the veins that facilitate management blood flow. Eventually, that wear causes the valves to permit some blood to flow into the veins, wherever it collects. 

  • Sex. Women are additional seemingly to develop the condition. secretion changes before a discharge amount or throughout physiological condition or climacteric could be an element as a result of feminine hormones tend to relax vein walls. Endocrine treatments, love contraception pills, may increase the chance of unhealthy veins. 

  • Pregnancy. During pregnancy, the blood volume in the body increases. This change supports the growing baby but can also enlarge the veins in the legs.

  • Family history. If other family members had varicose veins, there's a greater chance you will too.

  • Obesity. Being overweight puts added pressure on veins.

  • Standing or sitting for long periods of time. Movement helps blood flow.

Complications Varicose veins

Complications of varicose veins, although rare, can include:

  • Ulcers. Painful lesions will kind on the skin close to unhealthy veins, notably near the ankles. A stained spot on the skin sometimes begins before an ulcer forms. See your health care supplier straight off if you think that you've developed a leg ulcer. 

  • Blood clots. Occasionally, veins deep inside the legs become enlarged and would possibly cause leg pain and swelling. obtain medical attention for persistent leg pain or swelling as a result of it is a proof of a blood clot. 

  • Bleeding. Occasionally, veins close to the skin burst. Although this usually causes only minor bleeding, it requires medical attention.

Can varicose veins go away naturally?

  • No varicose veins cannot go away by themselves They can however be treated so that you will notice a significant difference in their appearance Sometimes the treatment for varicose veins involves compression stockings to reduce the amount of blood traveling through your legs and making them look blue or swollen Surgery may also be necessary to remove varicose veins if they are causing you pain or additional discomfort such as feeling tired or having difficulty sleeping at night due to leg cramps from standing on your feet all day.

  • In most cases varicose veins are a cosmetic issue and do not require treatment However for those who experience pain caused by varicose veins or have concerns about appearance there are several options The doctor may suggest wearing compression stockings if you have chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) Avoid standing for prolonged periods of time and instead sit down periodically during the day When sitting elevate your feet with a footrest to help the blood flow back towards your heart more easily Between 10 and 20 minutes of exercise twice per week also help reduce CVI symptoms.

How do I get rid of varicose veins on my legs permanently?

Many people want to know how to get rid of varicose veins permanently Varicose veins are a common cosmetic concern for many people and can make the legs look unattractive People who have varicose veins may find it difficult to wear shorts or skirts during warm weather which can be frustrating for most people There are several options when it comes to treating these unsightly veins and your options will depend on their size location and severity.

Is massage good for varicose veins?

You should seek medical advice if you are concerned about varicose veins Varicose veins can be treated by a variety of methods including surgery or self-help techniques A physical therapist may suggest leg elevation and massage therapy to help manage symptoms associated with varicose veins including pain Massage your legs daily after bathing according to the American Physical Therapy Association This self-massage technique helps to improve circulation and decrease swelling in the lower limbs If you suffer from varicose vein discomfort keep an eye out for other signs of venous diseases that require treatment for better outcomes such as.

Does ice help varicose veins?

Frequently wearing high heels in the past few years is one of the commonest causes for varicose veins to develop Often a woman will wear high heels as a sign of beauty and charm The pressure on the ankle caused by wearing high heels will easily lead to varicose veins In addition though there are sophisticated medical ways to deal with varicose veins yet if they are not fully developed you can easily deal with them at home because they don't require much treatment form One of the easiest ways is just like what we mentioned above: wrapping ice around your ankles to reduce swelling and pain while doing so naturally allev.

How do you sleep with varicose veins?

If you suffer from varicose veins the last thing you want to think about is making that long trip down your body But if you are afraid of sleeping with varicose veins at least try to sleep on your side For those bedtime pillows opt for the kind with a contoured center section Then tuck them under your knees placing some weight on them throughout the night.

Prevention Varicose veins

Improving blood flow and tonus would possibly cut back the chance of developing unhealthy veins. identical measures that treat the discomfort from varicose veins will facilitate forestall them. attempt the following:

  • Avoiding high heels and tight hosiery

  • Changing your sitting or standing position regularly

  • Eating a high-fiber, low-salt diet

  • Exercising

  • Raising your legs when sitting or lying down

  • Watching your weight

Diagnosis Varicose veins

Varicose veins are on the point of the surface of your skin and straightforward to see. aid suppliers will diagnose the condition throughout a physical examination. They’ll feel your veins and examine them whereas you’re sitting and standing. to envision elaborated pictures of your veins and check for complications, your supplier could advocate an ultrasound. This safe, painless take a look at uses sound waves to supply photos of tissues within your body. Ultrasounds can show blood clots and the way your valves are working.Your healthcare provider can do a physical exam, together with observing your legs while you're standing to check for swelling. Your supplier may additionally raise you to explain pain and aching in your legs.


To diagnose unhealthy veins, a health care supplier may suggest a take a look at known as a blood vessel Christian Johann Doppler ultrasound of the leg. A Doppler ultrasound could be a noninvasive test that uses sound waves to see blood flow through the valves within the veins.

  1. Angiocardiography

  2. Angiography

A leg ultrasound will facilitate discovery of a blood clot. During this test, a health care provider moves atiny low hand-held device (transducer), that is concerning the dimensions of a bar of soap, against the heal the body space being examined. The electrical device transmits pictures of the veins in the legs to a monitor, which displays the results.

Treatment Varicose veins

In general, doctors are conservative once treating venous blood vessels. You’ll most likely be suggested to form changes to your lifestyle, rather than associate degree attempt|attempting} additional aggressive treatments. Treatment for unhealthy veins might embrace self-care measures, compression stockings, and surgeries or procedures. Procedures to treat varicose veins are typically done as a patient procedure, which implies you always return on a similar day. raise your underwriter if varicose vein treatment may be a lined expense. If varicose vein treatment is completed solely to enhance the looks of the legs (cosmetic reason), the value may not be covered by insurance.


Self-care — reminiscent of exercise, raising the legs once sitting or lying down, or sporting compression stockings — will ease the pain of unhealthy veins and would possibly stop them from getting worse.

Compression stockings

Wearing compression stockings all day is commonly the primary approach to try. The stockings squeeze the legs, serving to veins and leg muscles move blood additional efficiently. The quantity of compression varies by sort and brand. Compression stockings are on the market at most pharmacies and medical store stores. Prescription-strength stockings are available and should be lined by insurance if unhealthy veins are inflicting symptoms.

Surgeries or other procedures

If self-care steps and compression stockings don't work, or unhealthy veins are additional severe, a health care supplier would possibly suggest surgery or different procedures:

  • Sclerotherapy. A health care supplier injects the unhealthy veins with an answer or foam that scars and closes those veins. During a few weeks, treated varicose veins ought to fade. an equivalent vein may ought to be injected over once. Sclerotherapy doesn't need physiological conditions and might be wiped out by a health care provider' office. 

  • Laser treatment. Laser treatment sends strong bursts of light onto the vein, which makes the vein slowly fade and disappear. No cuts or needles are used.

  • Catheter-based procedures using radiofrequency or laser energy. This procedure is the most well-liked treatment for larger unhealthy veins. A health care supplier inserts a skinny tube (catheter) into AN enlarged vein and heats the tip of the tube mistreatment either radiofrequency or optical maser energy. Because the catheter is removed, the warmth destroys the vein by inflicting it to collapse and seal shut. 

  • High ligation and vein stripping. This procedure involves fastening off a vein before it joins a deep vein associate degreed removing the vein through little cuts. This can be a patient procedure for many people. Removing the vein won't keep blood from flowing within the leg as a result of veins deeper in the leg lookout of the larger volumes of blood. 

  • Ambulatory phlebectomy (fluh-BEK-tuh-me). A health care supplier removes smaller unhealthy veins through a series of small skin punctures. solely the elements of the leg that are being pricked are numbed during this patient procedure. Scarring is usually minimal. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

Lifestyle and home remedies for varicose veins include:

  • Exercise. Get moving. Walking is a great way to encourage blood flow in the legs. Your health care provider can recommend an appropriate activity level for you.

  • Manage weight. Shedding excess pounds takes unnecessary pressure off the veins.

  • Avoid salt. Follow a low-salt diet to prevent swelling caused from water retention.

  • Choose proper footwear. Avoid high heels. Low-heeled shoes work calf muscles more, which is better for your veins.

  • Avoid tight clothing. Don't wear tight clothes around your waist, legs or groin because these garments can reduce blood flow.

  • Raise the legs. To improve the blood flow within the legs, take many short breaks daily to lift the legs higher than the extent of the heart. For example, change posture with the legs resting on 3 or four pillows. 

  • Avoid long periods of sitting or standing. Change your position frequently to encourage blood flow.

Alternative medicine

Though they haven't been well studied, a variety of different therapies claim to be useful treatments for chronic blood vessel insufficiency. This is often a condition related to unhealthy veins during which leg veins have issues returning blood to the heart. different therapies for varicose veins could include:

  • Horse chestnut

  • Butcher's broom

  • Grape (leaves, sap, seed and fruit)

  • Sweet clover

Talk with your health care provider before trying any herb or dietary supplement to make sure the product is safe and won't interfere with medications you take.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation

Preparing for your appointment

Your health care supplier may have to be compelled to cross-check your clean legs and feet to diagnose unhealthy veins and make out what treatment may well be best for your condition. Your medical care doctor would possibly suggest that you just see a doctor who focuses on vein conditions (phlebologist), a tube-shaped structure Dr. or a doctor who treats skin conditions (dermatologist or medicine surgeon). Within the meantime, there are some steps you'll fancy to induce your appointment.

What you can do

Make a list of:

  • Your symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to varicose veins, and when they began

  • Key personal information, including a family history of varicose veins or spider veins

  • All medications, vitamins or supplements you take, including doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes for my varicose veins?

  • What tests will I need?

  • What treatment do you recommend for me?

  • How can I best manage varicose veins along with other health conditions I have?

  • Do I need to restrict any activities?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed materials I can have? What websites do you recommend?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did you notice the varicose veins?

  • Do you have pain? If so, how severe is it?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • Does anything appear to worsen your symptoms?

What you can do in the meantime

Even before your appointment, you can begin self-care.

  • Try not to stand or sit in one position for a long time.

  • Raise your legs when you're seated.

  • Avoid uncomfortable footwear and tight socks or hosiery.

General summary

  1. The most common treatment for varicose veins is compression stockings These are elastic hose that you wear over your legs to keep blood from pooling in the veins and causing pain and swelling The stockings are available at pharmacies drug stores grocery stores department stores and medical supply companies You can even find them .

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