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Cardiogenic Shock: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What is cardiogenic shock?

Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition caused by a heart attack. It is discovered while it's happening and requires immediate treatment in the hospital.

 

Cardiogenic shock, conjointly referred to as viscous shock, happens once your heart cannot pump enough blood and atomic number 8 to the brain and alternative very important organs. This can be a severe emergency. it's treatable if diagnosed right away, so it’s important to grasp the warning signs.

while not oxygen-rich blood reaches the brain and other vital organs, your vital sign drops, and your pulse slows. you'll have symptoms akin to confusion, sweating, and speedy breathing. you'll also lose consciousness.

Most frequently the reason for shock could be a serious heart attack. alternative health issues that may result in shock embrace heart failure, that happens once the guts can’t pump enough blood to fulfill the body’s needs; chest injuries; and blood clots within the lungs.

Treatment focuses on obtaining blood flowing properly and protective organs from damage. Some folks may have a heart transplant or a good deep-seated device to assist keep blood flowing to the heart. If not treated quickly, cardiogenic shock is fatal or leads to organ failure or brain injury.


What is cardiogenic shock


Explanation of medical terms and concept Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiogenic shock is a grievous condition during which your heart suddenly can't pump enough blood to fulfill your body' needs. The condition is most frequently caused by a severe heart failure, however not everybody who contains a heart attack has cardiogenic shock. shock is rare. It's often deadly if not treated immediately. once treated immediately, regarding those who develop the condition survive. 

Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening medical condition that results when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygenated blood and begins to die As your heart loses its ability to pump the amount of blood flowing through your body decreases which can lead to organ damage or failure Cardiogenic shock symptoms include: Fainting Rapid breathing or fast heartbeat (tachycardia) — more than 100 beats per minute in adults and more than 160 beats per minute in children younger than 12 years old; varies with age and body size Sweating clammy skin (diaphoresis).

Sudden heart failure Cardiogenic shock is the sudden onset of symptoms caused by inadequate blood flow to your organs Inadequate blood flow leads to a shortage of oxygen in body tissues which causes organ dysfunction Cardiogenic shock can lead to death if it’s not treated quickly It can occur suddenly or as a result of chronic cardiac issues such as coronary artery disease congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy.

Symptoms Cardiogenic Shock

A heart attack can damage the heart's main pumping chamber (left ventricle). When this happens, the body cannot get enough oxygen-rich blood. In rare cases of cardiogenic shock, the bottom right chamber of the heart (right ventricle) can be damaged. The right ventricle pumps to compensate. Blood travels to the lungs where it gets oxygen and then goes to other parts of the body.

Cardiogenic shock signs and symptoms include:

  • Rapid breathing

  • Severe shortness of breath

  • Sudden, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Weak pulse

  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)

  • Sweating

  • Pale skin

  • Cold hands or feet

  • Urinating less than normal or not at all

Symptoms of a heart attack

Because shock sometimes happens in those that are having a severe heart attack, it's necessary to understand the signs and symptoms of a heart attack. These include:

  • Pressure, fullness or a squeezing pain in the center of your chest that lasts for more than a few minutes

  • Pain spreading to your shoulder, one or both of your arms, your back, or even your teeth and jaw

  • Increasing episodes of chest pain

  • Shortness of breath

  • Sweating

  • Lightheadedness or sudden dizziness

  • Nausea and vomiting

Seek medical attention quickly when having these signs or symptoms to decrease your risk of developing cardiogenic shock.

When to see a doctor

Getting heart failure treatment quickly improves your probability of survival and reduces injury to your heart. If you're having symptoms of a heart attack, call 911 or different emergency medical services for help. If you don't have access to emergency medical services, have somebody drive you to the closest hospital. Don't drive yourself. 

Causes Cardiogenic Shock

In most cases, a scarcity of chemical elements to your heart, sometimes from a heart attack, injures its main pumping chamber (left ventricle). while not oxygen-rich blood flowing thereto space of your heart, the center muscle will weaken and enter cardiogenic shock. Rarely, damage to your heart' right ventricle, that sends blood to your lungs to urge oxygen, ends up in cardiogenic shock.

Other possible causes of cardiogenic shock include:

  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)

  • Infection of the heart valves (endocarditis)

  • Weakened heart from any cause

  • Drug overdoses or poisoning with substances that can affect your heart's pumping ability

Risk factors Cardiogenic Shock

Some factors that increase your risk of cardiogenic shock include:

  • Are older

  • Have a history of heart failure or heart attack

  • Have blockages (coronary artery disease) in several of your heart's main arteries

  • Have diabetes or high blood pressure

  • Are female

Complications

If not treated immediately, shock can cause death. Another serious complication is harm to your liver, kidneys or different organs from lack of oxygen, which may be permanent.

Prevention

If you have a heart attack, the best way to prevent cardiogenic shock is to get immediate treatment.

If you have heart disease, see your doctor as soon as possible to find out your risk and take steps to improve your health. If you have coronary artery disease (CAD), it is important to follow all of the recommendations in your doctor's plan of care (medications, lifestyle changes, etc.).

The best way to prevent cardiogenic shock is to make lifestyle changes to keep your heart healthy and your blood pressure in check.

  • Don't smoke, and avoid secondhand smoke. If you smoke, the best way to reduce your heart attack risk is to quit.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight contributes to alternative risk factors for attack and cardiogenic shock, appreciating high pressure level, disorder and diabetes. Losing simply ten pounds (4.5 kilograms) will lower blood pressure and improve cholesterol levels. 

  • Eat less cholesterol and saturated fat. Limiting these, especially saturated fat, can reduce your risk of heart disease. Avoid trans fats.

  • Use less salt. Too much salt (sodium) ends up in fluid buildup within the body, which might strain the heart. Aim for fewer than 2,300 milligrams (mg) each day of thereforedium. Salt is often found in several canned and processed goods, so it's a decent plan to ascertain food labels. 

  • Cut back on sugar. This will help you avoid nutrient-poor calories and help you maintain a healthy weight.

  • Limit alcohol. If you select to drink alcohol, do this in moderation. For healthy adults, which means up to 1 drink daily for girls and up to 2 drinks a day for men. 

  • Exercise regularly. Exercise will lower your force per unit area and improve the general health of your blood vessels and heart. Get a minimum of one hundred fifty minutes of moderate aerobic activity or seventy five minutes of vigorous aerobic activity a week, or a mix of moderate and vigorous activity. It's advised to display this exercise throughout the course of a week. bigger amounts of exercise can offer even greater health benefits. If you've got a heart attack, fast action can facilitate stopping cardiogenic shock. obtain emergency medical help if you're thinking that you're having a heart attack. 

Diagnosis Cardiogenic Shock

There are several tests that can be done to determine if you have cardiogenic shock. These can include: 1. Checking your blood pressure and heart rate 2. Taking a blood sample to measure your blood oxygen levels 3. Checking for signs of bleeding in the body.

Cardiogenic shock is sometimes diagnosed in AN emergency setting. Doctors will check for signs and symptoms of shock, and can then perform tests to search out the cause. Tests would possibly include:

  • Blood pressure measurement. People in shock have very low blood pressure.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick, noninvasive check records the electrical activity of your heart victimization electrodes hooked up to your skin. If you have a broken muscle or fluid buildup around your heart, the center won't send electrical signals normally. 

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray shows the size and shape of your heart and whether there's fluid in your lungs.

  • Blood tests. You'll have blood drawn to visualize organ damage, infection and heart attack. A blood gas taken a look at may be done to live chemical elements in your blood. 

  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves produce an image of your heart. This test can help identify damage from a heart attack.

  • Cardiac catheterization (angiogram). This take a look at will reveal blocked or narrowed arteries. A doctor inserts a long, skinny tube (catheter) through an artery in your leg or radiocarpal joint and guides it to your heart. Dye flows through the catheter, creating your arteries a lot of simply seen on X-ray. 

Treatment Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition and patients need urgent treatment. Improving the flow of blood and oxygen to major organs is crucial to preventing damage.

Cardiogenic shock treatment focuses on reducing the damage from lack of oxygen to your heart muscle and other organs.

Emergency life support

Most people who have shock would like additional oxygen. If necessary, you'll be connected to a ventilator (ventilator). You'll receive medications associated with fluid through an IV line in your arm.

Medications

Fluids Associate in Nursing plasma are given through an IV. Medications to treat shock are given to extend your heart's pumping ability and scale back the danger of blood clots.

  • Vasopressors. These medications are wont to treat low blood pressure. They embody dopamine, internal secretion (Adrenaline, Auvi-Q), monoamine neurotransmitter (Levophed) and others. 

  • Inotropic agents. These medications, that facilitate improving the pumping performance of the heart, are also given till alternative treatments begin to work. They embrace dobutamine, monoamine neurotransmitter and milrinone. 

  • Aspirin. Aspirin is typically times} given instantly to scale back curdling ANd keep blood moving through a narrowed artery. Take an Empirin yourself whereas looking forward to facilitate to arrive as long as your doctor has antecedently told you to try to to so for symptoms of a heart attack. 

  • Antiplatelet medication. Emergency room doctors would possibly provide you with medicine like acetylsalicylic acid to assist forestall new clots from forming. These medications embody clopidogrel (Plavix), tirofiban (Aggrastat) and eptifibatide (Integrilin). 

  • Other blood-thinning medications. You'll seemingly incline alternative medications, comparable to anticoagulants, to make your blood less likely to form clots. IV or injectable heparin sometimes is given throughout the primary few days when a heart attack. 

Surgeries and other procedures

Medical procedures to treat cardiogenic shock usually focus on restoring blood flow through your heart. They include:

  • Angioplasty and stenting. If a blockage is found throughout a viscus catheterization, your doctor will insert a long, skinny tube (catheter) equipped with a special balloon through an artery, sometimes in your leg, to a blocked artery in your heart. Once in position, the balloon is in short inflated to open the blockage. A metal mesh tubing may be inserted into the artery to stay it open over time. In most cases, your doctor can place a stent coated with a slow-releasing medication to assist keep your artery open. 

  • Balloon pump. Your doctor inserts a balloon pump within the main artery off of your heart (aorta). The pump inflates and deflates at intervals the aorta, serving to blood flow and taking a number of the work off your heart. 

  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO helps improve blood flow and provides O to the body. Blood is tense outside of your body to a pump that removes greenhouse emission and sends oxygen-filled blood back to tissues within the body. If medications and alternative procedures don't work to treat cardiogenic shock, your doctor may suggest surgery. 

  • Coronary artery bypass surgery. This surgery uses a healthy vessel in your leg, arm or chest to make a brand new pathway for blood therefore it will flow around a blocked or narrowed artery. Your doctor would possibly recommend this surgery when your heart has had time to live through your heart attack. Occasionally, bypass surgery is completed as an emergency treatment. 

  • Surgery to repair an injury to your heart. Sometimes associated injury, resembling a tear in one of your heart' chambers or a broken heart valve, will cause cardiogenic shock. Surgery may correct the problem. 

  • Ventricular assist device (VAD). An automaton may be deep-rooted into the abdomen and hooked up to the guts to assist its pump. A VAD may extend and improve the lives of some individuals with end-stage failure who are watching for new hearts or aren't ready to have a heart transplant. 

  • Heart transplant. If your heart is so damaged that no other treatments work, a heart transplant may be a last resort.

Outlook / Prognosis

The condition of cardiogenic shock has a big impact on your life, depending on how quickly you get treatment. The less time you are in shock, the better because there is less damage to major organs. Without treatment, the condition can lead to death.

Get helpful health and wellness information that is relevant to you.

General summary

Which drug is most commonly used to treat cardiogenic shock?

Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition caused by serious complications from heart attack This condition can be treated with beta blockers calcium channel blockers and nitrates Beta blockers are drugs that cause your blood vessels to relax so that more blood can flow through them Calcium channel blockers dilate the coronary arteries and permit increased amounts of oxygenated blood to move through the heart muscle Nitrates relax the muscles in your body including those surrounding your blood vessels which results in decreased resistance against the flow of blood and decreased pressure within the vessel walls Taking medication for improper uses or taking too much medication results in adverse effects.

How do you stabilize cardiogenic shock?

Cardiogenic shock is a state of decreased cardiac output which leads to low blood pressure The condition may be caused by arrhythmias myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism It can cause serious complications and even death if left untreated Treatment involves stabilizing the patient’s vital functions before invasive procedures are done such as cardioversion surgery or angioplasty Electrolytes fluids and medications are given to stabilize the cardiovascular system and decrease dysrhythmias while awaiting definitive treatment.

What treatment should be used cautiously in patients with cardiogenic shock?

Activated protein C (APC) treatment should be used cautiously in patients with cardiogenic shock because it can increase the risk of bleeding. The APC is sometimes given to patients who are hospitalized for heart attacks The goal of APC is to reduce clotting and clear other factors that may contribute to heart damage.

Can you survive cardiogenic shock?

Cardiogenic shock is caused by a severe heart attack This type of shock is much more serious than the kind you might know from movies and TV shows which involve temporary blood loss after a physical injury Cardiogenic shock can leave you unconscious or cause intense chest pain If it progresses to heart failure you could die within hours if left untreated.

What is the most common cause of cardiogenic shock?

Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when your heart's pumping ability is reduced or stops and it can't maintain an adequate supply of blood to your body Without enough blood your tissues and organs do not function properly which may lead to death Cardiogenic shock is caused by an interruption in the heart's electrical system that disrupts its beat and prevents it from effectively pumping blood to the rest of your body The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is a heart attack (myocardial infarction) Other causes include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) such as ventricular fibr.

Is cardiogenic shock the same as heart failure?

No Heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs Cardiogenic shock occurs because the heart is working too hard but cannot provide adequate blood flow to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients causing organ damage and eventually leading to failure of multiple organs in both animals and humans.

What are the stages of cardiogenic shock?

As the heart fails it can cause a chain of events including accumulation of fluid in your lungs and low blood pressure according to the Mayo Clinic The result is cardiogenic shock -- a life-threatening medical emergency that occurs when your heart doesn’t pump enough blood to meet your body's needs Cardiogenic shock has three stages: compensated decompensated and refractory Compensated stage : It occurs when there's enough fluid to fill up your lungs with an adequate amount of oxygen to sustain you while there isn't enough fluid in the rest of your body In this stage you might.

Why is dopamine used in cardiogenic shock?

Because dopamine is a stimulant of the central nervous system it can be used to stimulate cardiac function in cardiogenic shock In this condition the heart is so damaged by injury or disease that its ability to pump enough blood throughout the body is impaired Dopamine helps restore some normal heart activity and maintain blood pressure to keep oxygen-rich blood flowing to vital organs and tissues.

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Cardiogenic Shock: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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