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Norovirus infection : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is Norovirus Infection?

Noroviruses are a bunch of viruses (previously called Norwalk-like viruses) which will cause stomach flu, an inflammation of the abdomen and intestines. Norovirus is the leading explanation for foodborne illness outbreaks in Minnesota.

This infection is usually erroneously stated because of the “stomach grip”. Norovirus isn't regarding the flu (influenza), that could be a common respiratory disorder caused by the influenza virus.Norovirus is believed to be the foremost common cause of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and ejection illness) around the world. It spreads simply through food and drink and might have a giant impact on people' health.

Norovirus was originally referred to as the Norwalk virus, when the city of Norwalk, OH, where the primary confirmed natural event happened in nineteen72.

On average, noroviruses cause 19 million to twenty one million cases of acute inflammatory {disease} within the U.S. each year and send quite 450,000 folks to the emergency room, in keeping with the CDC. They cause more than 1/2 of all foodborne disease outbreaks every year. There are kinds|many sorts|many varieties} of noroviruses, and exposure to at least one type might not defend you from the others.

Though norovirus will strike year-round, it’s more common in the winter. folks generally decide it is the “winter ejection bug.” Noroviruses are also sometimes referred to as food poisoning, as a result of they'll be transmitted through contaminated food. They aren't continually the results of food contamination, though.

What is Norovirus Infection

Explanation of medical terms and concept Norovirus infection

Norovirus infection can cause severe puking and symptoms that begin suddenly. Noroviruses are extremely contagious. They unremarkably unfold through food or water that's contaminated throughout preparation or through contaminated surfaces. Noroviruses may also spread through shut contact with an individual who has norovirus infection. Diarrhea, abdomen pain and vomiting usually begin twelve to forty eight hours after exposure. Norovirus infection symptoms usually last one to three days. the general public recovered utterly while not receiving treatment. However, for a few people — particularly young children, older adults different people|and folks} with other medical conditions — vomiting and diarrhea are often severely dehydrated and need medical attention. Norovirus infection happens most often in closed and crowded  environments. Examples embrace hospitals, nursing homes, kid care centers, colleges and cruise ships. 

causes Norovirus causes an infection of the intestine and stomach lining in humans It is one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide causing about 50% of all cases The virus is transmitted from person to person primarily through the fecal-oral route or by touching contaminated surfaces and objects Noroviruses are present in the stool and vomit of infected persons as well as on contaminated surfaces (e.g. tables and counters) and in contaminated water supplies.

Norovirus also known as the winter vomiting disease or food poisoning is a very common illness caused by a group of viruses from the Caliciviridae family The virus is extremely contagious and can spread quickly through contaminated food or water It often spreads throughout entire buildings and cruise ships.

Symptoms Norovirus infection

Common symptoms of norovirus infection embody vomiting, diarrhea, and abdomen cramping. Less common symptoms will include inferior fever or chills, headache, and muscle aches. Symptoms typically begin one or a pair of days once ingesting the virus, however could seem as early as twelve hours after exposure. The sickness typically comes on suddenly. The infected person may feel terribly sick and vomit often, typically while not warning, over and over a day. Typically individuals infected with norovirus haven't any symptoms at all, but can still pass the virus to others.

Signs and symptoms of norovirus infection may start suddenly and include:

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Stomach pain or cramps

  • Watery or loose diarrhea

  • Feeling ill

  • Low-grade fever

  • Muscle pain

Signs and symptoms sometimes begin twelve to forty eight hours after your initial exposure to a norovirus and last one to three days. you'll still shed virus in your stool for many weeks after recovery. This shedding can last weeks to months if you have got another medical condition. Some folks with norovirus infection may show no signs or symptoms. However, they're still contagious and might unfold the virus to others.

When to see a doctor

Seek medical attention if you develop diarrhea that doesn't flee at intervals many days. additionally decision your health care supplier if you expertise severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdomen pain or dehydration.

Causes Norovirus infection

Noroviruses are extremely contagious. meaning the norovirus infection can simply unfold to others. The virus is shed in stool and vomit. you'll spread the virus from the time you initially have symptoms of sickness till many days when you recover. Noroviruses can continue surfaces and objects for days or weeks.

You can get norovirus infection by:

  • Eating contaminated food

  • Drinking contaminated water

  • Touching your hand to your mouth after your hand has been in contact with a contaminated surface or object

  • Being in close contact with a person who has norovirus infection

Noroviruses are difficult to kill because they can withstand hot and cold temperatures and many disinfectants.

Norovirus is especially likely to cause ill health in places that admire aid and aged care facilities, restaurants, colleges and cruise ships. These are closed environments where several individuals eat food ready by others. One infected person will simply pass the infection to other people. Norovirus is additionally called ‘winter vomiting’ as a result of it tends to peak in winter once people rest indoors. Other common names for norovirus infection are viscus flu, gastroenteritis and microorganism gastro.

Risk factors Norovirus infection

People become infected with noroviruses once they eat or drink contaminated foods and beverages. Raw or undercooked oysters and raw fruits and vegetables are cursed  in some outbreaks. you'll conjointly get infected if you bite an object or surface that has been infected with the virus so touch your nose, mouth, or eyes. Noroviruses thrive in shut quarters, cherish restaurants, day-care centers, and nursing homes, as a result of they're hardy and extremely contagious. they will survive temperature extremes in water and on surfaces. Once somebody is infected from contaminated food, the virus can quickly pass from person to person through shared food or utensils, by shaking hands, or through alternative shut contact. Once somebody with the virus vomits, the virus can unfold through the air and contaminate surfaces. The virus also spreads through feces, that means someone who doesn’t totally wash their hands when mistreating the lavatory can pass it along. Dirty diapers can even harbor norovirus. Young children, the elderly, and folks who have weakened immune systems are notably additionally prone to noroviruses. The spread is often exhausting to manage as a result of it' contagious before symptoms appear. In alternative words, you'll unfold the virus before you recognize you’re sick.

Risk factors for becoming infected with a norovirus include:

  • Eating in a place where food has been handled by someone with norovirus infection or the food has been in contact with contaminated water or surfaces

  • Attending preschool or a child care center

  • Living in close quarters, such as in nursing homes

  • Staying in hotels, resorts, cruise ships or other destinations with many people in close quarters

  • Having contact with someone who has norovirus infection


For most people, norovirus infection sometimes clears up over a number of days and isn't life-threatening. however in some people — particularly young children; older adults; different people|and folks} with weakened immune systems or other medical conditions or who are pregnant — norovirus infection is severe. Norovirus infection will cause severe dehydration and even death.

Warning signs of dehydration include:

  • Fatigue

  • Dry mouth and throat

  • Listlessness

  • Dizziness

  • Decreased urine output

Children who are dehydrated might cry with few or no tears. They might be unusually sleepy or fussy.


Norovirus infection is extremely contagious. There are many varieties of noroviruses. Anyone will get norovirus infection over once. 

to forestall norovirus infection:

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially once mistreatment the bathroom or dynamical a diaper and before you prepare food and eat or drink. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers aren't as effective against noroviruses as using soap and water. 

  • Avoid contaminated food and water, including food that could have been prepared by someone who was sick.

  • Wash fruits and vegetables before eating.

  • Cook seafood thoroughly.

  • Disinfect surfaces that might have been contaminated. Wear gloves and use a chlorine bleach solution or a disinfectant that is effective against noroviruses.

  • Use caution when traveling. If you're traveling to areas with a high risk of norovirus infection, take into account feeding solely broiled foods, drinking only hot or effervescent beverages, and avoiding food sold-out by street vendors. 

To help prevent norovirus infection spread, during illness and for 2 to 3 days after your symptoms end:

  • Avoid contact with others as much as possible.

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

  • Stay home from work. Children should stay home from school or child care.

  • Avoid handling food and items to be used by other people. Disinfect contaminated surfaces with a disinfectant effective against noroviruses.

  • Dispose of vomit and stool carefully. Wearing disposable gloves, absorbing material with disposable towels. Disturb grubby material as very little as doable to avoid spreading noroviruses by air. Place soiled things in plastic luggage and place them within the trash. take away and wash garments and linens that will be contaminated. 

  • Avoid traveling until 2 to 3 days after your symptoms are gone.

Diagnosis Norovirus infection

Norovirus infection generally} diagnosed supported the symptoms. a proper designation would require laboratory testing of a stool (poo) sample. Public health authorities sometimes request this to assist management of a virulent disease of illness.Norovirus infection is usually diagnosed based on your symptoms, however noroviruses may be known from a stool sample. If you've got a weakened system or produce other medical conditions, your health care supplier would possibly suggest a diagnostic assay to substantiate the presence of norovirus.

Treatment Norovirus infection

There is no specific medical treatment for norovirus infection. Most of the people recover utterly without treatment. Recovery relies on the health of a person’s system. folks with an immature or weak immune system — particularly infants, the elderly, and other people with an underlying illness — will become severely dehydrated and need medical attention, primarily fluid replacement. Medications to slow symptoms or cut back nausea ought to be avoided unless otherwise schooled by a doctor. In most cases, it's better to let the body clear itself of the virus. Use of antibiotics should be avoided as a result of they're not effective against viruses and their inappropriate use contributes to the event of antibiotic resistance. There' no specific treatment for norovirus infection. Recovery usually depends on the health of your immune system. In most people, the sickness usually resolves at intervals of a couple of days. It's necessary to exchange lost fluids. Oral rehydration solutions are also used. If you're unable to drink enough fluids to stop dehydration, you may have to receive fluids through a vein (intravenous). Your health care supplier might advocate over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medication and medicine to reduce nausea.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If your family includes young children, it's a decent plan to possess commercially ready oral rehydration solutions on hand. Adults will drink sports drinks, broths or oral rehydration solutions. Drinking liquids that contain heaps of sugar, comparable to soft drinks and a few fruit juices, can worsen diarrhea. Avoid beverages with caffeine and alcohol. Ease into ingestion. try to eat tiny amounts of food often if you experience nausea. Otherwise, bit by bit I begin to eat bland, easy-to-digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas, applesauce, rice and chicken. Stop eating if your nausea returns. Avoid milk and dairy farm products, caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, and fatty or highly seasoned foods for a number of days. keep in mind that norovirus infection is very contagious. Avoid contact with others the maximum amount as attainable throughout unwellness and for many days when recovery. Wash your hands and clean surfaces and objects. don't prepare food for others till your symptoms are gone.

Preparing for your appointment

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.

What you can do

Before your appointment:

  • Write down your symptoms, including when the illness began and the frequency of the vomiting and diarrhea.

  • Make a list of all your medications, vitamins or supplements, and their doses.

  • Make a list of your key medical information, including other health conditions.

  • Make a list of key personal information, including any recent changes or stressors in your life.

  • Write down questions to ask your healthcare provider.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What treatments can help?

  • How can I avoid spreading my illness to other people?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • How long have you or your child had symptoms?

  • How frequent are the vomiting and diarrhea?

  • Does the vomit or diarrhea contain mucus, blood or a dark green fluid?

  • Have you or your child had a fever?

Your health care provider will ask additional questions based on your responses, symptoms and needs. Preparing and anticipating questions will help you make the most of your appointment time.

General summary

What is the best treatment for norovirus?

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that can cause stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhea Although there are no vaccines for norovirus victims with the virus should try to avoid close contact with other people. Health experts also recommend washing hands frequently and thoroughly.

How do you treat norovirus at home?

Norovirus also known as the winter vomiting bug is a common cause of gastroenteritis in the UK It can be very unpleasant but is usually short-lived and will pass in a couple of days without treatment Norovirus is highly contagious and can spread quickly from person to person – especially in closed environments like schools and hospitals Most cases occur during the winter months when people are coming into contact with each other more often due to colder weather conditions.

How long does it take to recover from norovirus?

You may think that you have been drinking a little too much this holiday season but if your stomach pain keeps getting worse the culprit may not be alcohol Norovirus also known as the "winter vomiting bug," is a highly contagious virus that causes nausea and vomiting It can be transmitted from person to person or via contaminated foods or surfaces The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that norovirus causes 19-21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis each year in the U.S. resulting in 570 to 800 deaths annually due to dehydration from severe vomiting and diarrhea.

What is the fastest way to cure norovirus?

A person should remain at home for at least two days after the last episode of vomiting or nausea or one day after having diarrhea Washing your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds especially after using the toilet or changing diapers and before eating is a good way to prevent the spread of norovirus and other infectious diseases.

What foods cause norovirus?

Norovirus is the most common cause of food poisoning according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention It causes an inflammation of the stomach and intestines leading to symptoms such as nausea vomiting and diarrhea These symptoms may occur within hours after eating contaminated food The main source of norovirus is contaminated foods prepared by infected workers who do not wash their hands well enough or often enough before preparing food Other sources include shellfish from polluted waters foods that have been handled or cooked improperly or by infected people moving from place to place where they can contaminate various foods People also get sick from eating raw fruits and vegetables that have been washed in contaminated water.

How can you tell if you have norovirus?

If you've been sick with nausea vomiting or diarrhea for less than three days (or fewer if you're a child) and if you have no fever your doctor may suspect norovirus Your doctor will also want to know about any recent contact with other people who are sick; this information is especially important if the illness has lasted more than three days.

Is norovirus fatal?

Norovirus is often confused with food poisoning because of their similarities The symptoms of both are very similar and they are caused by the same agents but they should not be confused with each other Norovirus can be fatal if a person's immune system is compromised by another illness such as cancer or AIDS However healthy adults will not die from norovirus even if they experience extreme dehydration.

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Norovirus infection : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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