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HPV infection : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is HPV Infection?

HPV stands for human papillomavirus. It’s the foremost common sexually transmitted infection. HPV is typically harmless and goes away by itself, however some sorts can cause cancer or sex organ warts.HPV is that the commonest STI. There have been forty three million HPV infections in 2018, several among folks in their late teens and early 20s. There are many alternative styles of HPV. Some types can cause health issues, together with genital warts and cancers. however there are vaccines that may stop these health problems from happening. HPV could be a different virus than HIV and HSV (herpes).You can get HPV by having vaginal, anal, or sexual perversion with somebody who has the virus. it's most ordinarily unfold throughout epithelial duct or anal sex. It also spreads through shut skin-to-skin touching during sex. an individual with HPV can pass the infection to someone even after they don't have any signs or symptoms.

If you're sexually active, you'll be able to get HPV, albeit you've got had sex with just one person. you furthermore mght can develop symptoms years when having sex with someone who has the infection. This makes it onerous to grasp after you initial got it.

What is HPV Infection

Explanation of medical terms and concept HPV infection

HPV infection is an infection that unremarkably causes skin or membrane growths (warts). There are quite a hundred forms of human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of HPV infection cause warts, and a few will cause differing types of cancer. Most HPV infections don't result in cancer. however some types of sex organ HPV can cause cancer of the lower a part of the female internal reproductive organ that connects to the canal (cervix). Different types of cancers, together with cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, female genitals and back of the throat (oropharyngeal), are coupled to HPV infection. These infections are often transmitted sexually or through different skin-to-skin contact. Vaccines will facilitate shield against the strains of HPV presumably to cause sex organ warts or cervical cancer. 

HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States The virus is passed through genital contact most often during vaginal and anal sex Although it can be spread through other forms of sexual activity such as oral sex and hand-to-genital contact it's less likely to happen this way.

is a common sexually transmitted disease There are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) Some types cause genital warts while others can lead to cancer HPV infection is a common sexually transmitted disease It is passed from person-to-person through intimate skin-to-skin contact Although most people never develop symptoms some people with HPV develop genital warts or cervical cancer.

Symptoms HPV infection

In several cases, HPV causes no symptoms. Once they do occur, the foremost common symptom is warts within the reproductive organ area. Signs of infection will seem weeks, months, or perhaps years once the person has been infected with the virus.In most cases, your body's system defeats an HPV infection before it creates warts. once warts do appear, they vary in look counting on which type of HPV is involved:

  • Genital warts. These seem as flat lesions, tiny cauliflower-like bumps or tiny vegetable protrusions. In women, sex organ warts appear totally on the female genital organ however may also occur close to the anus, on the cervix or within the vagina. In men, genital warts appear on the member and pocket or round the anus. sex organ warts seldom cause discomfort or pain, although they will itch or feel tender. 

  • Common warts. Common warts seem as rough, raised bumps and frequently occur on the hands and fingers. In most cases, common warts are merely unsightly, however they'll even be painful or liable to injury or bleeding. 

  • Plantar warts. Plantar warts are hard, grainy growths that usually appear on the heels or balls of your feet. These warts might cause discomfort.

  • Flat warts. Flat warts are flat-topped, slightly raised lesions. they'll seem anywhere, however youngsters sometimes get them on the face and men tend to induce them within the beard area. ladies tend to get them on the legs. 

Cervical cancer

Nearly all cervical cancers are caused by HPV infections, however cervical cancer may take twenty years or longer to develop when AN HPV infection. The HPV infection and early cervical cancer usually don't cause noticeable symptoms. Obtaining immunization against HPV infection is your best protection from cervical cancer. As a result of early cervical cancer doesn't cause symptoms, it's important that ladies have regular screening tests to find any malignant tumor changes within the cervix which may result in cancer. Current tips suggest that women ages twenty one to twenty nine have a Pap test each 3 years. girls ages 30 to sixty {five} are suggested to continue having a Pap test each 3 years, or every five years if they conjointly get the HPV DNA test at a similar time. Girls over 65 will stop testing if they've had three traditional Pap tests in a row, or 2 HPV DNA and Pap tests with no abnormal results.

When to see a doctor

If you or your kid has warts of any kind that cause embarrassment, discomfort or pain, get a recommendation from your doctor. 

Causes HPV infection

In most cases (9 out of 10), HPV goes away on its own at intervals 2 years while not health issues. However, once HPV doesn't go away, it can cause health problems like venereal warts and cancer. venereal warts sometimes seem as atiny low bump or cluster of bumps within the genital area. they'll be small or large, raised or flat, or formed sort of like a cauliflower. A care supplier can usually diagnose warts by viewing the genital area.HPV infection happens when the virus enters your body, usually through a cut, abrasion or small tear in your skin. The virus is transferred primarily by skin-to-skin contact. venereal HPV infections are shrunk through sexual intercourse, anal intercourse and alternative skin-to-skin contact within the genital region. Some HPV infections that end in oral or higher metabolism lesions are contracted through oral sex. If you're pregnant and have an HPV infection with genital warts, it's attainable your baby might get the infection. Rarely, the infection may cause a noncancerous growth in the baby' cartilaginous structure (larynx). Warts are contagious. they'll unfold through direct contact with a wart. Warts also can spread once somebody touches one thing that already touched a wart.

Risk factors HPV infection

HPV infections are common. Risk factors for HPV infection include:

  • Number of sexual partners. The additional sexual partners you have, the more seemingly you're to contract a sex organ HPV infection. Having sex with a partner who has had multiple sex partners conjointly will increase your risk. 

  • Age. Common warts occur mostly in children. Genital warts occur most often in adolescents and young adults.

  • Weakened immune systems. People who have weakened immune systems are at larger risk of HPV infections. Immune systems will be weakened by HIV/AIDS or by immune system-suppressing medicine used once organ transplants. 

  • Damaged skin. Areas of skin that have been punctured or opened are more prone to develop common warts.

  • Personal contact. Touching someone's warts or not carrying protection before contacting surfaces that are exposed to HPV — comparable to public showers or swimming pools — may increase your risk of HPV infection. 


  • Oral and upper respiratory lesions. Some HPV infections cause lesions on your tongue, tonsils, soft palate, or within your larynx and nose.

  • Cancer. Certain strains of HPV will cause cervical cancer. These strains may additionally  contribute to cancers of the genitals, anus, mouth and higher metastasis tract. 


Common warts

It's tough to forestall HPV infections that cause common warts. If you've got a standard wart, you'll be able to prevent the infection and formation of recent warts by not selecting a wart and not biting your nails.

Plantar warts

To reduce the chance of acquiring HPV infections that cause area warts, wear shoes or sandals publicly in pools and locker rooms.

Genital warts

You can reduce your risk of developing genital warts and other HPV-related genital lesions by:

  • Being in a mutually monogamous sexual relationship

  • Reducing your number of sex partners

  • Using a latex condom, which can reduce your risk of HPV transmission

HPV vaccines

Gardasil nine is an HPV immunizing agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and may be used for males and females to safeguard against cervical cancer and reproductive organ warts. The Centers for sickness management and hindrance (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for ladies and boys ages eleven and 12, though it is given as early as age 9. It' ideal for girls and boys to receive the vaccine before they need sexual contact and are exposed to HPV. analysis has shown that receiving the vaccine at a young age isn't coupled to an earlier begin of sexual activity. Once somebody is infected with HPV, the immunizing agent may not be as effective or might not work at all. Also, response to the vaccine is healthier at younger ages than older ones. But, if given before someone is infected, the vaccine can stop most cases of cervical cancer. The authority recommends that each one 11- and 12-year-olds receive 2 doses of HPV vaccine a minimum of six months apart. Younger adolescents ages nine and ten and youths ages thirteen and fourteen may receive vaccination on the updated two-dose schedule. analysis has shown that the two-dose schedule is effective for kids below fifteen. Teens and young adults who begin the immunizing agent series later, at ages 15 through twenty six, ought to still receive 3 doses of the vaccine. The authority recommends catch-up HPV vaccinations for all individuals through age 26 who aren't adequately vaccinated. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the utilization of Gardasil nine for males and females ages 9 to 45. If you're between twenty seven and 45, seek advice from your doctor whether or not he or she recommends that you just get the HPV vaccine.

Diagnosis HPV infection

Your doctor may be able to diagnose HPV infection by staring at your warts.Your doctor may be able to tell you've got HPV simply by examining your warts. however there also are many tests they will use if you don’t have symptoms you'll be able to see.

If genital warts aren't visible, you'll need one or more of the following tests:

  • Vinegar (acetic acid) solution test. A vinegar solution applied to HPV-infected genital areas turns them white. This may help in identifying difficult-to-see flat lesions.

  • Pap test. Your doctor collects a sample of cells from your cervix or duct to call laboratory analysis. Pap tests can reveal abnormalities that may result in cancer. 

  • DNA test. This test, conducted on cells from your cervix, will acknowledge the deoxyribonucleic acid of the bad types of HPV that are coupled to sex organ cancers. It' suggested for ladies thirty and older additionally to the Pap test. 

Treatment HPV infection

There is no cure for the virus itself, however several HPV infections escape on their own. In fact, concerning seventy to ninety % of cases of HPV infection are cleared from the body by the immune system. Once treatment is needed, the goal is to alleviate symptoms by removing any visible warts and abnormal cells within the cervix.Warts usually go away while not treated, significantly in children. However, there's no cure for the virus, in order that they will appear in the same place or alternative places.


Medications to eliminate warts are typically applied on to the lesion and typically take several applications before they're successful. Examples include:

  • Salicylic acid. Over-the-counter treatments that contain 2-hydroxybenzoic acid work by removing layers of a wart a bit at a time. to be used on common warts, salicylic acid will cause skin irritation and isn't for use on your face. 

  • Imiquimod. This prescription cream may enhance your immune system' ability to fight HPV. Common aspect effects embrace redness and swelling at the appliance site. 

  • Podofilox. Another topical prescription, podofilox works by destroying genital wart tissue. Podofilox may cause burning and itching where it's applied.

  • Trichloroacetic acid. This chemical treatment burns off warts on the palms, soles and genitals. It might cause local irritation.

Surgical and other procedures

If medications don't work, your doctor would possibly recommend removing warts by one among these methods:

  • Freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy)

  • Burning with an electrical current (electrocautery)

  • Surgical removal

  • Laser surgery

Treatment for HPV in the cervix

If you've got AN abnormal HPV or Pap test, your gynecologist can perform a procedure referred to as a colposcopy. mistreatment of an instrument that has an exaggerated read of the cervix (colposcope), your doctor will look closely at the cervix and take samples (biopsy) of any areas that look abnormal. Any malignant tumor lesions have to be compelled to be removed. choices embrace phase change (cryosurgery), laser, surgical removal, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and cold knife conization. LEEP uses a skinny coiled wire charged with an electrical current to get rid of a thin layer of an area of the cervix and cold knife conization is a surgical treatment that removes a round shape piece of the cervix. 

Preparing for your appointment

You'll seemingly begin by seeing your medical aid provider. betting on wherever your warts are located, you will be named a doctor who focuses on disorders of the skin (dermatologist), feet (podiatrist) or fruitful organs (gynecologist or urologist). Here's some info to assist you prepare for your appointment.

What you can do

Before your appointment, make a list of:

  • Your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for your appointment

  • Key personal information, including major stresses, recent life changes and your sexual history

  • All medications, vitamins or other supplements you take, including the doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

For HPV infection, questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes?

  • Do I need to have any tests?

  • How can I prevent HPV infection in the future?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Are you in a monogamous sexual relationship? Is your partner?

  • Where have you found lesions?

  • Are the lesions painful or itchy?

  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

Can you get rid of HPV once you have it?

There is no cure for human papillomavirus (HPV) If you have HPV it will not go away You can reduce your risk of getting other cancers or genital warts from HPV by having regular Pap tests These tests look for changes in the cervix that could lead to cancer and other problems.

Is HPV a lifelong infection?

Human papillomavirus is a common virus transmitted through sexual contact Although HPV is generally not life threatening it can cause cervical cancer in women and other cancers such as anal cancer in men Fortunately there are vaccines available to help prevent HPV infection in adolescents and young adults.

What is the best medicine for HPV?

Health experts at Johns Hopkins Medicine say there's no cure for HPV but it can be treated with drugs Some are available only by prescription while others can be purchased over the counter.

Is HPV a serious infection?

HPV is a serious infection but it can be prevented HPV spreads through sexual contact or skin-to-skin contact It is best to get the HPV vaccine before you are sexually active so that you are less likely to get infected with HPV and to prevent cervical cancer.

How do you know when HPV is gone?

It's important to know when the HPV is gone because if you don't you will assume that it is still there and you might not be as safe with your partner. This can put both of your health at risk.

What are the warning signs of HPV?

Genital warts can appear as flat pink or flesh-colored bumps that may be raised cauliflower shaped and several inches in diameter An HPV infection is spread by direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal anal or oral sex with an infected person It may take weeks to months for warts to appear after sexual contact with an infected partner.

Does HPV make you smell?

HPV can lead to several types of cancer including cervical cancer To prevent this disease and its related health complications the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that women ages 21 to 65 receive the HPV vaccine Also known as Gardasil or Silgard the HPV vaccine protects against four strains of human papillomavirus: 6 11 16 and 18.

hpv infection treatment

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women It's caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) which can be passed from person to person during sexual intercourse There are many strains of HPV and some can cause genital warts Others can lead to cervical cancer or certain other cancers that affect men as well as women To prevent cervical cancer and its complications the American Cancer Society recommends routine screening with a Pap test for all women starting at age 21 and continuing until age 65.

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HPV infection : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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