Polio :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is Polio?

Polio may be an illness caused by poliovirus. It’s been eliminated within the US as a result of widespread vaccination, however some areas of the planet still have cases. It’s vital that everybody get a series of shots to guard against polio. The disease can cause paralysis or perhaps death. It also can result in post-polio syndrome a few years later.

infectious disease myelitis (polio) is an extremely infectious agent disease that for the most part affects youngsters below five years of age. The virus is transmitted by person-to-person unfold principally through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a typical vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or food) and multiplies within the intestine, from wherever it will invade the system and cause paralysis.

What is Polio?

In 1988, the planet Health Assembly adopted a resolution for the worldwide obliteration of polio, marking the launch of the world infectious disease obliteration Initiative, spearheaded by national governments, WHO, Rotary International, the United States of America Centers for unwellness management and hindrance (CDC), UNICEF, and later joined by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi, the immunogen Alliance.  Wild enterovirus cases have been small by over 99% since 1988, from a calculable 350 000 cases in addition to one hundred twenty five endemic countries then to 175reported cases in two019. 

Of the three strains of untamed enterovirus (type one, type 2 and kind 3), wild infectious disease virus type 2 was eradicated in 1999 and no case of wild poliovirus type 3 has been found since the last case in Nigeria in November 2012. Each strains have formally been certified as globally eradicated.  As of 2020, wild poliovirus type 1 affects two countries: Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The methods for polio obliteration work after they are totally implemented. this is often clearly incontestable by India’s success in stopping polio in Jan 2011, in arguably the foremost technically difficult place, and infectious disease-free certification of the complete WHO geographic region Region in March 2014.Polio is very rare within the us and plenty of alternative countries as a result of the general public have gotten vaccinated. In many places, polio vaccination is commonplace for children’s attention and infrequently needed for teenagers to attend school.

However, polio remains a tangle in tiny pockets of the world. till everybody gets vaccinated, there's an occasion that polio will become a widespread problem again. The planet Health Organization (WHO) continues to figure out how to eliminate polio.

  1. Medical And Anatomical Concept Of The Human Body

Medical terms

  • Polio is a contagious microorganism health problem that in its most severe kind causes nerve injury resulting in paralysis, respiratory issues and generally death. within the U.S., the last case of present infantile paralysis was in 1979. Today, despite a worldwide effort to wipe out polio, enterovirus continues to have an effect on kids and adults in elements of Asia and Africa. The Centers for Disease Management and Hindrance (CDC) advises taking precautions to guard yourself from polio if you're traveling anywhere there's a risk of polio. Adults who are immunized who commit to travel to a vicinity wherever infantile paralysis is happening ought to receive a recall dose of inactivated vaccine (IPV). Immunity when a booster lasts a lifetime. 
  • : A Disease that's Gone Polio is a crippling and potentially deadly infectious disease caused by a virus Most commonly attacking infants and children polio causes paralysis in one or more limbs It spreads through human contact usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes Between 20 and 60 percent of people who are infected will have no symptoms Those who do notice the early stages may experience headaches fatigue fever and nausea followed by stiffness in their neck back arms or legs and pain in their joints Polio can also cause coma and death within hours if not treated immediately with antibiotics to prevent further spreading of the disease.

Polio also called poliomyelitis is an infectious disease that affects the nervous system Polio goes through three distinct stages: incubation prodromal and paralytic In the first stage polio enters the body through the mouth or nose and begins to cause symptoms within one to three days The virus spreads throughout the gastrointestinal tract blood and lymphatic system before it begins to move on to its second stage of infection at some point between two and 20 days after initial exposure During this second phase polio causes viral shedding (sometimes referred to as viraemia).

Symptoms Polio

The polio virus is highly contagious. The incubation period is usually 7 to 10 days but can range from 4 to 35 days. The virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. Then it enters the nervous system. Up to 90% of those infected have mild or no  symptoms and the disease usually goes undetected.For others, the first symptoms are fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiff neck, and pain in the extremities. These symptoms usually last 2 to 10 days, and most of the recovery is complete in almost all cases. In the remaining cases, however, the virus causes paralysis, mostly of the legs, which in most cases is  permanent. Paralysis can occur as quickly as

  hours after infection. Of the paralyzed, 5-10% die when their respiratory muscles become immobilized.The virus is shed in the feces of infected people (usually children), where it can spread quickly, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and sanitation systems. Although polio can cause paralysis and death, most people who contract the virus don't get sick or realize they've contracted it.

Nonparalytic polio

Some folks that develop symptoms from the enterovirus contract a sort of acute anterior poliomyelitis that doesn't result in paralysis (abortive polio). This sometimes causes an equivalent mild, flu-like signs and symptoms typical of alternative infective agent illnesses.

Signs and symptoms, which can last up to 10 days, include:

  • Fever

  • Sore throat

  • Headache

  • Vomiting

  • Fatigue

  • Back pain or stiffness

  • Neck pain or stiffness

  • Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs

  • Muscle weakness or tenderness

Paralytic syndrome

This most serious kind of sickness is rare. Initial signs and symptoms of paralytic polio, reminiscent of fever and headache, typically mimic those of nonparalytic polio. among a week, however, different signs and symptoms appear, including:

  • Loss of reflexes

  • Severe muscle aches or weakness

  • Loose and floppy limbs (flaccid paralysis)

Post-polio syndrome

Post-polio syndrome may be a cluster of disabling signs and symptoms that have an effect on some individuals' years when having polio. Common signs and symptoms include:

  • Progressive muscle or joint weakness and pain

  • Fatigue

  • Muscle wasting (atrophy)

  • Breathing or swallowing problems

  • Sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea

  • Decreased tolerance of cold temperatures

When to see a doctor

Check with your doctor for acute anterior poliomyelitis vaccination recommendations before traveling to a vicinity of the planet wherever polio still happens naturally or where oral polio vaccine (OPV) is used, love Central and South America, continent and Asia.

Additionally, call your doctor if:

  • Your child hasn't completed the vaccine series

  • Your child has an allergic reaction to the polio vaccine

  • Your child has problems other than a mild redness or soreness at the vaccine injection site

  • You had polio years ago and are now having unexplained weakness and fatigue

Causes Polio

A virus known as enterovirus causes polio. The virus enters the body through the mouth or nose, stepping into the biological process and metastasis (breathing) systems. It multiplies within the throat and intestines. From there, it can enter the bloodstream. It may attack the nervous system, the nerve network that helps the brain communicate with the remainder of the body. There are 3 strains of poliovirus: sorts one, two and three. sorts 2 and 3 are eradicated (eliminated), however kind 1 still affects folks in a very few countries. In some elements of the world, a live vaccinum continues to be used. This oral live virus vaccine will terribly seldom cause poliomyelitis. within the u.  s. and lots of areas of the world, this live virus vaccine is no longer used and an inactivated vaccine that can't cause polio is employed instead.Poliovirus may be transmitted through direct contact with somebody infected with the virus or, less commonly, through contaminated food and water. folks carrying the enterovirus can unfold the virus for weeks in their feces. Those who have the virus however don't have symptoms and can pass the virus to others.

Risk factors Polio

Polio in the main affects kids younger than 5. However, anyone who hasn't been immunized is in danger of developing the disease.

Complications Polio

Paralytic poliomyelitis will cause temporary or permanent muscle paralysis, disability, bone deformities and death.

Can polio return in later life?

Polio is a contagious viral disease that mainly affects young children It can result in paralysis and even death Polio has been eradicated in Western countries but continues to infect people worldwide Most of the new cases today occur in only three countries: Afghanistan Nigeria and Pakistan By comparison before the introduction of the polio vaccine there were 350,000 cases per year across 125 different countries in 1950 alone Today there are fewer than 2,500 cases each year globally thanks to vaccination efforts spearheaded by UNICEF in partnership with national governmental health organizations and local communities since 1988 alongside Rotary International since 1988.

What is the key symptom of polio?

Polio an infectious viral disease has no cure and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours It usually begins with fever headache nausea and stiffness in the neck and back One or two days later muscle pain spasms and tenderness appear in the limbs The virus spreads through contact with infected droplets of nasal secretions from coughing or sneezing; it is not spread by sitting next to someone who has polio Polio cannot be transmitted from person-to-person like some illnesses that are passed through exposure to feces or other body fluids such as saliva blood or urine Protection from polio comes.

How can I improve my polio legs?

The best way to improve your polio legs is getting into a routine of physical therapy and medical treatment These activities should be done several times per week and must be followed on a daily basis for long term results An improvement in muscle tone strength and range of motion will begin to happen within the first few months of activity-based therapy Doctors may also prescribe walking braces or other devices depending on the severity of your symptoms For many people with Polio specially designed shoes can ensure that they are standing straight and tall when walking which will aid in avoiding future complications due to bad posture while standing and walking around.

Prevention Polio

The most effective way to prevent polio is vaccination.

Polio vaccine

Most children within the u.  s. receive four doses of inactivated vaccine (IPV) at the subsequent ages:

  • Two months

  • Four months

  • Between 6 and 18 months

  • Between ages 4 and 6 when children are just entering school

IPV is safe for individuals with weakened immune systems, though it' not bound simply, however protecting the immunogen is in cases of severe immune deficiency. Common facet effects are pain and redness at the injection site.

Allergic reaction to the vaccine

IPV will cause a hypersensitive reaction in some people. As a result of the immunogen containing trace amounts of the antibiotics streptomycin, antibiotic drug B and neomycin, it shouldn't tend to anyone who' reacted to those medications. Signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction typically occur inside minutes to a number of hours when the shot. Watch for:

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Weakness

  • Hoarseness or wheezing

  • Rapid heart rate

  • Hives

  • Dizziness

If you or your child has an allergic reaction after any shot, get medical help immediately.

Adult vaccination

In the U.S., adults aren't habitually immunized against infectious disease as a result most are already immune, and therefore the possibilities of getting polio are minimal. However, adults at high risk of polio who have had a primary vaccination series with either IPV or the oral polio vaccine (OPV) ought to receive one booster dose of IPV. one booster dose of IPV lasts a lifetime. Adults in danger embrace those that are traveling to elements of the globe wherever polio still happens or those who look after those that have polio. If you're susceptible or your vaccination standing is undocumented, get a series of primary infectious disease vaccination shots — 2 doses of IPV at four- to eight-week intervals and a 3rd dose six to twelve months when the second dose.

Diagnosis Polio

Doctors typically acknowledge acute anterior poliomyelitis by symptoms, adore neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes, and issue swallowing and breathing. To verify the diagnosis, a sample of throat secretions, stool or a colorless gripped that surrounds your brain and funiculus (cerebrospinal fluid) is checked for poliovirus.If you've got symptoms of polio, contact a health care supplier. The healthcare provider can raise you regarding your symptoms and whether or not you have traveled recently. As a result of polio symptoms that look tons like flu symptoms, the healthcare provider could order tests to rule out a lot of common infectious agent conditions. to verify polio, a health care supplier can take atiny low sample of: 

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (liquid around the brain and spinal cord).

  • Saliva from your throat.

  • Stool (poop).

The healthcare team will look at the sample under a microscope to identify poliovirus.

Treatment Polio

There is no cure for acute anterior poliomyelitis; it will solely be prevented by protection. The polio vaccine, given multiple times, can defend a baby for life. Quite eighteen million individuals are able to walk nowadays who would otherwise be paralysed, since 1988, once the world acute anterior poliomyelitis wipeout Initiative was launched. A calculable 1.5 million childhood deaths have been prevented through the systemic administration of axerophthol throughout polio immunization activities. Treatments for polio specialize in limiting and assuaging symptoms. Heat and physiatrics often want to stimulate the muscles and medicinal medicine is used to relax the accomplished muscles. This may improve quality however it doesn't reverse permanent acute anterior poliomyelitis paralysis. Vaccination is crucial within the fight against polio. Failure to implement strategic approaches ends up in in progress transmission of the virus. Endemic transmission of untamed enterovirus is constant to cause cases in border areas of Asian nations and Pakistan. Failure to prevent polio in these last remaining areas could end in as several as two hundred 000 new cases once a year among ten years, everywhere the world. That's why it's important to make sure polio is eradicated completely, once and for all.Because no cure for acute anterior poliomyelitis exists, the main focus is on increasing comfort, rushing recovery and preventing complications. verifyi treatments include:

  • Pain relievers

  • Portable ventilators to assist breathing

  • Moderate exercise (physical therapy) to prevent deformity and loss of muscle function

Can polio be cured once you have it?

The most common strains of polio are Type 1 and Type 2. Both types can be treated with the same medication which is known as oral polio vaccine (OPV) The Sabin vaccine is given when a person is exposed to the virus The OPV consists of live but weakened viruses that attack the poliovirus in the infected person's body It prevents them from spreading it to other people through their stool or saliva Once the patient has been vaccinated he or she may still carry the virus for a short period of time until immunity develops against infection by poliovirus Even though there are fewer cases of polio today than in.

Can polio be treated naturally?

Yes you can treat polio naturally So far only two cases of wild poliovirus have been reported in 2017: the first was reported in January and the second case was reported in August According to the National Viral Hepatitis Roundtable "Although there has been only one domestic wild poliovirus case during 2017 as a parent it is important to know that overseas travel is still an unavoidable risk factor for getting sick." The safest way to prevent your children from contracting polio is by making sure they are vaccinated with four doses of the polio vaccine before traveling out of their country If you're already concerned about your child's.

Can polio be treated with antibiotics?

Polio belongs to the group of viruses called enteroviruses which spread from person to person There is no specific treatment for polio Treatment consists mainly of helping the patient maintain comfort and preventing complications. Health care providers may treat some symptoms that occur with the disease or with recovery from infection.

  1. Child medical and psychological care

Preparing for your appointment

Call your medical aid doctor if you've recently come from traveling abroad and develop symptoms just like those who occur with polio. Here's some info to assist you make preparations for your visit.

What you can do

When you create your appointment, raise if there's something you wish to try and do in advance. Your doctor could advocate taking steps to scale back the danger of spreading a probably contagious sickness to others. create a listing of:

  • Your symptoms, and when they began

  • Information about recent exposure to possible sources of infection, including details about international trips, the countries you visited and the dates

  • Medical history, including other conditions for which you're being treated; medications, vitamins and supplements you take; and your vaccination history

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Take a family member or friend along, if possible, to help you remember the information you're given.

For polio, questions to ask your doctor include:

  • Do I have polio?

  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What self-care steps can I take?

  • How long is a full recovery likely to take?

  • Am I contagious? If so, for how long?

  • When can I return to work or school?

  • Am I at risk of any long-term complications from polio?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

  • Have you recently been around people with symptoms similar to yours?

  • Are you pregnant?

General summary

  1. Poliomyelitis more commonly referred to as polio is a viral infection that affects the central nervous system Though it can lead to paralysis and death with timely diagnosis and medical intervention many people are able to recover fully from this disease Millions of children and adults are vaccinated against polio every year in an effort to control its spread Polio was once one of the most dreaded diseases in the world afflicting hundreds of thousands of people around the globe each year Thankfully new vaccines have led to a near-complete eradication of this serious condition Today polio infections occur only in parts of the Middle.

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