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Amnesia : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What Is Amnesia?

Amnesia could be a dramatic style of memory loss. If you have got amnesia you'll be unable to recall past data (retrograde amnesia) and/or hold onto new information (anterograde amnesia). memory loss, within the Greek language, means “forgetfulness.” However, amnesia is much more sophisticated and severe than everyday forgetfulness. Forgetting what your significant other asked you to choose at the foodstuff is “normal.” Forgetting that you simply are married may be proof of amnesia.


What Is Amnesia?



memory loss is commonly delineated in movies and television shows. What serial hasn’t had a plot involving it? Fictional characters with amnesia often lose their entire identities. They can’t even bear in mind their names. Fortunately, amnesia typically isn’t that severe in real life.Amnesia could be a general term that describes memory loss. The loss may be temporary or permanent, however 'amnesia' usually refers to the temporary variety. Causes embrace head and brain injuries, sure drugs, alcohol, traumatic events, or conditions admire Alzheimer' disease. memory loss implies that the person can't learn something new, whereas amnesia means the person forgets events from their past. In several delicate cases, such as those caused by concussion, the person can't recall the blow to the top or their recovery time, however the remainder of their memory is intact. Infantile amnesia, or the shortcoming to recollect something in the least from the primary few months or years of life, is universal. It's thought that the memory processes of the brain take time to develop.

  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus


  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

medical terms

  • Amnesia is a form of memory loss, characterized by a partial or total inability to recall past memories. It may be caused by a head injury, a stroke, an infectious disease, or be the result of psychological trauma. Amnesia can also be the symptom of a medical condition and have many causes, such as alcohol intoxication, substance abuse, and dementia. In some cases, amnesia can be permanent, while in others it may be temporary.

  • Amnesia is a memory disorder that can cause individuals to forget information from their past, both recent and long-term. It can be caused by a traumatic event, a severe illness, or a medical procedure. While the exact cause of amnesia is unknown, it is believed to be the result of damage to the parts of the brain responsible for forming and retaining memories. The symptoms of amnesia can range from mild memory loss to total memory loss.

  • Amnesia refers to the loss of memories, corresponding to facts, data and experiences. Although forgetting your identity may be a common plot device in movies and television, that's not usually the case in real-life amnesia.

  • Instead, individuals with amnesia — conjointly referred to as cognitive state syndrome — usually grasp who they are. But, they'll have trouble learning new information and forming new memories.

  • Blackouts may be caused by harm to areas of the brain that are very important for memory processing. In contrast to a short lived episode of blackout (transient international amnesia), amnesia can be permanent.

  • There' no specific treatment for blackout, however techniques for enhancing memory and psychological support will facilitate individuals with amnesia and their families to cope.

  • -My Memory is Blank! Amnesia is a condition in which memory and the ability to learn new information are impaired The term amnesia refers to an inability to recall past experiences but it's not synonymous with memory loss explains the New England Journal of Medicine Amnesiacs may be able to remember certain things but not others or they may have trouble remembering certain things at certain times.

  • Amnesia is the partial or complete loss of memory that cannot be attributed to a physical cause. It's usually associated with brain damage caused by a traumatic head injury, stroke seizure or disease like Alzheimer's Amnesia can also be caused by psychological trauma such as abuse or extreme fear.

  • and dementia Amnesia is the partial or complete loss of memory caused by injury to the brain Amnesia may be temporary (transient amnesia) or long-lasting (chronic amnesia) It can be caused by a variety of factors from psychological stress and lack of sleep to head injuries and certain diseases Dementia is a progressive deterioration in mental ability that affects memory thinking and language skills Dementia can occur with other conditions such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease.

Types of Amnesia

There are several different types of amnesia.

  • Retrograde amnesia. Having a retrograde amnesia method you have lost your potential to remember occasions that came about just earlier than the occasion that brought about your amnesia. Usually this affects these days made memories, no longer the ones from years ago.‌

  • Anterograde amnesia. If you have got this kind of amnesia, it means that you couldn't recollect new facts seeing that your amnesia. You can nonetheless remember records from before the event that brought on the amnesia. This is greater common than retrograde amnesia.‌

  • Transient global amnesia (TGA). This is a brief shape of amnesia that has a tendency to resolve inside 24 hours. It happens greater often in center-aged and older adults. Once this kind of amnesia resolves, it rarely recurs.

  • You may also time and again ask the same question and have no recollection of the past few hours. Your memory will slowly return over the subsequent 24 hours. Experts are unsure what causes this form of amnesia.

  • Post-traumatic amnesia. This takes place after a good sized harm for your head and may present as either anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, or both.‌

  • Infantile amnesia. Also known as youth amnesia, this term is used to explain the manner adults can’t do not forget early youth reminiscences. This can be because young youngsters’s brains are nonetheless developing and unable to consolidate reminiscences.‌

  • Dissociative amnesia. Dissociative amnesia is as a result of stress or trauma and provides as forgetting particular occasions or durations of time. In some instances, dissociative amnesia should even mean forgetting most of your identification and life records. In rare instances, you may forget all or maximum of your nonpublic facts and journey away from domestic or soak up a new identification. This is known as dissociative fugue.

Symptoms Amnesia

The two main features of amnesia are:

  • Difficulty learning new information following the onset of amnesia (anterograde amnesia)

  • Difficulty remembering past events and previously familiar information (retrograde amnesia)

  • difficulty recalling facts, events, places, or specific details (which can range from what you ate this morning to the name of the current president)

  • an impaired ability to learn new information

  • confusion

  • an inability to recognize locations or faces

  • confabulation, in which your brain subconsciously invents false memories to fill in memory gaps

Most people with amnesia have issues with STM — they can't retain new information. Recent recollections are possibly to be lost, whereas a lot of remote or deeply implanted memories could also be spared. some may recall experiences from childhood or understand the names of past presidents, however not be able to name this president, know what month it's or bear in mind what was for breakfast.

Isolated state of mind doesn't have an effect on a person' intelligence, general knowledge, awareness, attention span, judgment, temperament or identity. folks with amnesia typically can understand written and spoken words and may learn skills such as bike riding or piano playing. they will perceive they need a memory disorder.

Blackout isn't an equivalent to dementia. Dementedness usually includes memory loss, however it also involves alternative important psychological feature issues that cause a decline in daily functioning.

A pattern of forgetfulness is additionally a typical symptom of gentle cognitive impairment (MCI), but the memory and other cognitive problems in MCI aren't as severe as those intimate in dementia.

Additional signs and symptoms

Depending on the cause of the amnesia, other signs and symptoms may include:

  • False memories (confabulation), either completely invented or made up of genuine memories misplaced in time

  • Confusion or disorientation

When to see a doctor

Anyone who experiences unexplained memory loss, head injury, confusion or disorientation needs immediate medical attention.

someone with memory loss might not be ready to establish his or her location or have the presence of mind to hunt medical care. If somebody you recognize has symptoms of amnesia, facilitate the person getting medical attention.

Causes Amnesia

Any illness or injury that affects the brain will interfere with memory. Memory operation engages many various components of the brain simultaneously.


harm to brain structures that form the limbic brain, resembling the hippocampus and thalamus, can cause amnesia. The structure system controls a person’s emotions and memories.Normal memory function involves several parts of the brain. Any disease or injury that affects the brain can interfere with memory.

memory loss may result from damage to brain structures that form the limbic system that controls your emotions and memories. These structures embrace the thalamus, which lies deep among the middle of your brain, and therefore the hippocampal formations, that are placed within the temporal lobes of your brain.

memory loss caused by brain injury or harm is understood as medicine amnesia. attainable causes of neurological amnesia include:

  • Stroke

  • Brain inflammation (encephalitis) due to an contamination with a virulent disease together with herpes simplex virus, as an autoimmune response to most cancers somewhere else in the frame (paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis), or as an autoimmune reaction in the absence of most cancers

  • Lack of good enough oxygen inside the brain, as an example, from a coronary heart assault, respiratory misery or carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Long-time period alcohol abuse leading to thiamin (vitamin B-1) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome)

  • Tumors in areas of the brain that control memory

  • Degenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia

  • Seizures

  • Certain medications, such as benzodiazepines or other medications that act as sedatives

Head injuries that cause a concussion, whether or not from an automotive accident or sports, will cause confusion and issue new information. This can be particularly common within the early stages of recovery. gentle head injuries generally don't cause lasting amnesia, however more-severe head injuries might cause permanent amnesia.

Another rare sort of amnesia, known as divisible (psychogenic) amnesia, stems from emotional shock or trauma, comparable to being the victim of a violent crime. During this disorder, an individual may lose personal recollections and autobiographical information, but sometimes solely briefly.

Risk factors Amnesia

You will cut back your risk of the symptoms by reducing your risk for connected diseases. perpetually wear protecting instrumentation sort of a safety harness once you’re in a very vehicle, a helmet when you’re cycling and taking part in sports, and durable shoes to stay yourself from falling, and so on analysis suggests that you simply can reduce your risk of developing diseases like Alzheimer’s with style choices.The likelihood of developing memory loss would possibly increase if you've experienced:

  • Brain surgery, head injury or trauma

  • Stroke

  • Alcohol abuse

  • Seizures

Complications Amnesia

Amnesia will last hours, days, months or maybe longer. Your individual outcome is best foretold by your care supplier who has examined you and determined the cause and therefore the severity of your amnesia. folks with amnesia usually need to have faith in family and friends to fill within the gaps in their memory and performance in daily life.

cognitive state varies in severity and scope, however even gentle amnesia takes a toll on daily activities and quality of life. The syndrome can cause issues at work, at college and in social settings.


it's not going to be doable to recover lost memories. Some folks with severe memory issues have to be compelled to sleep in a supervised scenario or extended-care facility.

Prevention Amnesia

Because damage to the mind may be a root cause of amnesia, it is important to take steps to reduce your threat of a brain injury. For example:

  • Avoid excessive alcohol use.

  • Wear a helmet when bicycling and a seat belt when driving.

  • Treat any infection quickly so that it doesn't have a chance to spread to the brain.

  • Seek immediate medical treatment if you have any symptoms that suggest a stroke or brain aneurysm, such as a severe headache or one-sided numbness or paralysis.

How is amnesia treated?

Amnesia is a memory loss or disorder that makes it difficult to recall information It can affect a person's ability to learn new things and remember past events people and conversations The most common forms of amnesia are anterograde amnesia which impairs the ability to form new memories and retrograde amnesia which affects the ability to recall past memories.

What is the easiest way to cure amnesia?

A person with amnesia has lost most or all of his memory There are many causes for amnesia ranging from head injury to dementia to Alzheimer's disease Amnesia can be mild and temporary or it can be permanent It is easy to cure if the cause is known although there is no cure that works in all cases The easiest way to cure amnesia involves identifying the cause of your memory loss and treating that condition For example if you have a head injury that damaged your hippocampus a part of the brain associated with memory rehabilitation will help you regain your memories over time If you simply need more sleep because you're overworked making sure you.

How do you treat temporary amnesia?

People suffering from temporary amnesia can be helped with a technique called "dissociation." By dissociating or separating the information that is lost from other information in the brain it is possible to restore the forgotten memory For example if you walk into a room and notice that there are four windows but only remember three of them dissociation enables you to mentally remove one window so that your mind can focus on remembering the others.

How long can amnesia last?

Amnesia a loss of memory can be temporary or permanent A person experiencing temporary amnesia will have the ability to remember events and information that took place shortly before the onset of amnesia In contrast permanent amnesia is caused by physical damage to the brain and results in an inability to retain any new information.

Diagnosis Amnesia

Amnesia is diagnosed by a doctor or neurologist. They’ll begin by raising questions on your amnesia moreover as different symptoms you will have.

they will ask a friend or caregiver to assist with their evaluation, since you may not be ready to keep in mind the ANswers to their questions.

The doctor may use psychological feature tests to ascertain your memory or order other diagnostic tests.

For example, they may use magnetic resonance imaging or a CT scan to check for signs of brain damage.

They will use blood tests to ascertain for biological process deficiencies that might have an effect on psychological feature function, cherish meager levels of vitamin B1, B vitamin (cobalamin), or vitamin D.

Blood tests may indicate infections which will cause amnesia, such as Lyme disease, HIV, or syphilis.

If you’re involved regarding your memory loss and don’t have already got a neurologist, you'll read doctors in your space through the Healthline FindCare tool.To diagnose amnesia, a doctor will do a comprehensive analysis to rule out different doable causes of memory loss, such as Alzheimer' disease, other kinds of dementia, depression or a brain tumor.

Medical history

The analysis starts with an in depth medical history. As a result of the person with a state of mind might not be able to offer thorough information, a family member, friend or another caregiver usually takes half within the interview as well.


The doctor can raise several inquiries to perceive the memory loss. problems that may be self-addressed include:

  • Type of memory loss — recent or long term

  • When the memory problems started and how they progressed

  • Triggering factors, such as a head injury, stroke or surgery

  • Family history, especially of neurological disease

  • Drug and alcohol use

  • Other signs and symptoms, such as confusion, language problems, personality changes or impaired ability to care for self

  • History of seizures, headaches, depression or cancer

Physical exam

Physical communicatingination might embody a medicine exam to ascertain reflexes, sensory function, balance, and different physiological aspects of the brain and nervous system.

Cognitive tests

The doctor will check the person' thinking, judgment, and up to date and long memory. He or she is going to check the person' data of general information — reminiscent of the name of this president — additionally as personal information and past events. The doctor might also raise the person to repeat a listing of words.

The memory analysis will facilitate confirmation of the extent of blackout and supply insights regarding what reasonably help the person may need.

Diagnostic tests

The doctor may order:

  • Imaging tests — including an MRI and CT scan — to check for brain damage or abnormalities

  • Blood tests to check for infection, nutritional deficiencies or other issues

  • An electroencephalogram to check for the presence of seizure activity


Treatment Amnesia

To treat amnesia, your doctor can target the underlying reason behind your condition.

with chemicals elicited amnesia, from alcohol for example, may be resolved through detoxification. Once the drug is out of your system, your memory issues will most likely subside.

cognitive state from gentle head trauma might resolve while not treatment inside minutes or hours. cognitive state from a severe head injury may last up to one week. In rare cases, amnesia from an awfully severe head injury may last for months.

cognitive state from insanity is usually incurable. However, your doctor may bring down medications to support learning and memory, corresponding to donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne ER), or rivastigmine (Exelon).

If you've got persistent memory loss, your doctor might advocate activity medical aid. This sort of therapy can assist you learn new info and memory skills for daily living. Your expert may also teach you ways to use memory aids and techniques for organizing information to create it easier to retrieve.Treatment for cognitive state focuses on techniques and techniques to assist form up for the memory problem, and addressing any underlying diseases afflicting the amnesia.

Occupational therapy

A person with cognitive state may fit with an associate activity healer to be told new info to interchange what was lost, or to use intact recollections as a basis for taking in new information.

Memory coaching might also embrace totally different ways for organizing information in order that it's easier to recollect and for up understanding of extended conversation.

Technological assistance

Many people with a state of mind realize it is useful to use sensible technology, corresponding to a smartphone or a hand-held pill device. With some coaching and practice, even people with severe amnesia will use these electronic organizers to assist with daily tasks. For example, smartphones are often programmed to cue them concerning vital events or to require medications.

low-tech memory aids embrace notebooks, wall calendars, pill minders, and images of individuals and places.

Medications or supplements

No medications are presently out there for treating most sorts of amnesia.

The state of mind caused by Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome involves an absence of thiamin. Treatment embraces exchange of this alimentation and provides correct nutrition. Though treatment, that additionally has to include alcohol abstinence, will facilitate forestall any damage, the general public won't recover all of their lost memory.

analysis might at some point result in new treatments for memory disorders. However, the complexity of the brain processes concerned makes it unlikely that one medication is able to resolve memory problems.

  1. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves
  2. Psychological rehabilitation 

Coping and support

Living with a cognitive state may be frustrating for those with memory loss, associated with his or her family and friends, too. individuals with more-severe styles of amnesia might need direct help from family, friends or skilled caregivers.

It can be useful to speak with others who perceive what you're going through, and who are also able to give recommendations or tips about living with amnesia. raise your doctor if he or she is aware of a support cluster in your space for people with amnesia and their admired ones.

If an underlying cause for the amnesia is identified, there are national organizations that may give extra data or support for the individual and their

Preparing for your appointment

You're probably to start out by seeing your GP or a general practitioner. However, you'll then be observed by a doctor who specializes in disorders of the brain and system (neurologist).

It's an honest plan to reach your appointment well-prepared. Here's some info to assist you prepare for your appointment and to grasp what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any unusual symptoms as you experience them, Such as any that can appear unrelated to the motive for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, Such as any main stresses or latest existence changes you can remember. Ask a circle of relatives, individuals or friends that will help you, to make sure your listing is complete.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.

  • Ask a family member or friend to come with you. Even in excellent circumstances, it is difficult to remember all of the statistics supplied to you throughout an appointment. Someone with you could help you don't forget the whole thing that became stated.

  • Bring a notepad and pen or pencil to jot down the points you want to be sure to remember later.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions permits you to make the most of a while together with your health practitioner, as well as make sure that you cowl the whole lot you need to invite. For amnesia, some basic questions to ask your doctor consist of:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need? Do these tests require any special preparation?

  • Will my memory ever come back?

  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Do I need to restrict any activities?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions which you've organized to ask your health practitioner, do not hesitate to invite questions for the duration of your appointment at any time when you don't understand something.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did you first notice your memory loss?

  • Did you experience any other symptoms at that time?

  • Were you involved in any trauma? For example, a car accident, violent collision in sports or an assault?

  • Did an illness or another event seem to trigger the memory loss?

  • Does anything help improve your memory?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your memory loss?

  • Are the memory problems intermittent or constant?

  • Has the memory loss stayed the same or is it getting worse?

  • Did the memory loss come on suddenly or gradually?

General summary

  1. Amnesia is a condition in which a person has difficulty remembering past events, or in some cases, even forgetting who they are. It is a neurological disorder that affects a person's memory and is caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, stroke, drug use, or psychological trauma. The condition can be temporary or permanent and is often accompanied by confusion, disorientation, and an inability to form new memories. Amnesia can be classified as either anterograde, which affects the ability to form new memories, or retrograde, which affects the ability to remember events that happened before the onset of amnesia.

  2. Amnesia is a condition of partial or total memory loss that is caused by an injury, disease, or psychological trauma. It can produce temporary or permanent memory loss, resulting in an inability to recall past experiences or acquire new knowledge. Patients suffering from amnesia may struggle to remember basic facts about themselves, including their name and age, as well as events that have occurred around them. In some cases, amnesia is so severe that it eliminates the patient's ability to form new memories.

  3. Amnesia is a medical term that is used to describe a variety of memory conditions or deficits. It can sometimes be caused by a medical condition or trauma, but it can also be caused by psychological factors. In some cases, amnesia can be a permanent condition, while in others it can be a temporary symptom that resolves over time. In either case, amnesia can have a profound impact on an individual’s life, as memories of their past and abilities to form lasting memories in the present are often impaired.

Amnesia : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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