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Congenital heart defects in children(CHD): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What are Congenital Heart Defects In Children(CHD)?

Congenital (meaning gift at birth) heart condition could be a term accustomed to describe a variety of various conditions that have an effect on the center. These heart abnormalities are issues that occur because the baby' heart is developing throughout pregnancy, before the baby is born. non inheritable heart disease (CHD) affects one in a hundred and twenty babies born within the United States, creating heart defects the foremost common birth defects.


Specific steps should surface so as for the heart to make correctly. Often, congenital heart disease is a result of one amongst these crucial steps not happening at the correct time.  CHDs are gifts at birth and might have an effect on the structure of a baby’s heart and therefore the manner it works. they will affect however blood flows through the center and bent on the remainder of the body. CHDs can vary from gentle (such as atiny low hole within the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly fashioned components of the heart).


one in four babies born with a heart defect includes a crucial CHD (also called critical non inheritable heart defect).1 Babies with a critical CHD would like surgery or alternative procedures in the 1st year of life.


What are Congenital Heart Defects In Children(CHD)


Explanation of medical terms and concept Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

A congenital heart defect is a downside with the structure of the guts that a toddler is born with. Some inborn heart defects in kids are easy and don't like treatment. alternative congenital heart defects in children are additional complicated and will need many surgeries performed over a amount of several years. Learning concerning your child' congenital heart defect can assist you perceive the condition and grasp what you'll be able to expect within the returning months and years. Inborn heart disease, conjointly referred to as a defect, refers to at least one or more issues with the heart structure that are given at birth. These abnormalities occur once the guts or blood vessels don't type properly in utero. a minimum of eight out of each one thousand infants born within the USA annually have a heart defect. That's 40,000 infants once a year in this country. Inborn implies that the matter was existing or present at birth. however generally defects may be known even before birth. generally they don't show signs till kids are older or maybe into adulthood. Inborn cardiovascular disease will involve abnormalities in any of those structures, together with the arteries, valves, chambers or the wall separating the chambers of the heart. These defects, betting on the severity and type, will have an effect on the correct flow of blood and O to the lungs and therefore the body. There could also be associated rhythm issues or the defects might cause the guts to figure more durable than it should. Some, sort of a tiny hole within the heart, may be terribly easy and cause only a few problems with the child' development and health. However alternative cases, like once babies are born with elements of their hearts missing, need immediate care. Some inborn heart defects cause no signs or symptoms. generally indications may only seem later in life. And symptoms also can come back years once treatments. Symptoms for additional serious kinds of inborn heart defects may become evident within the initial few days or months after birth. you'll notice a pale gray or blue skin color referred to as cyanosis. Babies use a great deal of calories and energy when they're uptake. Thus, eating often brings out symptoms of heart failure, akin to speedy respiratory or shortness of breath. Poor weight gain caused by the guts defect or by problem feeding thanks to symptoms whereas feeding, may be a symbol of congenital heart disease. Some less serious conditions might not be diagnosed till later in childhood. Signs in older kids will embrace changing into simply wanting breath, easily tiring, or fainting throughout exercise or activity. they will even have swelling within the hands, the ankles and therefore the feet. Your baby doctor may additionally hear an abnormal heartbeat or abnormal heart sound referred to as a murmur during a checkup. Most of those murmurs are literally innocent, however it's necessary to visualize them. Some inborn heart defects may be seen on an ultrasound whereas the baby remains in the womb. In certain extreme cases, treatment could also be suggested before a baby is even born. This might be done to correct the matter or scale back complications because the kid continues to develop. so as to work out if your child has inborn heart disease, your doctor can do a physical communication and hear their heart with a stethoscope. They'll raise concerns about the child' symptoms and their medical record and any history of heart issues within their families. Then, if needed, they will advise alternative tests. A pulse oximetry mensuration may be performed to estimate the quantity of O in the blood. This can be an easy test with a finger sensor. AN electrocardiogram, or ECG, may be conducted to record the electrical signals within their heart. This can be non-invasive and painless. Your doctor might need to schedule a sonogram that uses sound waves to make a picture of the guts. AN echocardiogram permits the doctor to ascertain the heart muscle and valves in motion and diagnoses most kinds of inborn heart disease. {they might|they could|they might} lean a chest x-ray, which could reveal problems in the size and therefore the form of the heart. In some conditions, your doctor may order an internal organ MRI, which uses giant magnets to require pictures of the guts in motion. Your doctor might invite an internal organ tuberization. For this, a catheter or atiny low plastic tube placed via a would likely into an artery or vein in your leg, arm or neck, and advance into the various chambers of your heart. This way, doctors will check the blood flow and therefore the pressure within the heart chambers themselves. Today, doctors use cardiac catheterization strategies to shut sure styles of holes within the heart or to put expandable valves. If your kid has inborn heart disease, they'll need care throughout their life. However, not each kid with inborn cardiovascular disease needs active treatment and therefore the defect may cause no hurt to their health. Some defects, sort of a tiny hole within the heart, may resolve on their own. Some conditions may be treated with medications. These will embrace force per unit area medications, rhythm medications, and medications to assist you get excess water in your body. additional serious kinds of congenital heart diseases may need surgery or alternative procedures. This might be open-heart or a less invasive style of surgery. And, in cases wherever repairs aren't an option, a heart transplant could also be needed. Doctors attempt to limit these interventions to the maximum amount as potential and solely advocate them if completely needed. It's necessary to acquaint yourself with your kid' condition. Keep an eye fixed out for worsening or new symptoms, and bear in mind any life-style changes suggested by your heart specialist. As patients get older, it is crucial that they continue care with an adult-focused cardiologist with coaching in inborn heart disease. Looking for your child to incorporate a heart defect is horrifying and may be for them too, if they're the right age to grasp it. However, no matter once the designation is made, progress in analysis and treatment have greatly enhanced not solely survival rates, but overall quality of life for patients living with inborn cardiovascular disease. There's an excellent deal of hope for youngsters with congenital heart disease. and that we expect all to own happy childhoods that cause long, full, productive lives. If you would like} to be told even additional concerns about congenital heart disease in children, watch our alternative connected videos or visit mayoclinic.org. We have a tendency to wish you well. 

Congenital heart defects in children or CHD are structural abnormalities of the heart that are present at birth There are more than 40 types of CHD and they vary in severity Some babies with CHD have only a minor abnormality that has no impact on their health while others will require complex surgery to repair their hearts In some cases babies with a severe defect may not survive

Congenital heart defects are some of the most common birth defects and occur in about 8 percent of children Congenital heart defects can range from minor to life-threatening and most kids who have them remain healthy but need lifelong monitoring and care.

Types Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

There are many various styles of non heritable heart defects. Some are unremarkably known as a “hole within the heart” as a result of them involving abnormal association between the heart' chambers. 

But other types of heart defects involve:

  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  2. Atrioventricular canal defect

  3. Bicuspid aortic valve

  4. Coarctation of the aorta

  5. Congenital mitral valve anomalies

  6. Double-outlet right ventricle

  7. Ebstein anomaly

  8. Eisenmenger syndrome

  9. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

  10. Kawasaki disease

  11. Long QT syndrome

  12. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

  13. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

  14. Patent foramen ovale

  15. Pulmonary atresia

  16. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum

  17. Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect

  18. Pulmonary valve stenosis

  19. Tetralogy of Fallot

  20. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR)

  21. Transposition of the great arteries

  22. Tricuspid atresia

  23. Truncus arteriosus

  24. Vascular rings

  25. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  26. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

Symptoms Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

A non heritable heart defect is commonly detected throughout a gestation ultrasound. If your doctor hears Associate in Nursing abnormal heartbeat, for instance, can} additional investigate the problem by playing bound tests. These may embrace an echocardiogram, a chest X-ray, or an tomography scan. If a diagnosis is made, your doctor will confirm the suitable specialists are offered during delivery. In some cases, the symptoms of a congenital heart defect might not seem till shortly after birth.

Serious congenital heart defects usually are noticed soon after birth or during the first few months of life. Signs and symptoms could include:

  • Pale gray or blue lips, tongue or fingernails (cyanosis)

  • Rapid breathing

  • Swelling in the legs, belly or areas around the eyes

  • Shortness of breath during feedings, leading to poor weight gain

Less-serious congenital heart defects may not be diagnosed until later in childhood. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart defects in older children may include:

  • Easily becoming short of breath during exercise or activity

  • Easily tiring during exercise or activity

  • Fainting during exercise or activity

  • Swelling in the hands, ankles or feet

When to see a doctor

Serious inherent heart defects are usually diagnosed before or presently when your kid is born. If you notice that your baby has any of the signs or symptoms above, decide on your health care supplier. If your child has any of the signs or symptoms of less-serious heart defects as he or she grows, call your child's care provider. Your child' provider will allow you to understand if your child's symptoms are thanks to a heart defect or another medical condition.

Causes Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

Congenital heart condition happens as a results of AN early biological process downside within the heart’s structure. The defect usually interferes with the traditional flow of blood through the guts, which can have an effect on breathing. Although researchers aren’t specifically certain why the heart fails to develop correctly,To understand the causes of non-inheritable  heart defects, it should be useful to understand how the heart typically works. The guts are split into four chambers, 2 on the correct and two on the left. To pump blood throughout the body, the heart uses its left and right sides for various tasks. the correct facet of the guts moves blood to the respiratory organs through the lung (pulmonary) arteries. within the lungs, blood picks up element then returns to the heart' left side through the pneumonic veins. The left side of the heart then pumps the blood through the body' main artery (aorta) and intent on the remainder of the body.

How congenital heart defects develop

During the primary six weeks of pregnancy, the baby' heart begins to create and starts beating. the key blood vessels that run to and from the center additionally begin to develop throughout this crucial time. It's at this time in an exceedingly baby development that non inheritable  heart defects could begin to develop. Researchers aren't certain precisely what causes most of those defects, however they suppose genetics, bound medical conditions, some medications, and environmental or fashion factors, resembling smoking, may play a role. There are many alternative styles of congenital heart defects. They fall under the general classes delineated  below.

Altered connections in the heart or blood vessels

Altered associations enable blood to flow wherever it always wouldn't. Holes within the walls between heart chambers are one example of this kind of innate heart defect. an associate degree altered connection will cause element-poor blood to combine with oxygen-rich blood. This lowers the quantity of oxygen sent through the body. The amendment in blood flow forces the guts and lungs to figure harder.

Types of altered connections in the heart or blood vessels include:

  • Atrial septal defect is a hole between the upper heart chambers (atria).

  • Ventricular septal defect is a hole in the wall between the right and left lower heart chambers (ventricles).

  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PAY-tunt DUK-tus ahr-teer-e-O-sus) could be an affiliation between the respiratory organ artery and therefore the body' main artery (aorta). It's open whereas a baby is growing within the womb, and usually closes a couple of hours once birth. however in some babies, it stays open, inflicting incorrect blood flow between the 2 arteries. 

  • Total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection occurs when all or some of the blood vessels from the lungs (pulmonary veins) attach to a wrong area or areas of the heart.

Congenital heart valve problems

Heart valves are like doorways between the guts chambers and therefore the blood vessels. Heart valves open and shut to stay blood occupied the correct direction. If the heart valves can't open and close correctly, blood can't flow smoothly. Heart valve issues embrace valves that are narrowed and don't open utterly (stenosis) or valves that don't close completely (regurgitation).

Examples of congenital heart valve problems include:

  • Aortic stenosis (stuh-NO-sis). A baby is also born with an associated semilunar valve that has one or 2 valve flaps (cusps) rather than three. This creates a small, narrowed gap for blood to pass through. The guts should work tougher to pump blood through the valve. Eventually, this results in enlargement of the heart and thickening of the heart muscle. 

  • Pulmonary stenosis. A defect on or near the pulmonary valve narrows the pulmonary valve opening and slows the blood flow.

  • Ebstein anomaly. The atrioventricular valve — that is found between the correct higher heart chamber (atrium) and therefore the right lower chamber (ventricle) — is distorted and infrequently leaks. 

Combination of congenital heart defects

Some infants are born with many non heritable heart defects that have an effect on the structure and performance of the heart. terribly advanced heart issues could cause vital changes in blood flow or undeveloped heart chambers.

For example, tetralogy of Fallot (the-TRAIL-oh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a combination of four congenital heart defects:

  • A hole in the wall between the heart's lower chambers (ventricles)

  • A narrowed passage between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

  • A shift in the connection of the aorta to the heart

  • Thickened muscle in the right ventricle

Other examples of complex congenital heart defects are:

  • Pulmonary atresia. The valve that lets blood out of the center to travel to the lungs (pulmonary valve) isn't shaped correctly. Blood can't travel its usual route to induce atomic number 8 from the lungs. 

  • Tricuspid atresia. The right atrioventricular valve isn't formed. Instead, there' solid tissue between the correct higher heart chamber (atrium) and therefore the right lower chamber (ventricle). This inherent heart defect restricts blood flow and causes the right ventricle to be underdeveloped. 

  • Transposition of the great arteries. In this serious, rare non heritable heart defect, the 2 main arteries exploit the guts are reversed (transposed). There are two types. Complete transposition of the good arteries is usually detected throughout physiological state or presently once birth. Levo-transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA) is a smaller amount common. Symptoms might not be noticed right away. 

  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A major part of the center fails to develop properly. In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, the left aspect of the heart hasn't developed enough to effectively pump enough blood to the body. 

Risk factors Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

Most innate heart defects result from changes that occur early because the baby' heart is developing before birth. The precise reason for most congenital heart defects is unknown, however some risk factors are identified. Risk factors for congenital heart defects include:

  • Rubella (German measles). Having measles throughout physiological conditions will cause issues in an exceedingly baby' heart development. A biopsy done before pregnancy can verify if you're proof against rubella. An immunogen is obtainable for those that aren't immune. 

  • Diabetes. Careful management of blood glucose before and through physiological state will scale back the danger of inborn heart defects within the baby. a polygenic disorder that develops during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) usually doesn't increase a baby' risk of heart defects. 

  • Medications. Certain medications taken throughout the physiological state could cause birth defects, together with non inheritable  heart defects. provide your health care supplier a whole list of medicines you are taking before making an attempt to become pregnant. Medications proverbial to extend the danger of congenital heart defects embody teratogen (Thalomid), angiotensin-converting catalyst (ACE) inhibitors, statins, the skin disease medication isotretinoin (Myorisan, Zenatane, others), some brain disorder medicine and sure anxiety drugs. 

  • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects.

  • Smoking. If you smoke, quit. Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of a congenital heart defect in the baby.

  • Family history and genetics. Congenital heart defects generally run in families (are inherited) and will be related to a genetic syndrome. Several kids with an additional twenty first bodies (Down syndrome) have non heritable heart defects. A missing piece (deletion) of genetic material on chromosome twenty two additionally causes heart defects. 

Complications

Potential complications of a congenital heart defect include:

  • Congestive heart failure. This serious complication might develop in babies who have a major heart defect. Signs of symptom failure embrace speedy breathing, usually with dyspnoea breaths, and poor weight gain. 

  • Heart infections. Congenital heart defects can increase the risk of infection of the heart tissue (endocarditis), which can lead to new heart valve problems.

  • Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). A congenital heart defect or scarring from heart surgery may cause changes in the heart's rhythm.

  • Slower growth and development (developmental delays). Children with additional-serious inheritable heart defects typically develop and grow more slowly than do kids who don't have heart defects. they'll be smaller than different children of constant age. If the system has been affected, a baby may learn to run and speak later than other children. 

  • Stroke. Although uncommon, some kids with innate heart defects are at increased risk of stroke thanks to blood clots traveling through a hole within the heart and on to the brain. 

  • Mental health disorders. Some kids with innate heart defects might develop anxiety or stress thanks to organic process delays, activity restrictions or learning difficulties. ask your child' supplier if you're involved concerning your child's mental health. 

Prevention

Because the precise reason for most inherent heart defects is unknown, it's going to not be attainable to stop these conditions. If you've got a high risk of an organic process to a toddler with a congenital heart defect, genetic testing and screening is also done throughout pregnancy. There are some steps you'll fancy facilitate scale back your child' overall risk of birth defects such as:

  • Get proper prenatal care. Regular checkups with a health care provider during pregnancy can help keep mom and baby healthy.

  • Take a multivitamin with folic acid. Taking four hundred micrograms of vitamin Bc daily has been shown to scale back birth defects within the brain and spinal cord. It should reduce the chance of heart defects as well. 

  • Don't drink or smoke. These lifestyle habits can harm a baby's health. Also avoid secondhand smoke.

  • Get a rubella (German measles) vaccine. A morbilli infection throughout a physiological condition could have an effect on a baby' heart development. Get unsusceptible  before attempting to get pregnant. 

  • Control blood sugar. If you have diabetes, good control of your blood sugar can reduce the risk of congenital heart defects.

  • Manage chronic health conditions. If you've got alternative health conditions, together with phenylketonuria, discuss with your health care supplier regarding the most effective ways to treat and manage them. 

  • Avoid harmful substances. During pregnancy, have someone else do any painting and cleaning with strong-smelling products.

  • Check with your provider before taking any medications. Some medications will cause birth defects. Tell your supplier regarding all the medications you take, as well as those bought while not a prescription. 

Diagnosis Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

Some CHDs could also be diagnosed throughout maternity employing a special variety of ultrasound referred to as a fetal echocardiogram, that creates ultrasound photos of the center of the developing baby. However, some CHDs aren't detected till after birth or later in life, during childhood or adulthood. If a health care supplier suspects a CHD may be present, the baby will get many tests (such as an echocardiogram) to substantiate the diagnosis.Some terribly minor sorts of innate heart disease, like very little holes within the heart or very gentle stricture of various heart valves may ought to be followed each few years with some variety of associate degree imaging study like an echocardiogram. alternatively a lot of vital sorts of innate heart condition could need surgery that might be done via an open heart surgery, or it may be the internal organ catheterization science lab exploiting different devices or different techniques. In terribly severe situations, if surgery can't be performed, transplant may be indicated. The precise symptoms that a toddler may have if they need congenital heart disease are really keen about the age of the child. For infants, their biggest supply of caloric expenditure is really whereas eating. And thus most signs of innate heart condition or coronary failure really return once they're eating. this could embrace shortness of breath, problem breathing, or maybe sweating whereas they're feeding. Younger kids will usually be gifted with symptoms relating to their abdominal system. they will have nausea, expulsion with eating, and that they may get those symptoms with activity as well. Older teenagers meanwhile, tend to present a lot of symptoms such as chest pain, fainting or palpitations. They conjointly may present with symptoms throughout exercise or activity. And that's actually an extremely massive red flag on behalf of me as a cardiologist. If I hear concerning a kid, particularly an adolescent who' had chest pain, or has fainted with activity or with exercise, I actually ought to see that child and that I need to ensure that they get an applicable workup. Usually once your child has simply been diagnosed with innate heart disease, it's exhausting to recollect everything that was aforementioned to you at that 1st visit. you'll be able to be in shock having just detected this news. And frequently you'll not remember everything. Therefore it's vital within the follow-up visits to raise these sorts of questions. What do my next 5 years look like? Are there any procedures that are aiming to be required in those 5 years? Any surgeries? What variety of testing, what type of follow-up, what type of clinic visits are going to be needed? What will this mean for my kid' activities, athletics, and therefore the various things that they need to try and do on a daily basis. And most importantly, however, will we work together to form this child to be able to have as traditional of a life potential despite that designation of innate heart disease. you must raise your doctor what type of procedures may be required for this way of innate heart condition within the future. They could also be performed using open-heart surgery, or they may be done using internal organ catheterization. For open-heart surgery, it's vital to raise your doctor concerning the temporal order of that surgery. For the different, specific sorts of congenital heart disease, there's really bound times wherever it's higher to try and do the surgery than others to own the most effective potential outcome, each short- and long-run for that child. therefore ask your doctor if there's a selected time that works better for that specific disease and for your child. This can be really the foremost common question I purchase from oldsters and from kids when we tend to create a designation of innate heart disease. Athletics is therefore vital to several of those child' lives, to their friendly relationship teams and the way they move with their communities. In most sorts of congenital heart disease, we do our greatest to undertake to work out some way that they will still participate. There are some forms of congenital heart disease, however, wherever certain sports might not be advised. For instance, for a few of our patients, they will have a precise variety of a genetic syndrome that produces the walls of their arteries terribly we tend toak. and people patients, we don't need them muscle building or doing any variety of significant pushing that might cause those arteries to dilate and probably rupture. In most cases though, we are able to fathom some way for our own kids to play the sports that they love on a daily basis. For our patients who have an innate heart condition, as they get older, we frequently counsel them that bound sorts of congenital heart disease are heritable. This suggests that if a parent has congenital heart disease, there's a certain little risk that their kid can also have an innate heart condition. This might be an identical variety of congenital heart disease that their parents have, or it's going to be different. Thus, if those patients become pregnant, we ought to monitor them closely throughout pregnancy, as well as doing further scans of the vertebrate exploitation diagnostic procedure during the pregnancy. Fortunately, the overwhelming majority of our congenital heart disease patients are able to have kids of their own within the current era. The link between a patient, their family and therefore the specialist is critically important. We frequently follow these patients for many years as they get older. We tend to watch them go from babies to adults. If one thing comes up that you're not clear about, however that doesn't add up to you, raise queries. Please don't be afraid to achieve. you must perpetually feel able to contact your medicine team and ask them any questions which will arise. At birth, a health care supplier may suspect a designation of an innate heart defect if a toddler has growth delays or changes within the color of the lips, tongue or fingernails. The care provider may hear a heart sound (murmur) whereas paying attention to the child' heart with a stethoscope. Most heart murmurs are innocent, which means that there's no heart defect and therefore the murmur isn't dangerous to your child' health. However, some murmurs could also be caused by blood flow changes to and from the heart.

Tests

Tests to diagnose a congenital heart defect include:

  • Pulse oximetry. A sensor placed on the fingertip records the amount of oxygen in the blood. Too little oxygen may be a sign of a heart or lung problem.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This noninvasive take a look at records the electrical activity of the heart. Sticky patches with sensors (electrodes) are placed on the chest. Wires connect the patches to a computer that displays results. Associate in Nursing cardiogram will facilitate diagnose irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). 

  • Echocardiogram. A sonogram uses sound waves (ultrasound) to form pictures of the center in motion. It shows however blood moves through the heart associate degreed heart valves. If an echocardiogram is finished on a baby before birth, it's referred to as a fetal echocardiogram. 

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray shows the condition of the center and lungs. It will show if the heart is enlarged, or if the lungs contain additional blood or different fluid. These might be signs of heart failure. 

  • Cardiac catheterization. In this test, a thin, versatile tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel, sometimes within the groin area, and guided  to the center. Catheterization will give careful info on blood flow and the way the heart works. bound heart treatments may be done throughout viscus catheterization. 

  • Heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Heart imaging is also done to diagnose and value inborn heart defects in adolescents and adults. A heart MRI creates 3D photos of the center, that permits for correct activity of the heart chambers. 

Treatment Congenital heart defects in children(CHD)

Congenital heart issues vary from easy to advanced. Some heart problems may be watched by your child' heart surgeon and managed with medicines, whereas others would require surgical procedure or internal organ catheterization — generally as presently as within the 1st few hours once birth. a toddler could even "grow out" of a number of the easier heart problems, equivalent to patent blood vessel (PDA) or chamber congenital heart defect (ASD). These conditions may merely resolve on their own because the child grows. Different kids can have additional complex kinds of inborn heart disease, or a mix of various types, and require many operations or tubing interventions and in-progress care throughout their lives.Treatment of inborn heart defects in kids depends on the precise variety of heart drawback and the severity. Sometimes, a congenital heart defect may haven't any semi permanent result on a toddler' health and will safely go untreated. different congenital heart defects, equivalent to a little hole within the heart, may shut as a child ages. Serious congenital heart defects need treatment presently once they're diagnosed. Treatment may involve medications, heart procedures or surgeries, or a heart transplant.

Medications

Medication is also given to treat symptoms or complications of a non inheritable  heart defect. they'll be used alone or with a heart procedure. Medications for congenital heart defects include:

  • Blood pressure drugs. Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta blockers.

  • Water pills (diuretics). This type of medication reduces the amount of fluid in the body, which reduces the strain on the heart.

  • Heart rhythm drugs. These medications, called antiarrhythmics, help control an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).

Surgery or other procedures

If your kid incorporates a severe non inheritable  heart defect, a heart procedure or surgery is also recommended. Heart procedures and surgeries done to treat congenital heart defects include:

  • Cardiac catheterization. Some inherent heart defects are often repaired victimization thin, versatile tubes (catheters) while not the requirement for open-heart surgery. For example, viscus tuberization could also be wont to fix holes within the heart or areas of narrowing. Throughout cardiac catheterization, the health care supplier inserts one or additional catheters into a blood vessel, typically in the groin, and to the center. small tools are undergone by the catheter to the heart to repair the defect. Some catheter procedures ought to be exhausted steps over a number of years. 

  • Heart surgery. A child may have heart surgery or minimally invasive heart surgery to repair a non heritable heart defect. The sort of heart surgery depends on the particular defect. 

  • Heart transplant. If a serious heart defect can't be repaired, a heart transplant may be needed.

  • Fetal cardiac intervention. Rarely, if a significant defect is diagnosed before birth, a procedure may be done throughout the physiological condition to correct the matter or facilitate scale back complications of the defect because the child grows. Fetal internal organ intervention is never done and solely attainable in terribly specific circumstances. Some youngsters with inborn heart defects want several procedures and surgeries throughout life. Once congenital heart defect surgery, a baby can need regular checkups by a heart doctor (cardiologist). 

Lifestyle and home remedies

If your kid encompasses a non heritable heart defect, life-style changes could also be counseled to stay the guts healthy and forestall complications.

Sports and activity restrictions

Some kids with a non heritable heart defect may have to limit exercise or sports activities. However, several others with a congenital heart defect will participate in such activities. Your child' care supplier can tell you which sports and kinds of exercise are safe for your child.

Preventive antibiotics

Sometimes, an inherent heart defect will increase the chance of infection within the lining of the guts or heart valves (infective endocarditis). Antibiotics could also be counseled before dental procedures to stop infection, particularly for those that have a mechanical heart valve. raise your child' heart doctor (cardiologist) if preventive antibiotics are necessary for your child.

Coping and support

You could realize that talking with people who've full-fledged equivalent scenario brings you comfort and encouragement. raise your health care supplier if there are any support teams in your area. Living with an innate heart defect will create some kids feeling stressed or anxious. rebuke an expert or counselor may assist you and your kid learn new ways to manage stress and anxiety. Your care provider can recommend therapists who are also useful to you or your child.

Preparing for your appointment

If your kid features a critical heart defect, it'll doubtless be diagnosed shortly after birth, or probably before birth through a physiological condition ultrasound. If you think that your child has a heart defect that wasn't recognized at birth, consult with your child' health care provider. Be ready to explain your child' symptoms and supply a family medical history, since some inborn heart defects tend to be passed down through families (are inherited). Write down the subsequent and produce the notes with you to your appointment:

  • Any signs and symptoms your child is having, including any that may seem unrelated to heart problems.

  • When each symptom began.

  • All medications, vitamins or supplements that the child's birth mother took during pregnancy. Include herbs and supplements and any medicines bought without a prescription.

  • Any medical conditions the birth mother of the child has or had.

  • Whether or not the birth mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

What you can do

Preparing a listing of queries will assist you and your health care supplier build the foremost of some time together. you would possibly need to raise questions such as:

  • What tests does my child need? Do these tests require any special preparation?

  • Does my child need treatment? If so, when?

  • What is the best treatment?

  • Do you think my child will have any long-term complications?

  • How can we monitor for possible complications?

  • If I have more children, how likely are they to have a congenital heart defect?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care supplier is probably going to raise you a great many questions. Being able to answer them might save time to travel over something you wish to pay longer on. Your provider may ask:

  • When did you first notice your child's symptoms?

  • Can you describe your child's symptoms?

  • When do these symptoms occur?

  • Do the symptoms come and go, or does your child always have them?

  • Do the symptoms seem to be getting worse?

  • Do you have a family history of congenital heart defects?

  • Does anything make your child's symptoms better?

  • Has your child been growing and meeting developmental milestones as expected? (Ask your child's pediatrician if you're not sure.)

General summary

How do you treat a child with a heart defect?

Whether your child has a hole in the heart a "blue" baby syndrome or another type of congenital heart defect (CHD) you need to take care of his condition You can manage most CHDs at home with proper care and medications When your doctor prescribes medications for your child don't skip doses because you think your child is feeling better Follow the doctor's instructions exactly and report any new symptoms immediately to your child's doctor.

How do you overcome congenital heart defects?

Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defect They are present at birth meaning they're not something that happened to you after birth Congenital heart defects occur when a baby's heart doesn't form correctly while it's growing in the womb To treat congenital heart defects doctors usually search for and close holes in the heart and replace valves that don't work properly They may also perform a procedure to help blood flow out of the lungs or improve blood flow into the lungs Treatment for congenital heart defects is constantly improving and many people with these conditions live healthy lives.

Can a baby survive a congenital heart defect?

Congenital heart defect is a problem with the structure of the heart that babies are born with. The causes of congenital heart defects are not completely understood but they include genetics and environmental factors such as exposure to teratogens during pregnancy.

Can you live a normal life with congenital heart disease?

Congenital heart disease is a birth defect that affects the heart and cardiovascular system According to the Children's Heart Foundation nearly 3 out of every 1,000 babies born in the United States have congenital heart disease It is typically divided into four categories: 1. Structural defects - A structural defect means that something grew incorrectly in the heart at some point during fetal development Structural defects include patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta Atrial septal defect (ASD) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) and Tetralogy of Fallot.

Can babies survive heart surgery?

What is Congenital Heart Disease? Congenital heart disease or CHD is a group of conditions that affect the heart from birth The most common congenital heart defects are holes in the heart (atrial septal defect) and excess blood vessels connecting the lungs to the heart (ventricular septal defect) Sometimes these defects can be repaired with surgery Until recently babies born with CHD often died within a few months or years of birth due to complications related to their hearts This has changed dramatically over the past several decades due in large part to advances in surgical techniques and technology Today more than 90 percent of babies born with serious cardiac.

How long does a baby stay in hospital after heart surgery?

General guidelines state that a baby should stay in the hospital for between two and three weeks after heart surgery Some specific procedures may require a longer stay however such as those that involve inserting parts into the heart The decision to admit babies to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is also subject to individual circumstances.

How long does it take for a baby to recover from heart surgery?

The length of recovery time for a baby who has undergone heart surgery depends on the type of procedure performed. In general babies who undergo valvular repair surgery that involves either repairing or replacing the valves in the heart usually take about three to four weeks to recover.

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Congenital heart defects in children(CHD): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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