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Congenital heart disease in adults : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is Congenital Heart Disease In Adults?

Congenital heart defects (as a whole) represent the foremost common style of birth defect. The term covers an oversized variety of abnormalities that develop before a baby is born, and should be diagnosed before birth, when birth, or typically even late during adulthood. These are defects that may modify the conventional flow of blood through the heart, and/or have an effect on however a heart will develop and perform throughout a person’s life.


A heart defect is also simple, similar to a valve that's malformed. However, it should also be complex, as in a heart that is unbalanced (with one facet larger than the other) or contains a hole in it, permitting the blending of blood. individuals will have a minor defect that ne'er causes a symptom, or one that's critical and needs major surgical intervention. Around twenty five % of all individuals born with inborn heart defects would force surgery within the initial year of life.


A couple of decades ago, the prognosis for kids with complicated congenital heart conditions wasn't good. The exaggerated prevalence of adult survivors today, particularly those with complex congenital defects, is promising. In fact, there are currently 1.4 million adults—far more adults than children—with inborn heart condition.Most individuals with congenital heart disease are diagnosed and treated as babies, although some are diagnosed as adults. Major surgical and medical advances have improved the effectiveness of treatments for babies born with congenital heart disease, permitting additional to succeed in adulthood. As a result, there are currently more adults living with heart defects than children.


NYU Langone doctors manage many sorts of congenital heart diseases in adults. They vary from easier conditions, similar to holes within the heart, to more complicated defects, together with obstructions within the heart, the transposition of major arteries, and conditions that end in an individual having only 1 pumping chamber within the heart.


a number of these conditions cause issues with the heart’s respiratory organ valve, tricuspidata valve, mitral valve, or artery valve. the guts might not develop properly, preventing blood from flowing unremarkably through or from the heart. alternative conditions have an effect on the heart’s chambers or the veins or arteries that connect the heart and lungs.


There are many kinds of inborn heart defects that are additional seemingly than others to be diagnosed or managed throughout adulthood.


What is Congenital Heart Disease In Adults



Explanation of medical terms and concept Congenital heart disease in adults

Congenital heart disease is one or additional issues with the heart' structure that exist since birth. non inheritable  means you're born with the condition. non-inheritable  heart conditions in adults and kids will modify the manner blood flows through the heart. There are many alternative sorts of congenital heart defects. This text focuses on congenital heart disease in adults. Some types of congenital heart disease are also mild. however advanced defects might cause grave complications. However, advances in diagnosing and treatment still improve survival for those with congenital heart disease. folks with congenital heart disease need womb-to-tomb medical care. Treatment might embrace regular checkups (watchful waiting), medications or surgery. If you have an adult non inheritable  heart condition, raise your health care supplier however usually you would like a checkup. a meg folks over the age of twenty suffer from congenital heart disease within the United States. In fact, the quantity of adult patients with congenital heart disease is currently larger than those under 20. Adult patients fall under 2 categories: those patients who were operated on in childhood and are now living well into adulthood, and patients who are 1st diagnosed as adults. Adult non inheritable  heart conditions will fall flat the cracks of our medical system as these patients ought to receive their care is problematic. Several medical specialty cardiologists in children' hospitals don't see patients over the age of 18, whereas many adult medical specialty programs do not offer adequate coaching within the diagnosing and management of adult congenital heart disease. It's troublesome for adults to get care in the settings wherever most pediatric cardiologists practice, specifically children' hospitals. The special wants of adult congenital heart patients are not well addressed  by adult institutions that are dominated by non inheritable  heart disease, particularly arteria disease. It's necessary to own a decent understanding of the non inheritable  defects that give in adulthood and the way to diagnose, treat, and follow these patients suitably as adults. 

Types Congenital heart disease in adults

  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  2. Atrioventricular canal defect

  3. Bicuspid aortic valve

  4. Coarctation of the aorta

  5. Congenital heart defects in children

  6. Congenital mitral valve anomalies

  7. Double-outlet right ventricle

  8. Ebstein anomaly

  9. Eisenmenger syndrome

  10. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

  11. Long QT syndrome

  12. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

  13. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

  14. Patent foramen ovale

  15. Pulmonary atresia

  16. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum

  17. Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect

  18. Pulmonary valve stenosis

  19. Tetralogy of Fallot

  20. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR)

  21. Transposition of the great arteries

  22. Tricuspid atresia

  23. Truncus arteriosus

  24. Vascular rings

  25. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  26. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome

Symptoms Congenital heart disease in adults

It’s vital to produce a history to all or any of your doctors—including your medical aid doctor and doctors you're seeing for any reason within the emergency room. If you experience heart symptoms, sit down with an inborn heart specialist. Inborn heart specialists can diagnose any new or unresolved issues. In addition to performing a physical examination and discussing your medical history, your doctor might want to use a spread of tests and imaging tools to be told a lot regarding your condition. These habitually embody chest X-rays, an sonogram (ultrasound), or an electrocardiogram, which may determine cardiac rhythm issues. Occasionally, more concerned tests that appreciate resonance imaging (MRI) or viscus catheterization are needed. Once a designation is made, adult inborn heart specialists are extremely virtuoso at treating problems. Their recommendations might vary from watchful waiting to medication, to procedures or surgeries to mend the complication or problems. for a few people, signs or symptoms of congenital cardiovascular disease aren't noticed  till adulthood. Symptoms may come back years when a congenital heart defect is treated.

Common congenital heart disease symptoms in adults include:

  • Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias)

  • Blue skin, lips and fingernails (cyanosis)

  • Shortness of breath

  • Feeling tired very quickly with activity

  • Swelling of body tissue or organs (edema)

When to see a doctor

If you're having worrisome symptoms, equivalent to hurting or shortness of breath, look for emergency medical attention. If you have got signs or symptoms of inherent cardiomyopathy or were treated for a congenital heart defect as a child, create a briefing to visualize your health care provider.

Causes Congenital heart disease in adults

An innate heart defect may be a condition one is born with. Some genetic (inherited) diseases or disorders, appreciate Down' syndrome, are related to congenital heart defects. Some substances or diseases that a pregnant girl is exposed to will cause a congenital heart defect in her unborn  child, together with some prescription medications, epidemic roseola (German measles), and uncontrolled diabetes.Researchers aren't certain what causes most forms of congenital heart disease. Some congenital heart diseases are passed down through families (inherited). to know congenital heart disease, it helps to know however the guts usually works.

  • The heart is divided into chambers — two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles).

  • The right side of the heart moves blood to the lungs through blood vessels (pulmonary arteries).

  • In the lungs, blood picks up oxygen and then returns to the left side of your heart through the pulmonary veins.

  • The left side of the heart then pumps the blood through the aorta and out to the rest of the body.

Congenital heart condition will have an effect on any of those heart structures, as well as the arteries, valves, chambers and therefore the wall of tissue that separates the chambers (septum).

Risk factors Congenital heart disease in adults

Certain environmental and genetic risk factors may play a task within the development of non heritable heart disease, including:

  • Genetics. Congenital cardiovascular disease seems to run in families (inherited). It's related to several genetic syndromes. For instance, youngsters with slowness usually have inherent heart defects. Genetic testing will discover Down syndrome and a few different genetic conditions whereas a baby continues to be within the mother' womb. 

  • German measles (rubella). Having rubella during pregnancy may affect how the baby's heart develops while in the womb.

  • Diabetes. Having kind one or type two polygenic disease throughout maternity additionally could have an effect on a baby' heart development. physiological state diabetes usually doesn't increase the danger of inherent heart disease. 

  • Medications. Taking sure medications whereas pregnant will cause non heritable cardiovascular disease and different birth defects. Medications joined to heart defects embrace Li for emotional disorder and isotretinoin (Claravis, Myorisan, others), that is employed to treat acne. invariably tell your health care supplier concerning the medications you take. 

  • Alcohol. Drinking alcohol while pregnant has been linked to an increased risk of heart defects in the baby.

  • Smoking. If you smoke, quit. Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects in the baby.

Complications

Congenital heart conditions will contribute to different health issues later in life. Complications might occur years once an inborn heart defect is treated. Complications of congenital heart disease in adults include:

  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). Faulty heart sign causes the guts to beat too fast, too slowly or irregularly. In some people, severe arrhythmias could cause stroke or sharp internal organ death if not treated. connective tissue within the heart from previous surgeries will contribute to the current complication. 

  • Heart infection (endocarditis). Bacteria or alternative germs will enter the blood and move to the inner lining of the center (endocardium). Untreated, this infection can injure or destroy the heart valves or cause a stroke. If you're at high risk of endocarditis, your care supplier could suggest taking antibiotics one hour before dental cleanings. Regular dental checkups are important. Healthy gums and teeth cut back the chance that bacteria can enter the bloodstream. 

  • Stroke. A congenital heart defect can allow a blood clot to pass through the heart and travel to the brain, where it reduces or blocks blood supply.

  • High blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension). Some inherent heart defects send a lot of blood to the lungs, inflicting pressure to build. This eventually causes the center muscle to weaken and typically to fail. 

  • Heart failure. Heart failure (congestive heart failure) means the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.

Adult congenital heart disease and pregnancy

It could be possible to own a triple-crown physiological condition with delicate inborn heart disease. A care supplier may tell you to not get pregnant if you have got a posh congenital heart defect. Before changing into pregnancy, sit down with your health care provider concerning the possible risks and complications. along you'll discuss and set up for any special care required throughout pregnancy.

Prevention

Some sorts of inborn cardiovascular disease occur in families (inherited). If you've got or somebody in your family has congenital heart disease, screening by a genetic counselor could facilitate confirming the chance of bound heart defects in future children.

Diagnosis Congenital heart disease in adults

To diagnose innate cardiomyopathy in adults, your health care supplier will do physical communication and hear your heart with a stethoscope. you'll be asked questions about your symptoms and medical and family history. Tests may be done to see the heart' health and appearance for alternative conditions which will cause similar signs and symptoms.

Tests

Tests to diagnose or confirm congenital heart disease in adults and children include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). This painless check records the electrical signals within the heart. Associate in Nursing graph will tell how briskly or slow the guts is beating. Associate in Nursing ECG can facilitate determination of irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). 

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can show changes in the size and shape of the heart and the lungs.

  • Pulse oximetry. A small sensor attached to the finger can estimate how much oxygen is in the blood.

  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves (ultrasound) produce pictures of the moving heart. An associate degree sonogram will show blood flow through the guts and heart valves. Echocardiograms may be done whereas you exercise, generally on a motorcycle or treadmill. 

  • Transesophageal echocardiogram. If more-detailed pictures of the guts are needed, a transesophageal sonogram is also done. During this test, a versatile tube containing the electrical device is guided  down the throat and into the tube connecting the mouth to the abdomen (esophagus). 

  • Exercise tests or stress tests. These tests typically involve walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike whereas the guts is monitored by ECG. Exercise tests facilitate reveal however the heart responds to physical activity. 

  • Heart CT scan and heart MRI. These tests produce pictures of the center and chest. A heart (cardiac) CT scans use X-rays. internal organ imaging uses a magnetic flux and radio waves. For each test, you lie on a table that generally slides within a protracted vasiform machine. 

  • Cardiac catheterization. This take a look is often done to visualize blood flow and blood pressures within the heart. A doctor gently inserts a tubing into a blood vessel, typically in the groin, and up to the heart. X-rays are wont to guide the catheter to the proper position. Sometimes, dye is injected through the catheter. The dye helps blood vessels show up higher on the images. 

Treatment Congenital heart disease in adults

Treatment relies on the severity of the inborn heart condition. Some delicate heart defects don't need any treatment.Others may be treated with medications, invasive procedures or surgery. Most adults with congenital heart disease should be monitored by a congenital medical specialist and will have to be compelled to take precautions to stop carditis (an infection of the heart) throughout their life.Congenital heart disease will often be treated with success in childhood. However, some styles of congenital heart disease might not be serious enough to repair throughout childhood, however they'll cause issues in adulthood. Treatment of congenital heart disease in adults depends on the severity of the guts condition. Comparatively minor inborn heart defects would possibly need solely occasional health checkups to ensure the condition doesn't worsen. alternative treatments for congenital heart condition in adults may embody medications and surgery.

Medications

Some gentle inherent heart defects may be treated with medications that facilitate the guts work better. Medications may additionally  run to forestall blood clots or to manage an irregular heartbeat.

Surgeries and other procedures

Several surgeries and procedures are available to treat adults with congenital heart disease.

  • Implantable heart devices. A device that facilitates management of the center rate (pacemaker) or that corrects critical irregular heartbeats (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or ICD) might help improve a number of the complications related to non inheritable  cardiovascular disease in adults. 

  • Catheter-based treatments. Some kinds of inborn cardiovascular disease in adults may be repaired victimizing thin, versatile tubes known as tubings. Such treatments enable a repair to be avoided by open-heart surgery. The health care supplier inserts a catheter through a blood vessel, sometimes within the groin, and guides it to the heart. generally over one catheter is used. Once in place, the doctor threads small tools through the catheter to repair the congenital heart defect. 

  • Open-heart surgery. If catheter procedures can't fix a congenital heart defect, open-heart surgery may be needed.

  • Heart transplant. If a serious heart defect can't be repaired, a heart transplant might be an option.

Follow-up care

Adults with inborn cardiovascular disease are in danger of developing complications — notwithstanding surgery was done to repair the defect throughout childhood. womb-to-tomb follow-up care is important. Ideally, a doctor trained in treating adults with congenital heart defects ought to manage your care. Follow-up care could embrace regular health checkups and occasional blood work and imaging exams to screen for complications. However, usually you'll have to be compelled to see if your health care supplier can rely upon whether or not your congenital heart disease is delicate or complex.

More Information

  • Congenital heart disease in adults care at Mayo Clinic

  • Aortic valve repair and aortic valve replacement

  • Cardiac catheterization

  • Heart transplant

  • Robotic or minimally invasive cardiac surgery for adult-adolescent congenital heart disease

  • Infographic: Congenital Heart Disease and Lifelong Care

Coping and support

One vital factor associate degreed do} if you're an adult with an innate heart condition is to become educated regarding your condition. Topics you ought to become at home with include:

  • The name and details of the heart condition and how it's been treated

  • How often you should have health checkups

  • Information about your medications and their side effects

  • How to prevent heart infections (endocarditis), if necessary

  • Exercise guidelines and work restrictions

  • Birth control and family planning information

  • Health insurance information and coverage options

  • Dental care information, including whether you need antibiotics before dental procedures

  • Symptoms of your specific type of congenital heart disease and when you should contact your doctor

Preparing for your appointment

If you've got a non heritable heart defect, create a rendezvous with a doctor trained in designation and treating heart conditions (cardiologist) for follow-up care, even though you haven't developed complications. Here's some info to assist you prepare for your appointment.

What you can do

When you build the appointment, raise if there's something you wish to try to do in advance, admire avoiding food or drinks for a brief amount of time. build a listing of:

  • Your symptoms, if any, including any that may seem unrelated to congenital heart disease, and when they began

  • Key personal information, including a family history of heart defects and treatment you received as a child

  • All medications, vitamins or other supplements you take and their doses

  • Questions to ask your healthcare provider

For congenital heart disease, questions to ask your care provider include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What treatments are available? Which do you recommend for me?

  • Are there diet or activity restrictions I need to follow?

  • How often should I be screened for complications from my heart defect?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you questions, including:

  • Do your symptoms come and go, or do you have them all the time?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, worsens your symptoms?

  • What's your lifestyle like, including your diet, tobacco use, physical activity and alcohol use?

General summary

Is there any treatment for congenital heart disease?

Yes, most congenital heart defects can be treated and some can even be cured. The type of treatment depends on the severity of the defect, the age at which it is diagnosed and whether heart surgery is needed.

What is the most common congenital heart disease in adults?

An estimated 2,000 adults in the United States are born each year with a congenital heart defect The most common form of congenital heart disease is septal defects which affect one million people according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute A hole in the septum between the left and right side of the heart that separates its upper chambers from its lower chambers can be life-threatening if it does not receive immediate surgical attention.

What are the symptoms of congenital heart disease in adults?

Congenital heart disease is a problem with the structure of the heart that is present at birth It can affect the size shape and function of one or more parts of the heart The severity of congenital heart disease ranges from mild to severe Some people with congenital heart disease do not experience any symptoms until they have an illness or injury that causes stress on their hearts Other people have several symptoms since birth.

What are the last signs of congestive heart failure?

Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the heart muscle weakens making it unable to pump blood efficiently This can lead to fluid buildup in the lungs and other organs throughout your body The symptoms of congestive heart failure range from minor inconveniences to life-threatening conditions Watch for these signs that might indicate congestive heart failure: Shortness of breath with minimal activity Fatigue especially after normal activities or after eating meals Chest discomfort or pain when breathing deeply or coughing – these might be signs of an acute pulmonary edema which occurs when fluid builds up in the lungs and makes them stiffer than usual.

The four stages of congestive heart failure are defined by the symptoms the sufferer experiences When a person first develops heart failure he may experience no symptoms at all As time goes on symptoms become more severe A cardiac patient usually reaches the last stage of CHF when his lungs begin to fail and he can no longer breathe without help from a ventilator or respirator.

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Congenital heart disease in adults : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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