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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection?

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) could be a member of the herpes family. connected viruses embody Epstein-Barr (causes organ fever), varicella-zoster (causes chicken pox) and herpes simplex (causes cold sores). This infection may unfold through coughing, contact with blood, weewee or feces, or via the mucous membranes, from the mouth and genitals.


In Australia, concerning fifty per cent of young adults are infected. In healthy people, herpes infection causes nothing quite like a flu-like sickness that lasts some days. In sure people, however, as well as transplant patients and pregnant women, the consequences can be rather more serious.Cytomegalovirus (CMV) could be a common virus. Over 1/2 adults within the U.S. have it in their body by age 40. herpes spreads simply through an infected person’s spittle or alternative body fluids. It’s concerning the herpes virus, which supplies you cold sores.


If you've got a healthy system which will easily manage the virus, it always doesn't cause problems. however it can build those who have weakened immune systems sick.


In people who have advanced HIV, CMV can cause an eye fixed infection referred to as inflammation that will cause blindness. CMV retinitis is what’s called AN AIDS-defining condition. The virus may additionally have an effect on your intestines, esophagus, lungs, brain, or nerves.


What is Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection

Explanation of medical terms and concept Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) 

is a common virus. Once infected, your body retains the virus for life. Most people don't understand they need herpes as a result of it seldom causes issues in healthy people. If you're pregnant or if your system is weakened, CMV is cause for concern. ladies who develop a vigorous CMV infection throughout gestation will pass the virus to their babies, who would possibly then expertise symptoms. For those that have weakened immune systems, particularly people who have had an organ, somatic cell or bone marrow transplant, CMV infection is often fatal. CMV spreads from person to person through body fluids, like blood, saliva, urine, seminal fluid and breast milk. There's no cure, however there are medications which will facilitate the treatment of the symptoms.

Although there is no specific cure for CMV infection treatment can relieve symptoms and reduce the chance of serious complications In most cases treatment focuses on reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing complications Treatment may include: Medications to reduce fever and treat pain nausea vomiting and diarrhea Treating secondary infections as they occur with antibiotics or antiviral medications.

Symptoms Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

infection in youngsters and adults is sometimes not symptoms. Occasionally, symptoms just like kissing disease, love fever, sore throat, swollen glands, abdomen pain and jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) will occur.Most healthy folks that are infected with herpes might experience no symptoms. Some experience minor symptoms. folks that are additional seemingly to experience signs and symptoms of CMV include:

  • Newborns who became infected with CMV before they were born (congenital CMV).

  • Infants who become infected during birth or shortly afterward (perinatal CMV). This group includes babies infected through breast milk.

  • People who have weakened immune systems, such as those who have had an organ, bone marrow or stem cell transplant, or those who are infected with HIV.

Babies

Most babies who have innate CMV seem healthy at birth. range of|some|many} babies who have congenital CMV who appear healthy at birth develop signs over time — typically not for months or years after birth. The foremost common of those late-occurring signs are hearing disorder and organic process delay. A small number of babies can also develop vision problems. 

the subsequent signs and symptoms are a lot of common in babies who have congenital CMV and who are sick at birth:

  • Premature birth

  • Low birth weight

  • Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)

  • Enlarged and poorly functioning liver

  • Purple skin splotches or a rash or both

  • Abnormally small head (microcephaly)

  • Enlarged spleen

  • Pneumonia

  • Seizures

People who have weakened immunity

If your system is weakened, you would possibly expertise serious issues that have an effect on your:

  • Eyes

  • Lungs

  • Liver

  • Esophagus

  • Stomach

  • Intestines

  • Brain

Healthy adults

Most people who are infected with herpes virus who are otherwise healthy experience few if any symptoms. once initial infected, some adults might have symptoms almost like infectious mononucleosis, including:

  • Fatigue

  • Fever

  • Sore throat

  • Muscle aches

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if:

  • You have a weakened system and you're experiencing symptoms of CMV infection. For people that have weakened immune systems, CMV infection may be serious or maybe fatal. People that have undergone vegetative cell or organ transplants appear to be at greatest risk.

  • You develop a mononucleosis-like ill health whereas you're pregnant. If you have got herpes however are otherwise healthy, and you're experiencing any mild, generalized illness, you may be in a very reactivation period. Self-care, comparable to obtaining much rest, ought to be enough for your body to regulate the infection.

When your child should see a doctor

If you recognize you were infected with herpes virus throughout your pregnancy, tell your baby' doctor. The doctor can seemingly assess your baby for hearing or vision problems. 

Causes Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

CMV is expounded to the viruses that cause chickenpox, herpes simplex and mononucleosis. Herpes virus could cycle through periods once it lies dormant so reactivates. If you're healthy, CMV primarily stays dormant. Once the virus is active in your body, you'll be able to pass the virus to different people. The virus unfolds through body fluids — as well as blood, urine, saliva, breast milk, tears, seminal fluid and duct fluids. Casual contact doesn't transmit CMV.

Ways the virus can be transmitted include:

  • Touching your eyes or the inside of your nose or mouth after coming into contact with the body fluids of an infected person.

  • Sexual contact with an infected person.

  • The breast milk of an infected mother.

  • Organ, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation or blood transfusions.

  • Birth. An infected mother can pass the virus to her baby before or during birth. The risk of transmitting the virus to your baby is higher if you become infected for the first time during pregnancy.

CMV spreads simply in places with legion young children, like day-care centers, thus anyone who spends time there's at higher risk of obtaining it. You’re additionally doubtless to urge the virus if your system is weakened thanks to drugs or another health condition.

Risk factors Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

CMV is a widespread and common virus that can infect almost anyone.

Complications

Complications of herpes infection vary, looking at your overall health and after you were infected.

Healthy adults

Rarely, cytomegalovirus causes a healthy adult to develop mononucleosis. Different rare complications for healthy adults embrace issues with the organic process system, liver, brain and nervous system.

People who have weakened immunity

Complications of CMV infection can include:

  • Vision loss, due to inflammation of the light-sensing layer of the eye (retinitis)

  • Digestive system problems, including inflammation of the colon (colitis), esophagus (esophagitis) and liver (hepatitis)

  • Nervous system problems, including brain inflammation (encephalitis)

  • Pneumonia

Infants who have congenital CMV

A kid whose mother initially became infected with CMV throughout maternity is additional probably to experience complications. Complications for the baby will include:

  • Hearing loss

  • Intellectual disability

  • Vision problems

  • Seizures

  • Lack of coordination

  • Weakness or problems using muscles

Prevention

Careful hygiene is the best prevention against CMV. You can take these precautions:

  • Wash your hands often. Use soap and water for fifteen to twenty seconds, particularly if you've got contact with young children or their diapers, secretion or alternative oral secretions. This can be especially vital if the youngsters attend child care. 

  • Avoid contact with tears and saliva when you kiss a child. Instead of foreplay a toddler on the lips, for instance, kiss on the forehead. This is often particularly vital if you're pregnant. 

  • Avoid sharing food or drinking out of the same glass as others. Sharing glasses and kitchen utensils can spread CMV.

  • Be careful with disposable items. When removing diapers, tissues and different things that are contaminated with bodily fluids, wash your hands completely before touching your face. 

  • Clean toys and countertops. Clean any surfaces that come in contact with children's urine or saliva.

  • Practice safe sex. Wear a prophylactic throughout sexual contact to stop spreading herpes through humour and duct fluids. If you have weakened immunity, you'll} like taking antiviral medication to prevent CMV disease. Experimental vaccines are being tested for girls of childbearing age. These vaccines could also be helpful in preventing CMV infection in mothers and infants, and reducing the possibility that babies born to women who are infected whereas pregnant will develop disabilities. 

Diagnosis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

A biopsy will discover the antibodies that the body creates once the system responds to CMV’s presence. A pregnant person contains a stripped-down risk that reactivation of CMV may have an effect on her developing baby. If a doctor suspects that a pregnant person has CMV, they will counsel an amniocentesis. This involves extracting a sample of amniotic fluid to seek out whether or not the virus is present. If the doctor suspects innate CMV, they'll test the baby at intervals during the primary three weeks of life. Testing later than 3 weeks won't be conclusive for congenital CMV as a result of the baby could have contracted  the virus once birth. Anyone with a weakened system ought to have a test, albeit the virus isn't active. Regular observation for CMV complications can embody testing for vision and hearing problems.

Laboratory tests — including tests of blood and other body fluids or tests of tissue samples — can detect CMV.

During pregnancy and after delivery

If you're pregnant, checking to see whether or not you've ever been infected with CMV will be important. Pregnant ladies who have already developed CMV antibodies have a really tiny likelihood of a reactivation infecting their unborn  children. If your doctor detects a replacement CMV infection whereas you're pregnant, a prenatal  test (amniocentesis) will determine whether the fetus has been infected. During this test, your doctor takes and examines a sample of amniotic fluid. amnio is mostly counseled once abnormalities which may be caused by CMV are seen on ultrasound. If your doctor suspects your baby has non heritable CMV, it's vital to check the baby at intervals during the primary 3 weeks of birth. If your baby has CMV, your doctor possibly can suggest further tests to see the health of the baby' organs, cherish the liver and kidneys.

In people who have weakened immunity

Testing for CMV can even be necessary if you've got a weakened immune system. For example, if you have HIV or AIDS, or if you've had a transplant, your doctor might want to observe you regularly.

Treatment Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

Treatment usually isn't necessary for healthy kids and adults. Healthy adults who develop cytomegalovirus mono generally recover while not on medication. Newborns and folks who have weakened immunity want treatment once they're experiencing symptoms of CMV infection. The kind of treatment depends on the signs and symptoms and their severity. Antiviral medications are the foremost common kind of treatment. they will slow replication of the virus, however can't eliminate it. Researchers are learning new medications and vaccines to treat and stop CMV.When you have got redness attributable to CMV, your doctor could provide you with robust medications intravenously (through a vein) for one or two weeks, a method known as induction therapy. once a while, they'll switch you to pills.You may need medication injected into your eye if your vision is in danger. 

Your doctor might prescribe drugs including:

  • Cidofovir (Vistide)

  • Foscarnet (Foscavir)

  • Ganciclovir (Cytovene)

  • Maribavir (Livecity)

  • Valganciclovir (Valcyte)

These medications typically can't cure the sickness if you have advanced HIV, however they'll manage it whereas you get antiretroviral medical aid (ART) for your HIV infection. looking on the medicine, you'll have facet effects including:

  • Low white blood cell count (neutropenia), which raises your chance for other infections

  • Feeling tired from low red blood cell count (anemia)

  • Upset stomach or throwing up

  • Rash

  • Kidney problems

Most importantly, if you are taking ART early to associate HIV infection, the medicine will keep it from getting worse and can keep you from getting cytomegalovirus within the 1st place. 

Preparing for your appointment

Here's some info to assist you make preparations for your appointment.

What you can do

Before your appointment take these steps:

  • Write down any symptoms you or your child is experiencing. Include signs and symptoms even if they seem minor, such as low-grade fever or fatigue.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor. Your time with your doctor is limited, so it can be useful to prepare a list of questions.

For CMV, questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?

  • What is the best course of action?

  • Will I infect others?

  • Are there any restrictions I need to follow?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor will likely ask you a number of questions, including:

  • How long have you had your symptoms?

  • Do you work or live with young children?

  • Have you had a blood transfusion or organ, bone marrow or stem cell transplant recently?

  • Do you have a medical condition that might weaken your immune system, such as HIV or AIDS?

  • Are you receiving chemotherapy?

  • Do you practice safe sex?

  • Are you pregnant or breast-feeding?

In addition, if you think you have been exposed during pregnancy:

  • When do you think you may have been exposed?

  • Have you had symptoms of the condition?

  • Have you been tested for CMV before?

General summary

What antibiotics treat CMV?

The most common viruses that can cause CMV include hepatitis chickenpox and mononucleosis Herpes is another virus that can cause CMV In most cases the body's immune system can fight off these viruses However in some cases they can cause problems in the body including meningitis and encephalitis which are swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord respectively Encephalitis may be fatal in some cases if it is not diagnosed quickly and treated properly People who become infected with these viruses have an increased risk of developing complications from CMV infection as well as an increased risk of developing other conditions such as cancer later on in life.

How do you recover from a CMV virus?

CMV is a member of the herpes virus family which simply means it has the ability to remain dormant in your body for long periods of time If you have ever had chicken pox or shingles you have also had CMV Most people have no symptoms from this virus although some develop a sore throat fatigue or fever within 14 days after exposure.

When is cytomegalovirus treated?

Cytomegalovirus is a type of herpes virus that stays in the body for life It is spread by contact with the saliva urine and other body fluids of an infected person The symptoms are often mild and go unnoticed but sometimes it can cause more serious health problems including deafness and mental impairment While there is no cure there are some treatments available to help manage the symptoms of CMV.

Can CMV be treated with antibiotics?

CMV is a viral infection and therefore will not be cured with antibiotics The only treatment for CMV is supportive care to make the patient comfortable until the virus goes away For patients with weakened immune systems antiviral medications can help keep the virus from getting out of control and causing serious illness.

Can acyclovir treat CMV?

Acyclovir is used to treat herpes infections such as cold sores, shingles and genital herpes However it has not been proven effective for treating cytomegalovirus (CMV).

How is CMV IGG positively treated?

CMV is not a condition you can cure but there are treatments that can ease symptoms and shorten an episode of illness Your healthcare provider will likely prescribe two or more medications to treat CMV infection However the specific treatment that is prescribed will depend on the type of CMV infection you have and the severity of your symptoms.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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