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Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What Is Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus?

Ebola virus unwellness, initially recognized in 1976 within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, could be a serious and sometimes fatal unhealthiness in humans and anthropoid primates. Four of six best-known virus species of the Ebolavirus genus are known to infect humans and cause Ebola virus disease. they're unfold through direct contact with the bodily fluids of an unfortunate person and may cause fever, headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdomen pain and hemorrhage (severe bleeding).


Ebola virus is an element of the Filoviridae family that conjointly includes filovirus. Marburg virus disease was first recognized in 1967 and is characterized by equivalent symptoms and transmission routes as Ebola virus unwellness. There are 2 best-known species of filovirus which will cause disease in humans and anthropoid primates.Ebola and Marburg viruses are rare however have caused periodic cases and deadly eruptions in Africa since they were initially recognized. The most important outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus disease, that occurred in a geographical area from 2014 to 2016, caused over 28,600 infections and more than 11,300 deaths, in step with the globe Health Organization. There aren't any authorized treatments or vaccines for Ebola or Marburg virus diseases; however, varied experimental countermeasures, together with some developed by NIAID, are below evaluation.


What Is Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus


Explanation of medical terms and concept Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus

Ebola and Marburg viruses are related viruses that may cause hemorrhagic fevers. These viruses can cause severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure, and even death. Both viruses are native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades.

Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animals. Humans can get the viruses from infected animals. After the initial transmission, the viruses can spread from person to person through contact with body fluids or dirty objects, such as contaminated needles.

There is no approved drug to treat Ebola virus or Marburg virus. People who are diagnosed with either Ebola virus or Marburg virus receive supportive care and treatment for any complications that may arise.One vaccine has been approved to prevent Ebola virus, but scientists are still studying other potential vaccines.

The Ebola virus is a member of the filovirus family which also includes another deadly disease known as Marburg virus These viruses are the only members of the filovirus family; they are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever (a severe drop in blood pressure) shock and death in humans They cause both sporadic outbreaks and epidemics.

Ebola virus causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) which is one of the world's most virulent diseases The virus is closely related to Marburg virus another member of the filovirus family that causes Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) Both viruses are classified as high-level biocontainment pathogens by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requiring very strict isolation procedures for all personnel involved in research treatment and disposal.

Symptoms Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus

People expand the primary signs about 2 to twenty days after exposure to the virus. At first, the signs typically resemble those of other, much less dangerous viral infections. People have muscle aches, headache, sore throat, and cough. People also turn out to be touchy to light, and the whites of the eyes may turn purple.

Early signs and symptoms of Ebola or Marburg virus infections include:

  • Fever

  • Severe headache

  • Joint and muscle aches

  • Chills

  • Weakness

The condition may get worse over time and symptoms may include:

  • Feeling sick to your stomach and throwing up.

  • Diarrhea can sometimes be bloody.

  • Red eyes

  • Raised rash

  • Chest pain and cough

  • Sore throat

  • Stomach pain

  • Severe weight loss

  • Bruising

  • Bleeding can occur from the eyes, nose, and rectum when a person is close to death.

  • Internal bleeding

The vomiting and diarrhea cause dehydration, which, if untreated, leads to low blood pressure ( shock), atypical heart rhythms, and demise.

Bleeding begins inside the first few days. Bleeding underneath the skin may be seen as purplish spots or patches (bruises), and the gums, nostril, rectum, or inner organs may also bleed, as may additionally puncture wounds (as end result from drawing blood or beginning an intravenous line).

After about 5 days, a rash, specifically at the trunk, seems.

During the second week of signs, the fever breaks and both humans start to recover or their organs malfunction (called organ failure). From 25 to 90% of inflamed people die depending in large part on the extent of hospital therapy to be had. Compared with Marburg virus infection, Ebola is much more likely to be fatal, averaging a 59% dying rate. Recovery takes a long time.

Causes Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus

Ebola virus has been found in primates from Africa and the Philippines. A milder strain of Ebola has also been discovered in monkeys and pigs.

Monkeys, chimpanzees, and fruit bats have been found to have Marburg virus.

Transmission from animals to humans

Experts believe that both viruses are spread to humans through an infected animal's bodily fluids. Some examples of these fluids include:

  • Blood.It is dangerous to kill or eat infected animals, as scientists who have worked with viruses in the past have also become infected.

  • Waste products.Some tourists who visit African caves and some underground mine workers have been infected with the Marburg virus. This virus is spread through contact with the feces or urine of infected bats.

Transmission from person to person

People who have Ebola virus or Marburg virus typically don't become contagious until they develop symptoms. The viruses can spread through blood, body fluids, or contaminated items, such as bedding, clothing, or needles. Family members can be infected as they care for a sick relative or help prepare the person for treatment. Dead leaves should be collected and disposed of properly.

If medical personnel do not use specialized personal protective equipment, they can be infected. This includes clothing that covers their heads to their feet.

There is no evidence that Ebola virus or Marburg virus may be spread through insect bites.

Risk factors Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus

Ebola and Marburg are found in the desert continent.


VHF has been reported in the Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, South Sudan, African nations, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria.

Marburg has been reported in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

Travelers who work closely with or visit areas with monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas (nonhuman primates) or dotty in tropical Africa could also be seen to induce infection. For example, 2 tourists visiting Uganda in 2008 were likely infected with Marburg virus after visiting a cave known for its giant bat population. folks that take care of VHF or Marburg patients may seem to induce infection.


For many travelers, the possibilities of getting infected with Ebola or Marburg viruses are low.

The risk of getting Ebola or Marburg virus is low for most people. However, the risk increases if you:

  • Travel to Africa.If you visit or work in areas where Ebola virus or Marburg virus outbreaks have occurred, you are at an increased risk of getting sick.

  • Conduct animal research.People are more likely to contract Ebola virus or Marburg virus if they work with monkeys imported from Africa or the Philippines.

  • Provide medical or personal care.People who are close to someone who is sick can get infected. Medical personnel who do not use special protective equipment can also get infected.

  • Prepare people for burial.People who have died from Ebola or Marburg viruses are still contagious. Working with these bodies can increase your risk of getting viruses.

Complications

Both Ebola virus and Marburg virus cause death for a high number of people who are affected. As the illnesses progress, the viruses can cause different symptoms, such as:

  • Multiple organ failure

  • Severe bleeding

  • Jaundice

  • Delirium

  • Seizures

  • Coma

  • Shock

One reason the viruses are so deadly is that they impair the immune system's ability to fight. But scientists don't yet understand why some people recover from Ebola virus and Marburg virus and others don't.

Recovery from a virus infection is slow. It may take months to regain weight and strength, and the viruses remain in the body for weeks. People may experience: -Weight loss -Fatigue -Aches and pains

  • Hair loss

  • Sensory changes

  • Liver inflammation (hepatitis)

  • Weakness

  • Fatigue

  • Headaches

  • Eye inflammation

  • Testicular inflammation

Prevention

Prevention involves avoiding contact with the viruses. The following tips can help keep you safe from Ebola virus and Marburg virus.

  • Avoid areas of known outbreaks.Before traveling to Africa, check the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website to learn about any current epidemics.

  • Wash your hands frequently.One of the most important ways to prevent infectious diseases is to wash your hands often. Use soap and water, or use alcohol-based hand rubs that contain at least 60% alcohol when soap and water are not available.

  • Avoid bush meat.Do not buy or eat wild animals, including nonhuman primates, that are found in local markets.

  • Avoid contact with infected people. It is important for caregivers not to come in contact with an infected person's body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva. Caregivers should also avoid coming into contact with the person's clothing, bedding, or other belongings. People who have contracted Ebola virus or Marburg virus are most contagious at this time. Disease is contagious in the later stages.

  • Follow infection-control procedures.If you're a health care worker, you need to wear specialized personal protective equipment so that you are covered from head to toe. Keep people who have the viruses isolated from others. Safely discard needles and sterilize other medical equipment.

  • Don't handle remains.The bodies of people who have died from Ebola or Marburg virus are still contagious. Special teams designed to handle this situation should bury the bodies safely using appropriate equipment.

The process of approving vaccines and conducting research is ongoing.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a vaccine that is effective against Ebola. It is given as a single dose and it has been found to be safe to use.

A new Ebola vaccine has been developed and is being used in the Democratic Republic of Congo for research. It takes two doses, 56 days apart.

Scientists are still working on developing a variety of vaccines to protect people from Ebola and Marburg viruses. Research is ongoing.

Diagnosis Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus

Ebola virus and Marburg virus are difficult to diagnose because early signs and symptoms resemble those of other diseases, such as typhoid and malaria. If doctors suspect that you have Ebola virus or Marburg virus, they use blood tests to quickly identify the virus, including:

  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Identifying viral hemorrhagic fever in people that are infected for under some days is tough as a result of early symptoms, comparable to fever, will be caused by additional common infections. However, if individuals with these symptoms are in or have traveled from areas wherever Ebola is occurring, doctors suspect Ebola. The Centers for sickness management and interference (CDC) has provided pointers for health care practitioners to modify them to judge travelers coming back from such areas.

If doctors suspect Ebola, they take samples of blood and water from the person and check them to substantiate the infection.

A similar approach will be used if filovirus infection is suspected.

Public health officers are notified if Associate in Nursing viral hemorrhagic fever or a Marburg virus infection is diagnosed.

Treatment Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus

The U.S. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a drug that' a mixture of 3 organism antibodies (Inmazeb) and one antibody medication (Ebanga) to treat Ebola virus sickness caused by a particular type of Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus.

No antiviral medications have tried to be effective in treating infection with Marburg virus.

Supportive hospital care includes:

  • Providing fluids

  • Maintaining blood pressure

  • Providing oxygen as needed

  • Replacing lost blood

  • Treating other infections that develop

Preparing for your appointment

The possibility of obtaining Ebola virus or Marburg virus is very low unless you've had direct contact with the body fluids of someone or AN animal infected with one in all the viruses.

If you're thinking that you simply or a loved one could be exposed to at least one of the viruses, decide your doctor or attend the closest hospital room immediately. If you're not mentioned as a communicable disease specialist, raise to visualize one.


If you're from the U.S. and traveling or operating abroad, the nearest U.S. Embassy will assist you to become a doctor. If you're from another country, contact your country' embassy. take care to inform your doctor or hospital regarding your symptoms before your visit in order that precautions may be taken to forestall transmission of the virus to others.

What you can do

Before your appointment, to assist your health practitioner find the purpose of your signs, write a listing that solutions the subsequent questions:

  • What symptoms do you have? When did they start?

  • Have you recently traveled in Africa? If so, what part?

  • If you were recently in Africa, did you hunt or eat monkeys?

  • Did you recently visit caves or underground mines in Africa?

  • Are you employed in a lab that uses monkeys from Africa or the Philippines in research?

If possible, take a loved one or friend with you. generally it will be tough to recollect all the knowledge provided to you within the hospital or throughout associate degree appointment. somebody who accompanies you'll remember one thing you lost or forgot.

General summary

Ebola and Marburg viruses are members of a group of viruses called the filoviruses Both Ebola and Marburg affect humans but they do not infect other animals A virus is a small infectious agent that can only replicate inside the living cells of another organism Viruses cannot reproduce on their own so they must hijack the cellular machinery of living organisms to make copies of themselves The 2014 outbreak in West Africa was caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) one of five known species within the genus Ebolavirus which belongs to the Filoviridae family The three species that have been associated with human disease are Z.

Is there any treatment for Ebola?

There is no specific treatment for Ebola The disease is typically fatal in 50 to 90 percent of patients depending on the strain Treatment consists of supportive therapy and alleviating symptoms such as maintaining body temperature with blankets or heating pads There are no vaccines for Ebola although some experimental ones have been tried in a few patients For example an experimental vaccine was given to two American health workers who contracted the disease while working in Africa; one of them survived and the other did not.

Is Marburg virus worse than Ebola?

Marburg virus is a rare sometimes deadly virus that can cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever According to the World Health Organization (WHO) there are two types of Marburg disease; they are both caused by the Marburg virus -- one is related to a laboratory exposure and the other is related to animal exposure According to the Centers for Disease Control both types can spread from person-to-person through close contact with infected bodily fluids Ebola and Marburg viruses are different subtypes of the same genus called Ebola Virus In fact when it was first discovered in 1967 it was named "Marburg Virus." However, after further study and understanding.

Can you survive Marburg virus?

The Marburg virus a member of the same family as Ebola was discovered in 1967 when an outbreak occurred at the former Marburg Virus Research Institute in Marburg Germany The institute had been studying viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and yellow fever A lab worker became infected with a virus known as Ravn thought to be similar to Ebola or a relative of it He died eight days later and two co-workers ended up getting sick with similar symptoms They were transferred to Frankfurt University Hospital for treatment where they both died This was how the Marburg virus got its name; it was named after the town in which it was first discovered and after Professor Robert Koch.

What is the fatality rate of Marburg virus?

The fatality rate of Marburg virus is high. At least 88% of those who contract the disease die from it. The fatality rate has been known to reach 90%.

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Ebola Virus And Marburg Virus: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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