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Plague : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is Plague?

Plague could be a malady that affects humans and different mammals. It's caused by the bacteria, Yersinia pestis. Humans sometimes get plague when being bitten by a gnawing animal insect that's carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an animal infected with plague. Plague is disreputable for killing several individuals in Europe throughout the middle Ages. Today, trendy antibiotics are effective in treating plague. while not prompt treatment, the disease will cause serious illness or death. Presently, human plague infections still occur in rural areas within the western United States, however considerably a lot of cases occur in components of Africa and Asia.The plague could be a serious microorganism infection which will be deadly. Typically said because of the “black plague,” the malady is caused by a bacterial strain known as Yersinia pestis. This bacteria is found in animals throughout the planet and is sometimes transmitted to humans through fleas.

The chance of plague is highest in areas that have poor sanitation, overcrowding, and an outsized population of rodents. Over the last twenty years, nearly all cases are reported among individuals living in tiny and agricultural villages instead of overcrowded cities.

In medieval times, the plague was accountable for the deaths of several individuals in Europe.

Today, there are solely 1,000 to 2,000 casesTrusted supply reported worldwide every year, with the best incidence in Africa, notably Madagascar.

The plague could be a space progressing disease which will cause death if untreated. If you believe you have it, decide on a doctor at once or visit a hospital room for immediate medical attention.Plague is a communicable disease caused by a particular type of bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis can have an effect on humans and animals and is developed primarily by fleas. Bubonic plague is one style of plague. It gets its name from the swollen humor nodes (buboes) caused by the disease. The nodes within the armpit, groin and neck can become as giant as eggs and might ooze pus.

The other types of plague are:

  • Septicemic plague, which happens when the infection goes all through the body.

  • Pneumonic plague, which happens when lungs are infected.

What is Plague


Explanation of medical terms and concept Plague

Plague is a serious microorganism infection that' transmitted primarily by fleas. The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in little rodents found most ordinarily in rural and semi rural areas of Africa, Asia and therefore the United States. The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have wolfed infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals. referred to as the bubonic plague throughout medieval times, these days plague happens in fewer than 5,000 individuals a year worldwide. It will be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics. The foremost common variety of plague leads to swollen and tender liquid body substance nodes — known as buboes — within the groin, armpits or neck. The rarest and deadliest variety of plague affects the lungs, and it will unfold from person to person. There are three types of plague Bubonic plague is the most common form with symptoms including swollen and painful lymph nodes fever and chills The second type is pneumonic plague which involves the lungs making it easier to spread from person to person Pneumonic plague can develop from either bubonic or septicemic plague but not all people infected with pneumonic die from the disease Septicemic plague occurs when infection spreads through the bloodstream; it's rare but very serious and can be fatal if not treated immediately. 

Symptoms Plague

People infected with plague typically develop acute febrile  illness with different non-specific general symptoms once AN time period of 1 to seven days, admire unforeseen onset of fever, chills, head and body aches, and weakness, innate reflex and nausea. There are 2 main sorts of plague infection, counting on the route of infection: symptom and pneumonic.Plague is split into 3 main varieties — bubonic, septic and pneumonic — depending on that a part of your body is involved. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the kind of plague.

Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is that the most typical style of the disease. It' called when the swollen humor nodes (buboes) that generally develop within the initial week after you become infected. Buboes could be:

  • Situated in the groin, armpit or neck

  • About the size of a chicken egg

  • Tender and firm to the touch

Other bubonic plague signs and symptoms may include:

  • Sudden onset of fever and chills

  • Headache

  • Fatigue or malaise

  • Muscle aches

Septicemic plague

Septicemic plague happens once plague bacteria multiply in your bloodstream. Signs and symptoms include:

  • Fever and chills

  • Extreme weakness

  • Abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting

  • Bleeding from your mouth, nose or rectum, or under your skin

  • Shock

  • Blackening and death of tissue (gangrene) in your extremities, most commonly your fingers, toes and nose

Pneumonic plague

Pneumonic plague affects the lungs. It's the smallest common sort of plague, however the foremost dangerous, as a result of it will unfold from person to person via cough droplets. Signs and symptoms will begin at intervals a couple of hours once infection, and will include:

  • Cough, with bloody mucus (sputum)

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • High fever

  • Headache

  • Weakness

  • Chest pain

Pneumonic plague progresses quickly and will cause metabolism failure and shock among 2 days of infection. plague must be treated with antibiotics within every day once signs and symptoms initially appear, or the infection is probably going to be fatal.

When to see a doctor

If you start to feel sick and are in a part wherever plague has been well-known to occur, request immediate medical attention. You'll want treatment with medication to forestall serious complications or death. Within the United States, plague has been transmitted to humans in many western and southwestern states — primarily New Mexico, Arizona, Calif. and Colorado. Worldwide, plague is most typical in rural and semi rural components of the continent (especially the African island of Madagascar), South America and Asia.

Causes Plague

People typically get the plague through the bite of fleas that have antecedently ate up infected animals like mice, rats, rabbits, squirrels, chipmunks, and grassland dogs. It may unfold through direct contact with someone or animal that has the infection or by consumption of an infected animal. Plague can also spread through scratches or bites of infected greyhound dogs or catsTrusted Source. plague is spread from person to person through cough droplets that contain plague bacteria. It’s rare for plague or plague to spread from one human to another.The plague bacteria, Yersinia pestis, is transmitted to humans through the bites of fleas that have antecedently ate up infected animals, such as:

  • Rats

  • Mice

  • Squirrels

  • Rabbits

  • Prairie dogs

  • Chipmunks

  • Voles

The microorganism may also enter your body if a clear stage in your skin comes into contact with an infected animal' blood. Domestic cats and dogs can become infected with plague from insect bites or from intake infected rodents. Pneumonic plague, that affects the lungs, is unfold by breathing  infectious droplets coughed into the air by a sick animal or person.

Risk factors Plague

The risk of developing plague is incredibly low. Worldwide, only some thousand folks develop plague every year. However, your plague risk is enlarged depending on the realm wherever you reside and travel, your job, and your hobbies.In most cases, being in danger of acquiring the plague is comparatively rare. However, there are a few factors that will increase your risk. These will include: 

  • direct contact with someone who contracted the plague

  • homes with high exposure to rodents or fleas that may be infected with plague

  • living in a rural or semi-rural location that is extremely agricultural

Location

Plague outbreaks are commonest in rural and semi rural areas that are overcrowded, have poor sanitation and have a high placental mammal population. The best range of human plague infections occur in Africa, particularly the African island of Madagascar. Plague has conjointly been transmitted to humans in elements of Asia and South America. Within the United States, plague is rare, however it's been far-famed to occur in many western and southwestern states — primarily New Mexico, Arizona, American state and Colorado.

Job

Veterinarians and their assistants have a better risk of coming back into contact with domestic cats and dogs that will become infected with plague. Those who work outdoors in areas where plague-infected animals are common also are at higher risk of obtaining plague.

Hobbies

Camping, looking or hiking in areas wherever plague-infected animals reside will increase your risk of being bitten by an infected flea.

Complications

Complications of plague may include:

  • Death. Most people who receive prompt antibiotic treatment survive bubonic plague. Untreated plague has a high fatality rate.

  • Gangrene. Blood clots within the small blood vessels of your fingers and toes will disrupt blood flow and cause that tissue to die. The parts of your fingers and toes that have died may have to be removed (amputated). 

  • Meningitis. Rarely, plague may cause inflammation of the membranes surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis).

Prevention

No effective vaccine is available, however scientists are operating to develop one. Antibiotics will facilitate forestall infection if you're in danger of or are exposed to plague. Take the subsequent precautions if you reside or pay time in areas wherever plague outbreaks occur:

  • Rodent-proof your home. Remove potential nesting areas, reminiscent of piles of brush, rock, fuel and junk. Don't leave pet food in areas that eutherians will simply access. If you become awake to a rodent infestation, take steps to manage it. 

  • Keep your pets free of fleas. Ask your veterinarian which flea-control products will work best.

  • Wear gloves. When handling potentially infected animals, wear gloves to prevent contact between your skin and harmful bacteria.

  • Use insect repellent. Closely supervise your children and pets when spending time outside in areas with large rodent populations. Use insect repellent.

Diagnosis Plague

Plague may be a plausible identification for those who are sick and live in, or have recently traveled to, the western U.S. or the other plague-endemic area. The foremost common sign of plague is the fast development of a swollen and painful lymph node known as a bubo. A familiar ectozoa bite or the presence of a bubo could facilitate a doctor to think about plague as a reason behind the illness. In several cases, notably in septic and pneumonic plague, there aren't any obvious signs that indicate plague. identification is created by taking samples from the patient, especially blood or a part of a swollen bodily fluid gland, and submitting them for laboratory testing. Once plague has been known as a doable reason behind the illness, applicable treatment ought to begin immediately.If your doctor suspects plague, he or she could seek for the B bacterium in samples taken from your:

  • Buboes. If you have the swollen lymph nodes (buboes) typical of bubonic plague, your doctor may use a needle to take a fluid sample from them (aspiration).

  • Blood. You'll generally have Yersinia pestis bacteria present in your bloodstream only if you have septicemic plague.

  • Lungs. To check for pneumonic plague, your doctor can take secretion (sputum) or fluid from your airways employing a thin, versatile tube inserted through your nose or mouth and down your throat (endoscopy). 

Treatment Plague

The plague may be a life threatening condition that needs pressing care. If caught and treated early, it’s a treatable malady exploitation antibiotics that are ordinarily available. With no treatment, plague will multiply within the blood (causing septic plague) or in the lungs (causing pneumonic plague). Death can occur among twenty four hours when the looks of the primary symptom.

Medications

As long as your doctor suspects that you simply have plague, you'll have to be compelled to be admitted to a hospital. You'll receive powerful antibiotics, such as:

  • Gentamicin

  • Doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin, others)

  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

  • Levofloxacin

  • Moxifloxacin (Avelox)

  • Chloramphenicol

Preparing for your appointment

If you believe you have got plague, you're probably to begin by planning to attend an emergency room. you'll eventually ought to see a doctor specializing in infectious disease.

What you can do

If you have got metabolic process symptoms, you'll have to be compelled to wear a surgical mask to your appointment to assist forestall spreading the unwellness to others. you would possibly conjointly need to:

  • Tell your doctor about any relevant travel or possible plague exposures you've had.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including when they started.

  • Write down key personal information, including whether you've recently traveled to an area where plague is common and whether you've handled wild animals.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.

  • Bring a family member or friend along, if possible. generally it is often troublesome to retain all the data you get throughout associate appointments. somebody who accompanies you will keep in mind one thing that you just incomprehensible or forgot. 

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

For plague, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • Other than the most likely cause, what are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What is the best course of action?

  • Will I need to be in isolation?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions I need to follow?

Don't hesitate to ask any other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have you recently traveled to areas where plague is common?

  • Have you recently handled wild animals or cats?

  • Are you aware of having been bitten by fleas?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

Can the plague be cured?

The plague can be cured with antibiotics but the disease must be treated quickly to prevent death The World Health Organization reported that there were 783 cases of plague worldwide in 2017 including 119 deaths The majority of these cases and deaths occurred in Madagascar.

How did they get rid of the plague?

The plague also known as the Black Death wiped out nearly half of Europe's population in the 14th century It was caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis which was carried by fleas and transmitted to humans through their bites The disease is referred to as bubonic plague when it enters through the skin via a flea bite or pneumonic plague if inhaled Bubonic plague starts with flu-like symptoms and develops into black boils over the entire body that eventually turn to gangrene and cause death within days Pneumonic plague affects the lungs' lining making it hard to breathe leading to respiratory failure and death within 24 hours of infection.

What antibiotic treats the plague?

The antibiotic of choice to treat plague is streptomycin It is first line treatment for plague and works against all types of Yersinia pestis bacteria However due to its cost and rarity it may not be easily accessible in areas where there have been outbreaks In such cases another antibiotic called tetracycline is used as a secondary treatment for plague.

What are the prevention and treatment of plague?

Prevention of plague is by treating fleas and rodents with insecticides or rodenticides Animal bites can be treated with antibiotics Antibiotics are also used for the treatment of pneumonia caused by Yersinia pestis In those who have been infected early antibiotic treatment improves their chances of survival as does giving antiserum (a serum containing antibodies from people who have survived the infection) within 24 hours of exposure.

Does penicillin treat plague?

Penicillin is an antibiotic that has been used to treat bacterial infections since the 1940s While penicillin can effectively treat many types of infections there are rare occasions when it does not work for specific infections For example although doctors typically prescribe penicillin as treatment for a plague infection its actual effectiveness as a treatment depends on the type of plague and how early in the progression of the disease it is administered If a person contracts pneumonic plague (the most dangerous form) and receives antibiotics within 24 hours of becoming infected he or she likely will survive However if penicillin is not given until after 24 hours have passed since exposure to a person with pneum.

Who discovered the cure for the Black Death?

A man named John of Damascus is credited with the discovery of the cure for the Black Death He created a mixture of honey vinegar and garlic that helped to eradicate the disease from many parts of Europe The people who survived his concoction became known as.

Is the plague curable?

The plague is a disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis It has been around for thousands of years and is still with us today The plague occurs in humans but it is also found in animals such as rodents dogs and cats It's known to be spread from one animal to another through fleas These fleas can also bite people spreading the disease from person to person.

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Plague : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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