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Eisenmenger syndrome(ES) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What Is Eisenmenger Syndrome(ES)?

Eisenmenger syndrome develops when too much blood flows via the arteries that convey blood on your lungs from your coronary heart. The end result is pulmonary high blood pressure — excessive blood stress within the blood vessels of your lungs and the right side of your coronary heart. It also results in blood shunting between the left and right sides of your coronary heart. This approach there’s an abnormal connection that causes blood flow from the left facet of your coronary heart to the proper aspect of your coronary heart.

Eisenmenger syndrome is commonly the result of 1 or more untreated congenital (gift at start) coronary heart defects. Over time, it can lead to permanent lung harm and other headaches.

Eisenmenger syndrome is an unprecedented condition that affects both the heart and the lungs. The disorder is characterized with the aid of high blood strain and peculiar blood flow through the coronary heart. The sort of excessive blood pressure skilled by using affected individuals is known as pulmonary artery hypertension, which influences the blood vessels in the lungs and the right coronary heart chambers. Generally, patients with Eisenmenger syndrome are born with a heart disorder (congenital heart disorder) that was now not corrected with surgical treatment or different intervention at an early age.

The regular heart has 4 chambers. The two higher chambers, called atria, are separated from each other through a fibrous partition, known as the atrial septum. The  decreased chambers are referred to as ventricles and are separated from each other with the aid of the ventricular septum. Valves join the atria (left and proper) to their respective ventricles. The valves permit for blood to be pumped through the chambers. Blood travels from the proper ventricle via the pulmonary artery to the lungs wherein it receives oxygen. The blood returns to the heart through pulmonary veins and enters the left ventricle. The left ventricle sends the now oxygen-filled blood into the principal artery of the frame (aorta). The aorta contains the blood to the body.

Individuals with Eisenmenger syndrome often have a ventricular septal disorder or a “hole in the coronary heart” among the left and proper pumping chambers in the coronary heart. This results in substantial shunting of blood from the left side of the coronary heart to the proper at delivery, which progresses to pulmonary vascular sickness. Once pulmonary vascular disease has advanced, the heart defect is now not repairable. Eventually blood waft through the illness (shunt) can emerge as bidirectional, which results in cyanosis (reduced oxygen awareness within the blood).

What Is Eisenmenger Syndrome(ES)


Explanation of medical terms and concept Eisenmenger syndrome(ES)

Eisenmenger (I-solar-meng-ur) syndrome is a protracted-time period of worry of an unrepaired coronary heart hassle present at the beginning (congenital heart disorder). Eisenmenger syndrome is existence-threatening.

In Eisenmenger syndrome, there may be irregular blood glides in the heart and lungs. This causes the blood vessels within the lungs to emerge as stiff and narrow. Blood strain rises in the lungs' arteries (pulmonary arterial hypertension). Eisenmenger syndrome permanently damages the blood vessels inside the lungs.

Early diagnosis and repair of congenital heart defects commonly prevents Eisenmenger syndrome. If it does expand, treatment entails everyday clinical visits and medicines to improve signs.

Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a constellation of signs that get up from a congenital heart disorder and result in big anatomic shunts. Due to anatomic variations present at birth, hemodynamic forces initially bring about a left-proper shunt, which develops into excessive pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and expanded vascular resistance. Ultimately, due to elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, the left-to-proper shunt turns into a proper-to-left shunt, resulting in huge hypoxemia and cyanosis. 

PAH is a median pulmonary arterial stress extra than 25 mmHg while resting or 30 mmHg when workout. This can also occur in huge shunts or complicated, unrepaired congenital heart sickness as early as the first decade of existence.

Eisenmenger syndrome is a rare condition that affects the heart and lungs It occurs when the large arteries carrying blood from the heart to the lungs become scarred and constricted causing increased resistance to blood flow The result is a combination of severe heart and lung disease People with Eisenmenger syndrome usually have blue coloring in their skin because their deoxygenated blood cannot get back to their hearts This can lead to severe shortness of breath (dyspnea) fatigue and even death from heart failure or a stroke However most people with Eisenmenger syndrome live into adulthood and have a normal life expectancy if they receive treatment for their cardiovascular problems.

Symptoms Eisenmenger syndrome(ES)

The specific signs of Eisenmenger syndrome vary greatly from individual to individual. Although the coronary heart disorder is present at delivery, Eisenmenger syndrome with cyanosis frequently develops around puberty, however might also broaden earlier or later depending on the vicinity and severity of the congenital heart disorder. The signs and symptoms and complications end result from an aggregate of the consequences of the heart defect, decreased oxygen in the blood and high pressures in the lungs.


The most excellent symptom is referred to as cyanosis, which is the bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes. Individuals affected with Eisenmenger syndrome expand cyanosis, specifically of the lips, arms and toes, that is greater said during bodily efforts. Patients commonly have an improved range of blood cells (purple blood cells or erythrocytes) that ship oxygen to the body (i.E., erythrocytosis), compensating for the inadequate oxygen supply to tissues.


Additional signs may encompass rounding of the suggestions of the palms and feet (clubbing), shortness of breath, fatigue, lethargy or arrhythmias. Those with Eisenmenger syndrome are also at higher threat for stroke, coughing up blood (hemoptysis) or gout.Symptoms of Eisenmenger syndrome can fluctuate relying on the heart illness and affected organs. They don’t generally arise until puberty or early maturity. Then they slowly get worse.

Symptoms of Eisenmenger syndrome include:

  • Blue or gray skin color due to low oxygen levels (cyanosis)

  • Chest pain or tightness

  • Coughing up blood

  • Dizziness or fainting

  • Easily tiring and shortness of breath with activity

  • Headaches

  • Large, rounded fingernails or toenails (clubbing)

  • Numbness or tingling in fingers or toes

  • Shortness of breath while at rest

  • Skipped or racing heartbeats (palpitations)

When to see a doctor

If you have any signs of Eisenmenger syndrome, see your fitness care issuer. Make an appointment even when you have never been recognized with a heart trouble. Symptoms which include shortness of breath or chest ache require clinical interest.

Causes Eisenmenger syndrome(ES)

Eisenmenger syndrome is a condition that results from abnormal blood movement as a result of a defect in the heart. Most frequently, human beings with this condition are born with a hole among the two pumping chambers -- the left and right ventricles -- of the coronary heart (ventricular septal disorder). The hole allows blood that has already picked up oxygen from the lungs to flow back into the lungs, rather than going out to the rest of the body.

Eisenmenger syndrome is generally resulting from an unrepaired hollow (shunt) among the primary blood vessels or chambers of the coronary heart. A shunt is a coronary heart problem gift at the start (congenital heart disorder).

To recognize how Eisenmenger syndrome influences the coronary heart and lungs, it's beneficial to realize how the coronary heart commonly works.

Eisenmenger syndrome. In a healthy heart:

  1. Right atrium: Receives deoxygenated blood from the body earlier than pumping it to the proper ventricle.

  2. Right ventricle: Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it is able to pick up more oxygen.

  3. Left atrium: Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs earlier than pumping it to the left ventricle.

  4. Left ventricle: Pumps the oxygenated blood out to the body.

How the heart works

The heart is split into chambers — two upper chambers (atria) and  decreased chambers (ventricles).

  • The right facet of the heart moves blood to the lungs through blood vessels (pulmonary arteries).

  • In the lungs, blood picks up oxygen and then returns to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins.

  • The left side of the heart then pumps the blood through the aorta and out to the rest of the body.

Heart valves control the drift of blood into and out of the chambers of the heart. These valves open to permit blood to move to the subsequent chamber or to one of the arteries, and then near to hold blood from flowing backward.

How Eisenmenger syndrome develops

Heart issues present at delivery (congenital heart defects) that can purpose Eisenmenger syndrome consist of:

  • Ventricular septal defect. This is the most commonplace purpose of Eisenmenger syndrome. There is a hole (shunt) within the wall of tissue that divides the proper and left sides of the coronary heart's major pumping chambers (ventricles).

  • Atrioventricular canal defect. This is a large hollow inside the center of the coronary heart wherein the partitions among the higher chambers (atria) and decrease chambers (ventricles) meet. Some of the valves within the coronary heart additionally might not work nicely.

  • Atrial septal defect. This is a hollow inside the wall of tissue that divides the right and left facets of the top chambers of the heart (atria).

  • Patent ductus arteriosus. This is an opening between the pulmonary artery that consists of oxygen-terrible blood to the lungs and the artery that contains oxygen-wealthy blood to the relaxation of the body (aorta).

In any of those coronary heart issues, blood flows in a way it generally does not. As a result, pressure rises inside the pulmonary artery. Over time, the increased stress damages the smaller blood vessels inside the lungs. The broken blood vessel partitions make it hard to pump blood to the lungs.

In Eisenmenger syndrome, there may be multiplied blood pressure inside the side of the heart that has oxygen-bad blood (blue blood). The blue blood goes via the hollow (shunt) within the heart or blood vessels. Oxygen-wealthy and oxygen-negative blood now mix. This is because of low blood oxygen levels.

Risk factors Eisenmenger syndrome(ES)

A circle of relatives records of congenital heart defects will increase the risk of similar coronary heart issues in an infant. If you've been recognized with Eisenmenger syndrome, communicate with your health care company about screening different family participants for congenital heart defects.

Complications

Eisenmenger syndrome is a life-threatening situation. The outlook for humans diagnosed with Eisenmenger syndrome relies upon the specific motive and if there are different medical conditions.

Without right remedy and monitoring, headaches of Eisenmenger syndrome may also encompass:

  • Low blood oxygen levels. The reversed blood waft thru the coronary heart reduces oxygen to the frame's tissues and organs. Without a set off remedy, the oxygen levels worsen through the years.

  • Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Eisenmenger syndrome causes the coronary heart partitions to get larger and thicker. It also reasons oxygen tiers to decrease. These modifications can also cause irregular coronary heart rhythms. Some arrhythmias increase the risk of blood clots that could cause coronary heart assaults or strokes.

  • Sudden cardiac arrest. This is the surprising lack of heart hobby due to an irregular coronary heart rhythm. If no longer dealt with straight away, unexpected cardiac arrest can quickly cause dying. Survival is feasible with rapid, suitable medical care.

  • Heart failure. The improved strain in the heart can cause the coronary heart muscle to weaken. It becomes more difficult for the coronary heart to pump blood.

  • Bleeding in the lungs. Eisenmenger syndrome can cause existence-threatening bleeding inside the lungs and airlines. This can cause you to cough up blood and in addition decrease your blood oxygen levels. Bleeding also can occur in different components of the frame.

  • Stroke. If a blood clot travels from the right to left facet of the heart, the clot may additionally block a blood vessel within the brain, leading to a stroke.

  • Kidney problems. Low oxygen ranges inside the blood might also lead to troubles with the kidneys.

  • Gout. Eisenmenger syndrome can increase the risk of a type of arthritis called gout. Gout causes surprising, intense assaults of pain and swelling in one or extra joints, typically the huge toe.

  • Heart infection. People with Eisenmenger syndrome have a better danger of a coronary heart contamination called endocarditis.

  • Pregnancy risks. During pregnancy, the coronary heart and lungs must be painted more to help the developing child. Because of this, pregnancy with Eisenmenger syndrome poses a high chance of loss of life for both you and the toddler. If you have Eisenmenger syndrome, talk to your care company about your specific pregnancy risks.

Diagnosis Eisenmenger syndrome(ES)

A healthcare provider commonly notices signs and symptoms of Eisenmenger syndrome in the course of a bodily examination. 

The diagnosis of Eisenmenger syndrome isn't specially complicated but may additionally require cardiac catheterization, an invasive procedure to measure pressures inside the heart and lungs. Other tests consist of pulse oximetry, which tests oxygen levels inside the blood, chest x-ray, EKG, pulmonary feature test, iron tiers and complete blood count (CBC). Echocardiography is essential in figuring out the heart disorder and raising the suspicion of excessive pressures inside the lungs. Other imaging modalities (e.G. Cardiac MRI) can provide treasured anatomic information.

To diagnose Eisenmenger syndrome, your fitness care provider does a physical exam and asks scientific records questions.

Tests to diagnose Eisenmenger syndrome might also encompass:

  • Blood tests. An entire blood mobile depends frequently. The red blood cell count can be high in Eisenmenger syndrome. Blood checks are also achieved to test kidney and liver function and iron stage.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). This short and painless test measures the electrical interest of the coronary heart. During an ECG, sensors (electrodes) are attached to the chest and once in a while to the hands or legs. Wires join the sensors to a device, which shows or prints effects. An ECG can show how rapid or gradual the coronary heart is thrashing.

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray helps show the condition of the heart and lungs.

  • Echocardiogram. An ultrasound of the heart is known as an echocardiogram. This takes a look at making use of sound waves to create certain pics of the heart in movement. An echocardiogram suggests blood waft via the heart.

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. A CT experiment makes use of X-rays to create cross-sectional images of precise elements of the body. This test can be performed to get more information about the lungs and lung arteries. Dye (comparison) can be given by way of IV for this take a look at. The dye enables blood vessels to show up more truly at the pix. CT test photos provide greater-particular facts than simple X-rays do.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the lungs. This test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create certain images of the blood vessels within the lungs.

  • Cardiac catheterization. A long, skinny bendy tube (catheter) is inserted in a blood vessel, generally within the groin or wrist, and guided to the heart. Dye flows through the catheter to the arteries. The dye facilitates the arteries showing up more actually on X-ray images and video. During this check, the company may additionally degree blood strain inside the blood vessels and coronary heart's chambers. Cardiac catheterization also can help display the scale of any holes within the coronary heart and blood float in the area.

  • Walking test. This six-minute walking take a look at is finished to peer how well you may tolerate a mild level of exercising.

Treatment Eisenmenger syndrome(ES)

The treatment of Eisenmenger syndrome have to be managed with the aid of a clinical crew with expertise in both congenital coronary heart ailment (cardiologist) and pulmonary high blood pressure (heart specialist or pulmonologist), with help from other experts, e.G. Hematologists, radiologists, anesthetists and so forth. The goal of treatment is to minimize signs, and the remedy frequently aligns with patients who're being dealt with for other types of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Currently, Eisenmenger sufferers are dealt with with pulmonary arterial hypertension cures aimed at lowering the lung resistances and boom the amount of blood flowing thru the lungs, hence delivering more oxygen to the frame and lowering the weight to the heart. Additional medications used consist of diuretics that reduce the quantity of fluid in the frame and, at instances, remedy to save you blood clots. Beta blockers and particularly calcium channel blockers are avoided, due to the fact they've a negative effect on the proper ventricle. Iron supplementation may be necessary for individuals with iron deficiency anemia.

Affected people may also have an expanded danger of developing bacterial infections of the heart lining and valves (bacterial endocarditis); consequently, disease control includes the administration of suitable antibiotics (antibiotic prophylaxis) prior to dental visits, for certain oral processes. In addition, anesthesia and sedation bring tremendous dangers and must be averted. Careful tracking throughout anesthesia is vital for any patient's present process essential unavoidable surgical strategies, which should be executed in expert facilities.

Pregnancy must be avoided in girls with pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome because it includes vast risks for each the mom and the growing fetus. Thus, it's far more important that affected women have a radical expertise of such dangers and receive statistics, aid, and steerage from their physicians and different individuals in their healthcare group concerning suitable alternatives to save you from being pregnant. Oxygen therapy has additionally been met with debatable critiques. There aren't any facts to guide its use as a means for growing exercising potential or survival in adult sufferers. However, it has been seen to help sufferers with advanced disorder in want of a coronary heart-lung transplant or for nocturnal aid.

Individuals with Eisenmenger syndrome must avoid dehydration, high altitudes, and sports that would cause a surprising drop in blood strain such as saunas, steam rooms or warm tubs. Extreme bodily workouts have to also be constrained. In critically affected sufferers with bodily deterioration, a coronary heart-lung transplant can be essential.

The goals of Eisenmenger syndrome remedy are to manipulate symptoms, enhance satisfaction of life and prevent serious complications.

If you are diagnosed with Eisenmenger syndrome, you'll be cited by a cardiologist (heart specialist). Regular health checkups — as a minimum as soon as a year — are a vital part of Eisenmenger syndrome remedy. It's useful to discover a heart specialist who has revel in treating human beings who've congenital coronary heart defects.

Medications

Medications are the primary treatment for Eisenmenger syndrome. They can't treat the circumstance, however they are able to assist enhance your great lifestyles. You want regular medical checkups when taking medications. Your issuer exams for any changes in blood strain, pulse charge and fluid levels.

Medications for Eisenmenger syndrome encompass:

  • Heart rhythm drugs. These medicines, known as antiarrhythmics, assist in managing the coronary heart rhythm and save you irregular heartbeats.

  • Iron supplements. Your fitness care provider may prescribe those in case your iron level is too low. Don't begin taking iron supplements without speakme for your issuer first.

  • Aspirin or blood-thinning medications. If you've had a stroke, blood clot or positive kinds of irregular heart rhythms, your fitness care issuer can also advocate aspirin or a blood thinner consisting of warfarin (Jantoven). These medicinal drugs can increase the hazard of bleeding. Never take them unless your provider tells you to do so. Ask your company if other ache medications, including ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), are safe for you.

  • Drugs for pulmonary arterial hypertension. A medication referred to as bosentan (Tracleer) may be used to increase the supply of blood to the lungs. If you're taking bosentan, you'll need month-to-month liver checks because the drug can harm the liver.

  • Sildenafil and tadalafil. Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca, others) are from time to time used to treat high blood pressure within the pulmonary arteries resulting from Eisenmenger syndrome. These pills open the blood vessels in the lungs so blood flows more without difficulty.

  • Antibiotics. Certain dental and clinical processes may additionally allow microorganisms to enter the bloodstream. Depending in your circumstance, you can need to take antibiotics earlier than having such techniques. Antibiotics can assist prevent a heart infection (endocarditis). If you've got any type of congenital coronary heart sickness, talk for your dentist and different care vendors approximately your dangers and whether you need preventive antibiotics.

Surgeries or other procedures

Health care carriers don't propose surgical treatment to restore the hole (shunt) inside the coronary heart once Eisenmenger syndrome has evolved.

Surgeries or tactics that may be accomplished to treat signs and symptoms or headaches of Eisenmenger consist of:

  • Blood withdrawal (phlebotomy). If your red blood mobile count becomes too high and is causing signs and symptoms which include headaches, difficulty concentrating or vision troubles, your company may advocate this procedure. Phlebotomy has to no longer be accomplished robotically and must only be performed after talking with a congenital coronary heart sickness expert. You should acquire IV fluids when having this method to help update the misplaced fluids.

  • Transplant. Some human beings who've Eisenmenger syndrome may additionally need surgical operation to update the coronary heart or lungs if other treatments don't paint.

If you want a manner or surgical procedure for Eisenmenger, recall getting care at a medical center with vendors who have experience in congenital coronary heart diseases.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you are recognized with Eisenmenger syndrome, right treatment and precautions can assist improve high-quality of life. Try these techniques:

  • Avoid dehydration. Ask your provider how much fluid you need each day. You may additionally need to drink more fluids whilst you are sick or when you are in a heated room or on an aircraft.

  • Ask about exercise restrictions. If you've got Eisenmenger syndrome, you should not do strenuous exercising or sports. But you'll be capable of doing much less severe bodily activities. Talk for your health care issuer about what form of physical pastime is quality for you.

  • Avoid high altitudes. Because of the low oxygen tiers at high altitudes, human beings with Eisenmenger syndrome must now not spend a whole lot of time at high altitudes. The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association say to keep away from publicity to altitudes of 5,000 ft (1,524 meters) or higher above sea level. Discuss tour with the aid of planes or to high altitudes along with your care issuer for specific pointers.

  • Avoid situations that can greatly lower blood pressure. These include sitting in a hot tub or sauna or taking long warm baths or showers. Such activities decrease blood strain and might cause fainting or maybe demise. If you have Eisenmenger syndrome, additionally avoid sports that cause prolonged straining, along with lifting heavy items or weights.

  • Use medications and supplements with caution. Many dietary supplements and medicines, which include the ones sold without a prescription, can have an effect on blood strain. Some may additionally increase the risk of bleeding or affect kidney features in those who've Eisenmenger syndrome. Talk for your fitness care issuer earlier than taking any dietary supplements or medications.

  • Get a flu shot. Avoiding respiratory infections is essential for people with Eisenmenger syndrome. Experts recommend getting a flu shot every year and a pneumonia vaccination each 5 years.

  • Avoid secondhand smoke and quit using tobacco products. Cigarette smoke and different tobacco merchandise can increase the hazard of headaches. It's important to avoid illegal tablets too.

Birth control and pregnancy

If you've got Eisenmenger syndrome, becoming pregnant poses serious health dangers — and may be existence-threatening — for you and the infant. It's crucial that being pregnant be prevented when you have Eisenmenger syndrome.

Effective contraceptive methods include vasectomy, an intrauterine tool (IUD) or a contraceptive hormonal implant inclusive of Nexplanon. Tying of the fallopian tubes (tubal ligation) is a totally effective shape of contraception. But it is less often recommended due to the dangers posed by having even minor surgical procedures.

Birth manipulate capsules containing estrogen are not advocated for those who have Eisenmenger syndrome. Estrogen increases the threat of developing blood clots that would potentially block an artery to the coronary heart, brain or lungs. Using a barrier technique on my own, together with a condom or diaphragm, isn't encouraged because of the chance of failure.

Coping and support

A prognosis of Eisenmenger syndrome may be frightening. Although remedies can help signs and enhance analysis, you could feel worried or hectic.

You can also discover that becoming a member of a guide group is beneficial. Some humans discover that talking with others who have been through comparable situations brings comfort and encouragement. Ask your fitness care company if there are any local assistance organizations.

Children with a congenital heart illness or Eisenmenger syndrome may additionally have emotional and bodily problems that may have an effect on home and school lifestyles. For example, a protracted recuperation time from surgical procedures or methods may cause developmental delays. Talk to your health care company about methods you may assist your toddler with. This might also include support companies or a visit to a therapist or psychologist.

Preparing for your appointment

Eisenmenger syndrome is a complex situation. There's frequently lots to discuss at a medical appointment. So it is an excellent concept to be organized. Here's a few statistics to help you get geared up to your appointment and know what to expect out of your fitness care company.

What you can do

  • Make note of any previous heart treatments. Include medicinal drugs, surgical procedures or approaches you've received for a coronary heart hassle.

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. When you're making the appointment, ask whether or not there is anything you need to do in advance, which includes filling out bureaucracy or restricting your food plan. For example, some imaging exams require you to avoid food or drink for a time period in advance.

  • Write down any symptoms, Along with any which could appear unrelated to Eisenmenger syndrome. Try to take it into account after they begin. Be unique, which includes days, weeks and months. Try to avoid vague terms such as "a while ago.

  • Write down key personal information, Such as a family history of heart defects, pulmonary high blood pressure, lung disease, coronary heart disorder, stroke, high blood strain or diabetes, and any major stresses or latest lifestyle modifications.

  • Make a list of all medications, Vitamins and supplements which you're taking. Include dosages. Also, make sure to inform your health care company in case you've lately stopped taking any medicinal drugs.

  • Take a family member or friend along, If possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to consider all of the statistics provided to you during an appointment. Someone who is going with you can remember something which you overlooked or forgot.

  • Write down questions to ask your care provider.

Your time with your fitness care company may be confined. Prepare a listing of questions that will help you make the maximum of your time collectively. List your questions from most vital to least essential in case time runs out. For Eisenmenger syndrome, a few simple inquiries to ask your company include:

  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What treatment do I need?

  • What are the side effects of the treatment you're recommending?

  • Do I need to avoid or limit exercise?

  • How often do I need follow-up visits?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Can you recommend a specialist who has experience treating Eisenmenger syndrome?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions you have prepared to invite your fitness care provider, do not hesitate to ask extra questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your fitness care issuer is in all likelihood to invite you a lot of questions. Being equipped to reply to them might also save time to go over data you need to spend extra time on. Your issuer may also ask the following questions:

  • Have you ever been diagnosed with a heart problem or high blood pressure in the lungs? If so, what treatments did you have for your condition?

  • Has one of your care providers ever said you had a heart murmur but didn't look for a cause? If so, when was this?

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Do you always have symptoms or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • Does anything make your symptoms worse?

General summary

Eisenmenger syndrome" is a rare heart condition that affects the lungs and blood vessels It occurs when blood flow into the lungs is limited because of problems with the blood vessels in the lung's walls according to MedlinePlus The result is that the patient has trouble breathing and may have episodes of heart failure or fainting spells.

How long can you live with Eisenmenger syndrome?

Eisenmenger syndrome is a rare condition in which the heart's main pumping chamber the left ventricle is enlarged and weakened so that it cannot pump enough blood through the body A patient with Eisenmenger syndrome has an abnormal connection between the arteries leaving the heart and those leading to the lungs This connection causes blood from the veins to mix with oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs The combination of deoxygenated and oxygen-rich blood entering the left atrium (upper chamber) of the heart causes a backflow of blood into the lungs As a result the right side of the heart becomes larger than normal to accommodate this extra blood flow.

Is Eisenmenger syndrome reversible?

Eisenmenger syndrome is a rare disease in which blood vessels become abnormally enlarged causing blood to flow through them at increased pressures The increased pressures worsen the enlargement of the blood vessel walls and can eventually cause the heart's main pumping chamber or the left ventricle to enlarge and thicken The thickened and enlarged left ventricle is unable to pump blood efficiently and as a result the body's organs are not receiving enough oxygen-rich blood to function normally.

Why is surgery contraindicated in Eisenmenger syndrome?

Eisenmenger syndrome is a rare disorder in which the arteries of the lungs are abnormally large and dilated The condition is caused by an abnormal connection between the right and left side of the heart Eisenmenger syndrome can be congenital or acquired In some cases there may not be any symptoms or signs of the condition at all.

Eisenmenger's disease is a rare disorder in which large arteries carry oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs instead of oxygen-rich blood This is called an arterial switch abnormality or transposition of the great vessels Eisenmenger\'s disease is caused by damage to one or both of the small openings (foramina) between the two atria (upper chambers) and the two ventricles (lower chambers) that allow blood to pass between the upper and lower chambers of the heart When these foramen are damaged they do not close properly after birth The result is that oxygen-poor blood from the body mixes with oxygen-rich blood returning to the heart from the lungs.

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Eisenmenger syndrome(ES) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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