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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What Is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?

Fetal alcohol spectrum problems (FASDs) are a group of situations that could occur in a person who turned into exposed to alcohol before birth. These consequences can consist of physical problems and issues with behavior and mastering. Often, someone with an FASD has a combination of those issues.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a circumstance that develops in a fetus (growing child) while a pregnant man or woman liquids alcohol during being pregnant. A syndrome is a group of signs that occur together because of the end result of a particular sickness or abnormal circumstance. When someone has fetal alcohol syndrome, they’re on the maximum severe give up of what are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum issues (FASDs).

FAS is a lifestyle-long condition that may be cured. This circumstance may be avoided if you don’t drink any alcohol at some point of being pregnant. It’s viable that even small quantities of alcohol fed on during pregnancy can damage your developing fetus.

What Is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)


Explanation of medical terms and concept Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a circumstance in an infant that results from alcohol publicity in the course of the mom's pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome causes mind harm and increases problems. The problems as a result of fetal alcohol syndrome range from baby to child, however defects due to fetal alcohol syndrome are not reversible.

There isn't any amount of alcohol it really is regarded to be safe to devour at some stage in being pregnant. If you drink during pregnancy, you will be vulnerable to fetal alcohol syndrome.

If you observe your child has fetal alcohol syndrome, talk to your medical doctor as quickly as feasible. Early diagnosis may also help to reduce issues which include mastering difficulties and behavioral troubles.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a preventable birth defect caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy Since FAS was first identified in 1973 research has repeatedly demonstrated that drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause lasting physical behavioral and intellectual disabilities in children.

Fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the western world Approximately 3 to 7 babies per 1,000 births have FAS This disorder occurs when a pregnant woman drinks alcohol while pregnant The baby’s body processes the alcohol as if it were food resulting in brain damage and physical abnormalities.

Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have:

  • Abnormal facial features

  • Low weight and/or height before birth or after birth

  • Small head size

  • Abnormalities of their brain development that could cause seizures

  • Language or learning problems, and/or intellectual disability

  • Significant impulsivity or behavior problems

Abnormal facial features in children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome include two of the following:

  • Small eye openings

  • Smooth area between nose and above upper lip (philtrum)

  • Thin upper lip

  • Flat nose bridge

Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are at high risk for the following:

  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Intellectual Disability

  • Seizure Disorders

  • Anxiety Disorders

  • Language and learning problems

  • Psychosis (hearing voices or seeing things that are not there)

  • Impulsive behaviors and behavioral disturbance

Symptoms Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

FASDs refer to a collection of diagnoses that constitute the variety of effects that could manifest to someone who was uncovered to alcohol before delivery. These situations can affect everyone in one-of-a-kind ways, and may vary from slight to excessive.The severity of fetal alcohol syndrome signs and symptoms varies, with some children experiencing them to a miles extra degree than others. Signs and signs of fetal alcohol syndrome can also encompass any blend of physical defects, highbrow or cognitive disabilities, and troubles functioning and coping with everyday life.

Physical defects

Physical defects may include:

  • Distinctive facial features, including small eyes, an exceptionally thin upper lip, a short, upturned nose, and a smooth skin surface between the nose and upper lip

  • Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers

  • Slow physical growth before and after birth

  • Vision difficulties or hearing problems

  • Small head circumference and brain size

  • Heart defects and problems with kidneys and bones

Brain and central nervous system problems

Problems with the brain and central nervous system may include:

  • Poor coordination or balance

  • Intellectual disability, learning disorders and delayed development

  • Poor memory

  • Trouble with attention and with processing information

  • Difficulty with reasoning and problem-solving

  • Difficulty identifying consequences of choices

  • Poor judgment skills

  • Jitteriness or hyperactivity

  • Rapidly changing moods

Social and behavioral issues

Problems in functioning, coping and interacting with others may include:

  • Difficulty in school

  • Trouble getting along with others

  • Poor social skills

  • Trouble adapting to change or switching from one task to another

  • Problems with behavior and impulse control

  • Poor concept of time

  • Problems staying on task

  • Difficulty planning or working toward a goal

When to see a doctor

If you're pregnant and can not stop ingesting, ask your obstetrician, number one care physician or intellectual health professional for help.

Because early diagnosis may assist lessen the chance of lengthy-term problems for kids with fetal alcohol syndrome, let your infant's physician recognise in case you drank alcohol while you have been pregnant. Don't watch for problems to arise earlier than searching for help.

If you have got followed a child or are presenting foster care, you can now not recognize if the biological mom drank alcohol even as pregnant — and it is able to now not to begin with occur to you that your child might also have fetal alcohol syndrome. However, if your toddler has troubles with learning and conduct, communicate together with his or her doctor in order that the underlying cause is probably identified.

Causes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

FASDs manifest whilst a mother liquids alcohol throughout being pregnant. Like different pills, alcohol can skip from the mom's blood via the placenta to the baby. Alcohol is broken down more slowly within the baby than in an adult. Alcohol stages can stay excessive within the toddler's body. This affects development. No quantity of alcohol at some stage in pregnancy is safe. There is not any safe time to drink in pregnancy. Even light or slight consumption can have an effect on the growing child. When you're pregnant and also you drink alcohol:

  • Alcohol enters your bloodstream and reaches your developing fetus by crossing the placenta

  • Alcohol causes better blood alcohol concentrations for your growing baby than in your frame due to the fact a fetus metabolizes alcohol slower than an person does

  • Alcohol interferes with the delivery of oxygen and optimal nutrition to your developing baby

  • Exposure to alcohol before birth can damage the improvement of tissues and organs and reason permanent mind harm on your infant

The more you drink at the same time as pregnant, the greater the danger for your unborn child. However, any quantity of alcohol places your toddler at danger. Your child's brain, coronary heart and blood vessels start to expand in the early weeks of pregnancy, earlier than you could recognize you're pregnant.

Impairment of facial features, the heart and different organs, which includes the bones, and the relevant nervous device may also arise because of consuming alcohol at some point of the first trimester. That's when these parts of the fetus are in key degrees of development. However, the risk is a gift at any time for the duration of pregnancy.

Risk factors Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

The greater alcohol you drink at some point of being pregnant, the extra the danger of issues in your child. There's no recognized safe amount of alcohol consumption all through pregnancy.

You ought to place your baby at chance even earlier than you understand you're pregnant. Don't drink alcohol if:

  • You're pregnant

  • You think you might be pregnant

  • You're trying to become pregnant

Complications

Complications of FASDs can variety from mild studying disabilities to greater extreme conduct and mental problems. Physical disabilities or birth defects in youngsters with FASD do not get better. 

Problem behaviors not gift at start which could result from having fetal alcohol syndrome (secondary disabilities) may also encompass:

  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  • Aggression, inappropriate social conduct, and breaking rules and laws

  • Alcohol or drug misuse

  • Mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety or eating disorders

  • Problems staying in or completing school

  • Problems with independent living and with employment

  • Inappropriate sexual behaviors

  • Early death by accident, homicide or suicide

Prevention

Using alcohol at some stage in being pregnant is the main reason for preventable start defects, developmental disabilities and studying disabilities. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a preventable situation. However, the simplest manner to prevent FAS is to avoid drinking any alcoholic liquids at some point of being pregnant.

It’s also recommended that you no longer drink alcohol if you’re sexually energetic and now not using powerful delivery control. It can take four to 6 weeks before you know you’re pregnant. During early pregnancy, the fetus is already developing unexpectedly. Alcohol consumption should damage the developing fetus at any time at some stage in being pregnant — in particular early on in the improvement system.

If you’ve already fed on alcohol at some stage in pregnancy, it’s never too overdue to prevent. Brain growth within the fetus takes place in the course of pregnancy, so stopping alcohol consumption as soon as possible is continually high-quality.

After shipping, you ought to take note whilst you drink alcohol if you’re breastfeeding your child. Alcohol can skip through your breast milk on your infant. Talk to your child’s healthcare provider about the high-quality practices for alcohol use in the course of breastfeeding, but the standard rule is to attend at least two hours after having one drink before nursing your infant or pumping your milk.

Experts realize that fetal alcohol syndrome is absolutely preventable if women do not drink alcohol in any respect for the duration of being pregnant.

These tips can assist save you fetal alcohol syndrome:

  • Don't drink alcohol if you're trying to get pregnant. If you haven't already stopped consuming, stop as soon as you recognize you are pregnant or in case you even suppose you might be pregnant. It's never too late to prevent ingesting during your pregnancy, but the earlier you prevent, the better it is for your baby.

  • Continue to avoid alcohol throughout your pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome is absolutely preventable in youngsters whose mothers do not drink during pregnancy.

  • Consider giving up alcohol during your childbearing years In case you're sexually active and you are having unprotected intercourse. Many pregnancies are unplanned, and damage can arise inside the earliest weeks of pregnancy.

  • If you have an alcohol problem, get help before you get pregnant. Get professional help to decide your degree of dependence on alcohol and to broaden a treatment plan.

Diagnosis Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Most often, a healthcare issuer can diagnose FASDs based on the mother's history and how the infant looks. The healthcare company will study the infant to search for changes within the face, eyes, and higher lip. A newborn can also show signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. These include shaking and a high-pitched cry. Older kids may additionally have mastering checks. The provider will test for improvement troubles. There isn't any single check to diagnose FASDs. 

Diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome calls for understanding and an intensive evaluation. Early prognosis and offerings can help improve your infant's capacity to function.

To make a prognosis, your medical doctor:

  • Discusses drinking during pregnancy. If you report the timing and quantity of alcohol consumption, your obstetrician or different health care provider can assist decide the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome. Although doctors can't diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome before a child is born, they are able to check the fitness of the mom and infant for the duration of being pregnant.

  • Watch for signs and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome in your child's initial weeks, months and years of life. This includes assessing bodily appearance and distinguishing capabilities of your infant and monitoring your baby's physical and mind growth and improvement.

The doctor also may assess for:

  • Cognitive ability and learning and language development difficulties

  • Health issues

  • Social and behavioral problems

Many functions seen with fetal alcohol syndrome may also occur in children with other problems. If fetal alcohol syndrome is suspected, your pediatrician might also refer your child to a developmental pediatrician, a neurologist or every other professional with special education in fetal alcohol syndrome for evaluation and to rule out different issues with similar signs and symptoms and signs.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

The variety of outcomes from drinking alcohol for the duration of being pregnant are collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, as now not all signs and symptoms are present in all youngsters with the sickness. This variety consists of:

  • Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder — Intellectual disabilities or behavioral and learning issues resulting from ingesting alcohol all through pregnancy

  • Alcohol-related birth defects — Bodily start defects resulting from drinking alcohol at some point of pregnancy

  • Fetal alcohol syndrome — The severe end of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, which incorporates both neurodevelopmental disorder and birth defects resulting from drinking alcohol at some point of being pregnant

  • Partial fetal alcohol syndrome — Presence of some signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome as a result of drinking alcohol in the course of pregnancy, however the criteria for the prognosis aren't met

  • Neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure — Problems functioning because of neurocognitive impairments, consisting of issues with mental fitness, memory, impulse control, conversation and day by day dwelling capabilities, caused by drinking alcohol for the duration of pregnancy

If one infant in a circle of relatives is recognized with fetal alcohol syndrome, it could be critical to assess his or her siblings to decide whether additionally they have fetal alcohol syndrome, if the mom drank alcohol in the course of these pregnancies.

Treatment Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Therapy can help with conduct and educational troubles. Parents can also get schooling to help their baby. There are no medications to deal with fetal alcohol syndrome mainly. But certain drug treatments can help with symptoms like hyperactivity, inability to pay attention, or anxiety.

There's no remedy or precise treatment for fetal alcohol syndrome. The bodily defects and intellectual deficiencies usually persist for a lifetime.

However, early intervention services can also help reduce a number of the consequences of fetal alcohol syndrome and may save you some secondary disabilities. Intervention offerings may also contain:

  • A group that consists of a special education instructor, a speech therapist, bodily and occupational therapists, and a psychologist

  • Early intervention to help with walking, talking and social skills

  • Special services in school to help with learning and behavioral issues

  • Medications to help with some symptoms

  • Medical care for health problems, such as vision problems or heart abnormalities

  • Addressing alcohol and other substance use problems, if needed

  • Vocational and life skills training

  • Counseling to benefit parents and the family in dealing with a child's behavioral problems

Treatment for problems with alcohol

Treating the mom's alcohol use trouble can enable better parenting and save you future pregnancies from being affected. If you understand or suspect you have got a problem with alcohol or different substances, ask a medical or mental fitness expert for advice.

If you've given beginning to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome, ask about substance abuse counseling and treatment applications that assist you to triumph over your misuse of alcohol or different materials. Joining a help institution or 12-step software which includes Alcoholics Anonymous also may additionally assist.

Coping and support

The psychological and emotional troubles associated with fetal alcohol syndrome can be tough to manipulate for the man or woman with the syndrome and for the circle of relatives.

Family support

Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and their households can also enjoy the aid of specialists and other families who have enjoyed this syndrome. Ask your health care issuer, social worker or intellectual fitness expert for nearby assets of guidance for youngsters with fetal alcohol syndrome and their families.

Dealing with behavioral problems

As a parent of a child with fetal alcohol syndrome, you can locate the subsequent recommendations beneficial in managing behavioral problems related to the syndrome. Learning these competencies (occasionally called figure training) can encompass:

  • Recognizing your child's strengths and limitations

  • Implementing daily routines

  • Creating and enforcing simple rules and limits

  • Keeping things simple by using concrete, specific language

  • Using repetition to reinforce learning

  • Pointing out and using rewards to reinforce acceptable behavior

  • Teaching skills for daily living and social interactions

  • Guarding against your child being taken advantage of by others because many children with fetal alcohol syndrome are at risk of this

Early intervention and a strong, nurturing home are crucial factors in shielding kids with fetal alcohol syndrome from some of the secondary disabilities they are at risk of later in lifestyles.

Preparing for your appointment

Call your toddler's medical doctor for an appointment if you have any concerns approximately your baby's increase and improvement. Also, allow your toddler's medical doctor to recognize if you drank alcohol in the course of your pregnancy, and if so, how a whole lot and the way frequently.

Consider asking a member of the family or friend to come with you. Sometimes it may be tough to take into account all the facts supplied to you at some stage in an appointment, especially in case you've been informed that there may be something wrong with your toddler.

Here's a few statistics to help you get prepared for your appointment.

What you can do

Before your appointment, make a list of:

  • Any symptoms you've noticed in your child, Inclusive of any that may appear unrelated to the motive for the appointment, and while the signs started out

  • All medications, vitamins, herbs or other supplements that you took during pregnancy, and their dosages

  • Questions to ask your child's doctor to help make the most of your appointment time

Basic questions to ask may include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my child's symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes?

  • Should my child see a specialist?

  • Will my child's condition improve over time? Will it get worse?

  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?

  • Are there medications that may help? Are there medications that should be avoided?

  • How can I prevent this from happening in future pregnancies?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to invite other questions at some point of your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your baby's physician is likely to ask you some questions. Be equipped to reply to them to reserve time to move over points you want to spend greater time on. Your physician may additionally ask:

  • Did you drink alcohol while you were pregnant? If yes, how much and how often?

  • Did you use any street drugs during your pregnancy?

  • Did you have any problems during your pregnancy?

  • When did you first notice your child's symptoms?

  • Have these symptoms been continuous or are they only occasional?

  • Does anything seem to improve the symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms?

General summary

Can someone with fetal alcohol syndrome live a normal life?

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy FASD can have lifelong effects on a person's physical mental behavioral and social well-being People with FASD may have: Problems with learning and remembering; trouble with reasoning and thinking; issues with attention concentration and hyperactivity; difficulties with coordination; or problems communicating verbally or nonverbally.

Can you fix FASD?

No FASD is not a curable condition However early intervention and appropriate education can help prevent some of the problems associated with it. A multidisciplinary treatment plan is usually recommended for children living with FASD This may include therapy to improve cognitive skills and behavior medications to control symptoms, parenting classes and vocational training.

What is fetal alcohol syndrome and how is it prevented?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a condition that causes mental and physical disabilities in children It happens when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol interferes with cell growth and brain development in the fetus Children with FAS are born with a range of symptoms but often have problems in three main areas: physical growth mental abilities and behavior They tend to be shorter than their peers have smaller heads and organs facial abnormalities heart defects and other issues They also may have trouble paying attention or learning in school In addition to these problems many have trouble interacting with others socially Some children may not live past their teen years.

The signs and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) range from mild to severe and the disorders that result from prenatal exposure to alcohol can vary widely Some individuals who were alcohol-exposed during pregnancy may have no physical characteristics at all Others can have a combination of physical characteristics and neurologic deficits.

How do you test for FASD?

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy These conditions reflect damage to the brain and other parts of the nervous system that happens when a baby is developing in the womb The problems include intellectual disabilities neurological impairments and physical deformities The only way to know if a child has FASD is through special medical testing This includes blood tests MRI imaging and electroencephalograms (EEGs).

Is FASD a disability?

Alcohol-related birth defects are caused by drinking during pregnancy Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe of these birth defects FAS can include mental retardation facial abnormalities and growth deficiencies Some people have argued that because FAS is not a disability specifically listed in the Americans with Disabilities Act or ADA persons with FAS should therefore not be considered as having a disability under the law They argue that Congress did not intend to protect conditions arising from prenatal exposure to alcohol.

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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