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Heart Failure : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What Is Heart Failure?

Heart failure is a scary term.The heart has not stopped working or failed. It means that the heart is not pumping as well as it should.

Heart failure is a major health problem in the United States. About 5.7 million Americans are affected by heart failure each year. It's the leading cause of hospitalization among people over 65.

If you have heart failure, you will enjoy better health and quality of life if you take care of yourself and stay in balance. It's important to learn about heart failure and when to call a doctor.

Heart failure, also referred to as symptom failure, may be a condition that develops once your heart doesn’t pump enough blood for your body’s desires. This could happen if your heart can’t top off with enough blood. It can even happen when your heart is just too weak to pump properly. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped. However, heart failure is a serious condition that needs medical care.


over vi million adults within the u.  s. have heart failure, per the Centers for illness management and Prevention. youngsters can also have heart failure, however this health topic focuses on failure in adults.

failure will develop suddenly (the acute kind) or over time as your heart gets weaker (the chronic kind). It can have an effect on one or either side of your heart. Left-sided and right-sided heart failure may have completely different causes. Most often, heart failure is caused by another medical condition that damages your heart. This includes coronary heart disease, heart inflammation, high blood pressure, cardiomyopathy, or an irregular heartbeat. failure might not cause symptoms right away. However, eventually, you will feel tired and want to breathe and notice fluid buildup in your lower body, around your stomach, or your neck.


failure will injury your liver or kidneys. Different conditions can cause pneumonic high blood pressure or other heart conditions, reminiscent of an irregular heartbeat, heart valve disease, and sharp viscus arrest.

Your doctor can diagnose heart failure, support your medical and family history, a physical exam, and results from imaging and blood tests.

Currently, heart failure may be a serious condition that has no cure. However, treatment such as healthy manner changes, medicines, some devices, and procedures will facilitate many of us to have the next quality of life. Visit the Living With section to find out more.


What Is Heart Failure


Explanation of medical terms and concept Heart Failur

Heart failure — sometimes referred to as symptom heart disease — happens once the guts muscle doesn't pump blood furthermore because it should. Once this happens, blood typically backs up and fluid will build up within the lungs, inflicting shortness of breath.

Sure heart conditions, reminiscent of narrowed arteries in the heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, bit by bit leave the heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump blood properly.

Correct treatment can improve the signs and symptoms of heart failure and should facilitate some individuals to live longer. Way changes — such as losing weight, exercising, reducing salt (sodium) in your diet and managing stress — can improve your quality of life. However, heart disease is life-threatening. individuals with heart failure could have severe symptoms, and a few might have a heart transplant or a cavity assist device (VAD).


A method to forestall heart failure is to prevent and manage conditions which will cause it, reminiscent of arteria disease, high blood pressure, polygenic disorder and obesity.

Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood through the body This condition can occur in people of all ages but is most common in older adults and those with chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes It's also a major cause of death in the United States accounting for more than 400,000 deaths each year.

is a condition where the heart muscle is unable to pump blood effectively According to CDC cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death in America Heart failure is a condition where the heart muscle is unable to pump blood effectively This happens when the muscle becomes too weak or stiff If left untreated it can cause serious complications that affect your quality of life; however there are ways you can reduce your risk of developing this condition Here’s what you need to know about heart failure:

Heart failure is a common condition that affects more than 6 million Americans and 870000 people are diagnosed with it each year. It is the leading cause of hospitalization among people over 65.

As you get older, the risk of heart failure does not change, but you are more likely to have heart failure when you are older.

Women and men are both likely to develop heart failure, but there are some differences. For example, women tend to experience heart failure at a younger age than men do.

  • Women tend to develop heart failure later in life than men.

  • Women are more likely than men to develop heart failure due to high blood pressure and have a normal ejection fraction (EF).

  • There are no differences in the treatment of men and women who have heart failure.

Symptoms Heart Failure

Heart failure signs and symptoms may include:

  • Shortness of breath with activity or when lying down

  • Fatigue and weakness

  • Swelling in the legs, ankles and feet

  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat

  • Reduced ability to exercise

  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged mucus

  • Swelling of the belly area (abdomen)

  • Very rapid weight gain from fluid buildup

  • Nausea and lack of appetite

  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness

  • Chest pain if heart failure is caused by a heart attack

Sometimes, the symptoms of heart failure may be mild or nonexistent.This does not mean you no longer have heart failure.The symptoms of heart failure can be mild or severe and may come and go.

As heart failure gets worse, it can cause new symptoms or worsen existing symptoms. It is important to tell your doctor if you experience new symptoms or if your symptoms get worse.


Symptoms Heart Failure


  • Shortness of breath If you get short of breath while exercising or when you're resting or lying down, it could be a sign that you're having trouble breathing. When fluid accumulates in your lungs (from exercise or lack of sleep), this can lead to shortness of breath. If this happens at night, try to sit up quickly and gasp for air. If your breath smells bad, you need medical attention.

  • When you are feeling tired and weak while you are active, that means you may have a virus.If your heart does not pump enough oxygen-rich blood, you will become tired and your legs may feel weak.

  • You may experience swelling in your ankles, legs, and abdomen. This can lead to weight gain.If your kidneys don't filter enough blood, your body will retain water and fluid. This can cause swelling (edema) and weight gain.

  • Need to urinate while resting at night.When you are lying down, gravity causes more blood to flow to your kidneys.This makes your kidneys produce more urine, and you will need to urinate.

  • DizzinessHaving difficulty concentrating is confusing.fainting. Some of the symptoms you are experiencing may be due to a lack of oxygen-rich blood reaching your brain.

  • Heartbeats that are too fast or too irregular can be dangerous.palpitations): If your heart doesn't work as hard as it should, your heart may beat faster in an effort to get more oxygen-rich blood to your major organs and muscles. This can be a sign of an irregular heartbeat if your heart is larger than normal (after a heart attack or due to high levels of potassium in your bloodstream). Blood stains are usually red.

  • A dry, hacking cough. When you have heart failure, a cough is more likely to occur if you are lying flat and have lots of fluid in your lungs.

  • A full (bloatedIf you have trouble eating or feeling sick, it may be because of a weak stomach or an upset stomach.nausea).

It is important for you to manage your other health conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, anemia, high blood pressure, thyroid disease, and asthma.Some conditions can have symptoms that are similar to heart failure. If you experience any new or worsening symptoms not related to an emergency, please consult a doctor.If you have any symptoms, tell your doctor.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor in case you assume you might be experiencing symptoms or signs of heart failure. Call 911 or emergency clinical help if you have any of the subsequent:

  • Chest pain

  • Fainting or severe weakness

  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat associated with shortness of breath, chest pain or fainting

  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up white or pink, foamy mucus

Although these signs and symptoms conjointly be|is also} because of cardiopathy, there are several different doable causes, as well as other grave heart and respiratory organ conditions. Don't attempt to diagnose yourself.

hospital room doctors can try to stabilize your condition and verify if your symptoms are due to heart failure or one thing else.

If you've got an identification of heart failure and if any of the symptoms suddenly deteriorate, otherwise you develop a replacement sign or symptom, it could mean that existing heart failure is getting worse or not responding to treatment. This might also be the case if you gain five pounds (2.3 kilograms) or a lot of inside some days. Contact your doctor promptly.

Causes Heart Failure

Heart failure typically develops once different conditions have broken or weakened the center. However, cardiomyopathy also can occur if the heart becomes too stiff.

In heart failure, the most pumping chambers of the heart (the ventricles) might become stiff and not fill properly between beats. In some people, the heart muscle may become damaged and weakened. The ventricles may stretch to the purpose that the heart can't pump enough blood through the body.

Over time, the heart can not sustain with the standard demands placed thereon to pump blood to the rest of the body.

Your doctor will verify however well your heart is pumping by measuring what proportion blood is pumped up out with every beat (ejection fraction). Ejection fraction is employed to assist classify cardiopathy and guide treatment. In a very healthy heart, the ejection fraction is 50% or higher — which means that quite half the blood that fills the ventricle is pumped out with each beat.

However heart failure can occur even with a traditional ejection fraction. This happens if the center muscle becomes stiff from conditions like high blood pressure.

Cardiopathy will involve the left side (left ventricle), right side (right ventricle) or either side of your heart. Generally, heart failure begins with the left side, specifically the heart ventricle — your heart' main pumping chamber.

Type of heart failure

Type of heart failure

Description

Left-sided heart failure

Fluid may back up in the lungs, causing shortness of breath.

Right-sided heart failure

Fluid may back up into the abdomen, legs and feet, causing swelling.

Systolic heart failure (also called heart failure with reduced ejection fraction)

The left ventricle can't contract vigorously, indicating a pumping problem.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

The left ventricle can't relax or fill fully, indicating a filling problem.

Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:

  • Coronary artery disease and heart attack. Coronary artery disorder is the most not unusual form of heart sickness and the most common reason for coronary heart failure. The disease results from the accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries, which reduces blood flow and may lead to coronary heart assault.
    A coronary heart assault takes place suddenly when a coronary artery will become completely blocked. Damage in your coronary heart muscle from a heart attack may additionally mean that your coronary heart can no longer pump as nicely because it should.

  • High blood pressure. If your blood stress is high, your coronary heart has to paint more difficult than it should to flow into blood in the course of your body. Over time, this more exertion can make your coronary heart muscle too stiff or too vulnerable to properly pump blood.

  • Faulty heart valves. The valves of the coronary heart hold blood flowing inside the right course. A damaged valve — due to a coronary heart defect, coronary artery sickness or coronary heart contamination — forces the coronary heart to paint harder, which may weaken it over the years.

  • Damage to the heart muscle. Heart muscle damage can have many reasons, inclusive of certain illnesses, infection, heavy alcohol use, and the toxic effect of medicine, which includes cocaine or some pills used for chemotherapy. Genetic elements can also play a position.

  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). Myocarditis is maximum usually due to an endemic, inclusive of the COVID-19 virus, and might result in left-sided heart failure.

  • A heart problem that you're born with (congenital heart defect). If your coronary heart and its chambers or valves have not fashioned effectively, the healthful components of your heart need to paint harder to pump blood, which may additionally lead to coronary heart failure.

  • Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Abnormal coronary heart rhythms may motivate your heart to conquer too quickly, developing more work for your heart. A gradual heartbeat also may additionally cause heart failure.

  • Other diseases. Long-time period diseases — along with diabetes, HIV, an overactive or underactive thyroid, or a buildup of iron or protein — additionally may also make contributions to chronic coronary heart failure.

Causes of sudden (acute) heart failure also include:

  • Allergic reactions

  • Any illness that affects the whole body

  • Blood clots in the lungs

  • Severe infections

  • Use of certain medications

  • Viruses that attack the heart muscle

Risk factors Heart Failure

If you have heart failure, your activities may be limited but many adults still enjoy life. How well you feel depends on how well your heart muscle is working and on how well you respond to and follow your treatment plan. This includes taking care of yourself (such as eating a healthy diet and getting enough exercise). Follow the instructions for taking medications on a low-sodium diet and make sure to tell your healthcare provider about any new or worsening symptoms. Additionally, live a healthy lifestyle by staying regularly checked up with your doctor.

Talk to your doctor about your preferences for medical care. You can complete an advance directive or living will to let people involved in your care know what you want done if you become ill. A living will may list the treatments you do or don't want. Making decisions about your life while you are healthy is a good idea. A living allows you to specify decisions you would like made on your behalf if you are unable to make them yourself.

An unmarried hazard element may be sufficient to cause coronary heart failure, however a combination of things also will increase your threat.

Risk factors for heart failure include:

  • Coronary artery disease. Narrowed arteries may additionally limit your coronary heart's delivery of oxygen-rich blood, ensuing weakened heart muscle.

  • Heart attack. A coronary heart assault is a form of coronary artery sickness that happens all at once. Damage to your coronary heart muscle from a heart assault can also suggest your heart can not pump as properly because it needs to.

  • Heart valve disease. Having a coronary heart valve that does not work properly raises the hazard of coronary heart failure.

  • High blood pressure. Your heart works harder than it has to if your blood pressure is high.

  • Irregular heartbeats. These unusual rhythms, especially if they're very common and speedy, can weaken the coronary heart muscle and cause coronary heart failure.

  • Congenital heart disease. Some folks that broaden heart failure have been born with issues that have an effect on the structure or feature of their heart.

  • Diabetes. Having diabetes will increase your danger of excessive blood pressure and coronary artery sickness. Don't prevent yourself from taking any medicines. Ask your health practitioner whether or not you ought to make modifications.

  • Some diabetes medications. The diabetes tablets rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) were determined to boost the danger of coronary heart failure in a few humans. Don't stop taking these medications for your personal health, though. If you are taking them, ask your doctor if you need to make any adjustments.

  • Certain other medications. Some medications may additionally cause coronary heart failure or coronary heart issues. They encompass nonsteroidal anti inflammatory pills (NSAIDs); sure anesthesia medications; and sure medicinal drugs used to deal with high blood strain, most cancers, blood conditions, abnormal or peculiar heartbeats, fearful machine sicknesses, mental fitness conditions, lung and urinary problems, inflammatory illnesses, and infections.

  • Alcohol use. Drinking too much alcohol can weaken the heart muscle and lead to heart failure.

  • Sleep apnea. The incapacity to breathe properly while you sleep effects in low blood-oxygen tiers and an elevated chance of abnormal heartbeats. Both of those problems can weaken the coronary heart.

  • Smoking or using tobacco. If you smoke, stop. Using tobacco will increase your risk of coronary heart ailment and coronary heart failure.

  • Obesity. People who have obesity have a higher risk of developing heart failure.

  • Viruses. Certain viral infections can cause damage to the heart muscle.

Complications

Complications of heart failure depend upon the severity of coronary heart sickness, your overall health and other factors inclusive of your age. Possible headaches can consist of:

  • Kidney damage or failure. Heart failure can reduce the blood flow to your kidneys, that may eventually cause kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney harm from heart failure can require dialysis for remedy.

  • Heart valve problems. The valves of the coronary heart, which keep blood flowing inside the right route, may not work nicely in case your heart is enlarged or if the stress on your heart could be very high due to heart failure.

  • Heart rhythm problems. Heart rhythm problems may additionally cause or grow your danger of heart failure.

  • Liver damage. Heart failure can cause fluid buildup that puts too much pressure on the liver. This fluid backup can cause scarring, which makes it extra difficult in your liver to paint properly.

Prevention

The key to preventing heart failure is to lessen your danger elements. You can manage or dispose of a number of the hazard factors for heart ailment by making healthful life-style modifications and through taking the medications prescribed by means of your health practitioner.

Lifestyle changes you can make to help prevent heart failure include:

  • Not smoking

  • Controlling certain conditions, such as high blood pressure and diabetes

  • Staying physically active

  • Eating healthy foods

  • Maintaining a healthy weight

  • Reducing and managing stress

Diagnosis Heart Failure

You will have tests to determine how severe your heart failure is and what caused it. 


Blood tests We will check your cholesterol and red blood cell levels to see if they are high. High cholesterol and anemia can be signs that your kidneys and thyroid are not working well. Anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells, and high cholesterol can indicate a problem with the way your liver processes fats. Oxygen can travel through the blood when the levels of hemoglobin are low.This can make you feel tired and have other symptoms that look similar to those of heart failure.

NT-pro** A blood test called B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) measures how much of the hormone BNP is in your blood. The higher the level, the more severe your heart failure is. NT-pro BNP is an inactive form of the hormone that is also present in high levels with BNP. If you have heart failure, your ventricles are more stressed, and a higher level of NT-pro BNP (a protein associated with the stress of heart failure) in your blood can help your doctor know. If you have shortness of breath, the level of NT-pro BNP in your blood can help your doctor determine if it is caused by heart failure. Patients with a level of more than 450 pg/mL are likely to have heart failure. If you are under 50 years old or have 900 pg/mL of cholesterol in your blood, this may be an indicator of heart failure.

Cardiac Catheterization If you are scheduled for a catheterization, your doctor may check your heart function using an X-ray machine. A catheterization is a procedure in which a long, thin tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery in your arm or leg. The doctor uses a special X-ray machine to look inside your heart. A cardiac catheter is inserted into your heart. There are two types of cardiac catheterization: left and right. If you have a left heart catheterization, your doctor may inject dye to record videos of your heart valves, coronary arteries, and heart chambers (atria and ventricles). A right heart catheterization does not require this type of injection. Dye can be used to indicate the health of your heart's pumping action.

Chest x-rayThis test will show the size and shape of your heart and any fluid buildup in your heart and lungs.

Echocardiogram (echo) An ultrasound examination will show how well your heart is functioning and whether any valves are leaking. Images will be captured with an ultrasound wand as the wand is moved around on your skin. An echo may also be performed to check your blood flow. Your EF is determined by changes in pressure and flow inside your heart chambers.

Ejection fraction (EF) Your ejection fraction is a measure of how much blood is pumped out of your heart with each beat. It can be measured using an echocardiogram (echo), multigated acquisition (MUGA) scan, nuclear stress test, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The ejection fraction is reported as a percentage. Your EF (electrocardiogram) is a measure of how well your heart is functioning. A normal EF is between 55% and 70%.Your EF can be lower or higher depending on how stable your heart failure is and how well your treatment for heart failure is working.Your doctor needs to know your EF. You should have your EF checked when you are diagnosed with heart failure.Even if you follow your doctor's instructions, there is a chance you will not be cured.

Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) This test measures your heart's electrical activity by placing electrodes on your body and sending the information to a monitor. The graph will show how your heart is beating. activity.

Multigated Acquisition Scan (MUGA scan)This test shows your doctor how well your heart is working. A small amount of a radioactive dye is injected into a vein. A special camera (a gamma camera) records your heart as it beats.

Stress test. This test will show how your heart reacts to stress. You will likely exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike at different levels of difficulty while your heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram are recorded. If you cannot exercise, medication may be used to create the same effect. A pharmacological stress test is done on your heart.

If I were you, I would have other tests done to determine the cause of my condition.

To diagnose heart failure, your doctor will take a careful medical history, review your symptoms and perform a physical examination. Your doctor will check to see if you've got risk factors for heart failure, high blood pressure, artery illness or diabetes.


Your doctor will hear your lungs for signs of fluid buildup (lung congestion) and your heart for whooshing sounds (murmurs) which will counsel heart failure. The doctor may examine the veins in your neck and check for fluid buildup in your abdomen and legs.


once the physical exam, your doctor may additionally order a number of these tests:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests are done to look for signs of diseases that can affect the heart.

  • Chest X-ray. X-ray images can show the condition of the lungs and heart.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). This quick and painless test records the electrical signals in the heart. It can show the timing and length of the heartbeats.

  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves are used to produce pictures of the coronary heart in movement. This check shows the size and shape of the heart and heart valves and blood glide via the coronary heart. An echocardiogram can be used to measure ejection fraction, which suggests how nicely the heart is pumping and facilitates classifying heart failure and publication treatment.

  • Stress test. Stress tests degree the fitness of the coronary heart at some stage in pastime. You can be asked to stroll on a treadmill while connected to an ECG system, or you may acquire an IV drug that simulates the impact of exercise on the heart.
    Sometimes a strain taken a look at is accomplished while wearing a mask that measures how nicely the heart and lungs get oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.

  • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan. In a cardiac CT test, you lie on a desk inside a doughnut-formed device. An X-ray tube in the system rotates around your frame and collects pics of the coronary heart and chest. Sometimes, contrast is given. Because the contrast agent may want to affect kidney function, talk to your physician when you have kidney issues.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In a cardiac MRI, you lie on a desk inside a protracted, tubelike machine. Radio waves create snapshots of the heart.
    A cardiac MRI can be accomplished with a dye (assessment). It's vital to tell your doctor approximately any problems together with your kidneys before you receive a cardiac MRI or other MRI due to the fact assessment can motivate an extraordinary and extreme worry in human beings who've kidney disorder.

  • Coronary angiogram. In this test, a thin, bendy tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel, generally in the groin, and guided to the coronary heart arteries. A dye (contrast) is injected via the catheter to make the arteries display up greater certainly on an X-ray, assisting the doctor spot blockages.

  • Myocardial biopsy. In this take a look at, a medical doctor inserts a small, bendy cord into a vein inside the neck or groin, and gets rid of very small portions of the coronary heart muscle for exam. This check may be carried out to diagnose certain types of coronary heart muscle illnesses that motive heart failure.

Results of checks to diagnose heart failure help medical doctors determine the reason for any signs and symptoms and symptoms and determine a remedy plan. To decide the excellent treatment for heart failure, doctors might also classify heart failure the usage of  structures:

New York Heart Association classification

This scale groups heart failure into four categories.

  • Class I heart failure. There are no heart failure symptoms.

  • Class II heart failure. Everyday sports can be performed without difficulty but exertion causes shortness of breath or fatigue.

  • Class III heart failure. It's difficult to complete everyday activities.

  • Class IV heart failure. Shortness of breath takes place even at rest. This category consists of the most excessive heart failure.

American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification

This stage-primarily based class device makes use of letters A to D and consists of a class for those who are prone to growing heart failure. Doctors use this classification machine to discover hazard elements and begin early, greater aggressive treatment to help save you or put off coronary heart failure.

  • Stage A. There are several risk factors for heart failure but no signs or symptoms.

  • Stage B. There is heart disease but no signs or symptoms of heart failure.

  • Stage C. There is heart disease and signs or symptoms of heart failure.

  • Stage D. Advanced heart failure requires specialized treatments.

Your physician regularly will use both class systems collectively to assist decide the most appropriate treatment alternatives. Your doctor allows you to interpret your rating and plan your treatment primarily based on your situation.

Treatment Heart Failure

Your treatment will depend on the type of heart failure you have and on what caused it. Your healthcare team will work with you to develop a treatment plan that takes into account your individual circumstances.You can learn more about how to treat heart failure here.

Heart failure is a chronic condition that gets worse over time. There are four stages of heart failure, which range from high risk of developing heart failure to advanced heart failure. Your healthcare provider can provide you with treatment plans for each stage.The stages of heart failure are different from the classifications of heart failure that show how severe someone's symptoms are or how much their function is limited by heart failure.

If the condition gets worse, your heart muscle will start to pump less blood. This means that you will move closer to the stage of heart failure.You cannot go back through the stages; for example, if you are in Stage B, you cannot be in Stage A again. The goal of treatment is to keep you from progressing to a more serious stage. To slow down the progression, you will go through the stages.

Treatment for heart failure may involve changing medications, eating habits, and use of devices. You can compare your treatment plan to those listed for each stage of heart failure. The treatments are based on current guidelines. The table provides a basic plan. If you have any questions or concerns about your treatment, please ask a healthcare professional.

Heart failure is a chronic disease needing lifelong control. However, with treatment, signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms of heart failure can improve, and the coronary heart now and again will become stronger.

Doctors every now and then can accurately treat heart failure by way of treating the underlying purpose. For instance, repairing a coronary heart valve or controlling a fast coronary heart rhythm may also reverse coronary heart failure. But for most people, remedy of coronary heart failure entails a balance of the proper medications and, occasionally, use of devices that help the coronary heart beat and contract nicely.

Medications

Doctors typically treat coronary heart failure with a mixture of medicinal drugs. Depending on your signs and symptoms, you may take one or greater medications, together with:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These drugs loosen up blood vessels to decrease blood pressure, improve blood glide and decrease the strain at the coronary heart. Examples consist of enalapril (Vasotec, Epaned), lisinopril (Zestril, Qbrelis, Prinivil) and captopril.

  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers. These drugs, which consist of losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan) and candesartan (Atacand), have some of the identical advantages as ACE inhibitors. They may be an alternative for people who can't tolerate ACE inhibitors.

  • Beta blockers. These drugs gradually lower your coronary heart rate and decrease blood strain. Beta blockers may also reduce signs and symptoms and signs of coronary heart failure, improve heart function, and assist you live longer. Examples encompass carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL, Kapspargo Sprinkle) and bisoprolol.

  • Diuretics. Often called water drugs, diuretics make you urinate more frequently and keep fluid from amassing to your frame. Diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix), additionally lower fluid for your lungs so that you can breathe extra easily.
    Because diuretics make your body lose potassium and magnesium, your medical doctor may additionally prescribe supplements of these minerals. If you're taking a diuretic, your physician will possibly display tiers of potassium and magnesium on your blood through ordinary blood assessments.

  • Aldosterone antagonists. These drugs encompass spironolactone (Aldactone, Carospir) and eplerenone (Inspra). These are potassium-sparing diuretics that have additional houses which could help humans with severe systolic coronary heart failure stay longer.
    Unlike some different diuretics, spironolactone and eplerenone can improve the extent of potassium in your blood to dangerous levels, so communicate for your medical doctor if expanded potassium is a issue, and research if you need to regulate your intake of food it truly is excessive in potassium.

  • Positive inotropes. These medicines can be given by way of IV to people with certain types of excessive coronary heart failure who're inside the hospital. Positive inotropes can assist the coronary heart pump blood more successfully and preserve blood pressure. Long-time period use of those tablets has been connected to an extended hazard of loss of life in some people. Talk to your health care provider about the blessings and risks of those tablets.

  • Digoxin (Lanoxin). This drug, additionally known as digitalis, increases the electricity of your coronary heart muscle contractions. It additionally tends to sluggish the pulse. Digoxin reduces coronary heart failure signs and symptoms in systolic coronary heart failure. It may be more likely to be received by someone with heart rhythm trouble, together with atrial fibrillation.

  • Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (BiDil). This drug aggregate enables loosening up blood vessels. It may be brought in your remedy plan if you have excessive coronary heart failure signs and symptoms and ACE inhibitors or beta blockers have not helped.

  • Vericiguat (Verquvo). This more recent remedy for continual coronary heart failure is taken once a day via mouth. It's a type of drug called an oral soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator. In studies, human beings with high-hazard heart failure who took vericiguat had fewer sanatorium stays for heart failure and heart disorder-associated deaths as compared with folks who obtained an inactive pill (placebo).

  • Other medications. Your medical doctor may prescribe other medicines to deal with particular symptoms. For instance, a few human beings may additionally obtain nitrates for chest pain, statins to lower cholesterol or blood-thinning medicinal drugs to assist prevent blood clots.

Your physician may also need to modify your doses regularly, especially while you've simply started a new medicinal drug or whilst your condition is worsening.

You may be admitted to the health facility when you have a flare-up of heart failure signs and symptoms. While in the health facility, you may get hold of extra medicines to help your heart pump higher and relieve your signs. You may additionally get hold of supplemental oxygen through a mask or small tubes positioned in your nose. If you've got extreme coronary heart failure, you may need to apply supplemental oxygen for a long term.

Surgery or other procedures

Surgery or other tactics to implant cardiac gadgets can be advocated to treat the underlying trouble that led to coronary heart failure. Surgery or different procedures for coronary heart failure may additionally include:

  • Coronary bypass surgery. If significantly blocked arteries are inflicting your heart failure, your medical doctor may additionally advocate coronary artery pass surgical operation. The method includes taking a wholesome blood vessel from your leg, arm or chest and connecting it underneath and above the blocked arteries on your heart. The new pathway improves blood flow to your heart muscle.

  • Heart valve repair or replacement. If a defective coronary heart valve reasons your heart failure, your doctor may recommend repairing or changing the valve. Surgeons can repair the valve via reconnecting valve flaps or by getting rid of extra valve tissue so that the leaflets can close tightly. Sometimes repairing the valve consists of tightening or replacing the ring across the valve.
    Heart valve repair or alternative may be finished as open-heart surgery, a minimally invasive surgical operation or a heart method the use of flexible tubes known as catheters (cardiac catheterization).

  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). An ICD is used to save you complications of coronary heart failure. It isn't a remedy for heart failure itself. An ICD is a device much like a pacemaker. It's implanted under the pores and skin in your chest with wires mainly via your veins and into your heart.
    The ICD video displays the heart rhythm. If the heart begins beating at a risky rhythm, or if your heart stops, the ICD tries to pace your coronary heart or surprise it back into everyday rhythm. An ICD also can work as a pacemaker and velocity your coronary heart up if it's far going too gradual.

  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Also referred to as biventricular pacing, CRT is a treatment for heart failure in human beings whose lower heart chambers (ventricles) are not pumping in sync with every other. A tool referred to as a biventricular pacemaker sends electrical alerts to the ventricles. The alerts trigger your ventricles to contract in an extra coordinated way, which improves the pumping of blood out of your coronary heart. CRT can be used with an ICD.

  • Ventricular assist devices (VADs). A VAD — additionally known as a mechanical circulatory guide device — is a tool that enables pumping blood from the decreased chambers of your coronary heart (ventricles) to the relaxation of your body. Although a VAD may be located in a single or each ventricle of your heart, it is most often implanted inside the left ventricle.
    Your doctor may endorse a VAD in case you're looking forward to a heart transplant. Sometimes, a VAD is used as a permanent remedy for human beings who've heart failure but who aren't exact candidates for a heart transplant.

  • Heart transplant. Some human beings have such extreme heart failure that surgical operation or medicinal drugs do not assist. These people may additionally need to have their hearts replaced with a wholesome donor heart.
    A coronary heart transplant is not the proper treatment for every body. A group of medical doctors at a transplant center will compare you to decide whether the manner may be secure and beneficial for you.

What are the stages of heart failure?

Heart failure is a chronic condition that gets worse over time. There are four stages of heart failure, which range from high risk of developing heart failure to advanced heart failure. Your healthcare provider can provide you with treatment plans for each stage.The stages of heart failure are different from the classifications of heart failure that show how severe someone's symptoms are or how much their function is limited by heart failure.

If the condition gets worse, your heart muscle will start to pump less blood. This means that you will move closer to the stage of heart failure.You cannot go back through the stages; for example, if you are in Stage B, you cannot be in Stage A again. The goal of treatment is to keep you from progressing to a more serious stage. To slow down the progression, you will go through the stages.

Treatment for heart failure may involve changing medications, eating habits, and use of devices. You can compare your treatment plan to those listed for each stage of heart failure. The treatments are based on current guidelines. The table provides a basic plan. If you have any questions or concerns about your treatment, please ask a healthcare professional.

Stage A

Stage A is a pre-heart failure condition. This means you are at high risk of developing heart failure because you have a family history of heart failure or you have one of these medical conditions:

  • Hypertension.

  • Diabetes.

  • Coronary artery disease.

  • Metabolic syndrome.

  • History of alcohol abuse.

  • This is the history of rheumatic fever.

  • If someone in your family has cardiomyopathy, you are more likely to get it too.

  • Some cancer drugs can damage the heart muscle.

Stage A treatment

Patients with Stage A heart failure usually receive treatment with:

  • Exercising regularly means walking every day.

  • Quitting smoking.

  • There is a treatment for high blood pressure, which includes taking medication and following a low-sodium diet and active lifestyle.

  • Treatment for high cholesterol.

  • Do not drink alcohol or use recreational drugs.

  • Medications:

    • If you have coronary artery disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, or other vascular or cardiac conditions, you may need an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB).

    • If you have high blood pressure, take a beta-blocker.

Stage B

Stage B is a pre-heart failure diagnosis. This means you have been diagnosed with systolic left ventricular dysfunction, but haven't had any symptoms of heart failure. The majority of people with Stage B heart failure have an echocardiogram (echo) that shows an ejection fraction (EF) of 40% or less.People with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction are included in this group.

Stage B treatment

Patients with Stage B heart failure usually receive treatment that includes:

  • Treatments listed in Stage A.

  • If you are not taking a Stage A treatment plan, take an ACE-I or ARB.

  • If you have recently had a heart attack, take a beta-blocker to lower your risk of another one. If your EF is below 40%, take one as part of your Stage A treatment plan.

  • If you have had a heart attack or have diabetes, take an aldosterone antagonist to reduce your risk of having another heart attack.

  • If a person has coronary artery blockage (a condition where the arteries that supply blood to the heart become blocked), heart attack (a condition in which the heart muscle fails and stops pumping blood), or valve disease (a condition in which the valves that open and close to allow blood flow from the heart become damaged), they may require surgery.

Stage C

Patients with Stage C heart failure have been diagnosed with heart failure and may currently or previously have signs and symptoms of the condition.

There are many possible signs of heart failure.The most common types of conflict are:

  • Breathing difficulties.

  • Feeling tired (fatigue).

  • Unable to exercise as much.

  • Weak legs.

  • Having to go to the bathroom right when you wake up.

  • If someone has swollen feet, ankles, lower legs, and abdomen (edema), it means they are in a lot of pain.

Stage C treatment

The usual treatment plan for patients with Stage C HF-related EF includes:

  • Treatments listed in Stages A and B.

  • If you are not taking a beta-blocker, this medicine will help your heart muscle pump stronger.

  • If your symptoms do not improve after taking an aldosterone antagonist, vasodilator medicine, or ACE-I ARB/angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor combination, you may need a beta-blocker.

  • If other treatments don't stop your symptoms, you may need to take a Hydralazine/Nitrate combination. Patients of African descent should take this medication if they have moderate to severe symptoms.

  • If your heart rate is over 70 beats per minute and you still have symptoms, medications can be taken to slow it down.

  • If the symptoms continue, the person may be prescribed a diuretic (water pill).

  • Try to avoid eating foods with a lot of salt. You can get this information from your doctor or nurse.

  • Make a record of your weight every day. Tell your healthcare provider if you gain or lose more than 4 pounds from your regular, un-powdered weight.

  • Make sure to ask your doctor or nurse what your daily fluid limit is.

  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a possible treatment for a heart rhythm problem.

  • Cardiac defibrillator (CD) therapy is a possible implantable procedure.

Treatment will help improve your symptoms or stop them from getting worse. You may still need to continue treatment in order to slow the progression to Stage D.

Stage D and reduced E are two stages of a project.

Patients with Stage D heart failure have advanced symptoms that do not improve with treatment. This is the final stage of heart failure.

Stage D treatment

For patients with Stage D heart failure, the usual treatment plan includes:

  • Treatments listed in Stages A, B and C.

  • If you have more advanced treatment options, such as surgery, evaluation will be necessary.

    • Heart transplant.

    • Ventricular assist devices.

    • Heart surgery.

    • Inotropic drugs are given intravenously over a long period of time.

    • Hospice care is care that is given to people who are dying.

    • Research therapies.

Palliative care and end-of-life care

Your medical doctor may endorse palliative care in your treatment plan. Palliative care is specialized hospital treatment that specializes in easing your signs and symptoms and improving your first-class of existence. Anyone who has a critical or life-threatening contamination can benefit from palliative care, both to treat signs and symptoms of the disorder, which includes ache or shortness of breath, or to ease the side outcomes of treatment, including fatigue or nausea.

It's viable that your coronary heart failure may additionally worsen to the factor wherein medicines are now not working and a heart transplant or device isn't always a choice. If this takes place, you may need hospice care. Hospice care presents a unique path of treatment to terminally unwell people.

Hospice care allows one's own family and buddies — with the useful resources of nurses, social people and educated volunteers — to care for and luxury a cherished one at home or in hospice residences. Hospice care presents emotional, mental, social and religious help for individuals who are unwell and people closest to them.

Hospice care is to be had in your house or in nursing homes and assisted dwelling facilities. For people who live in a clinic, professionals in stop-of-existence care can provide comfort, compassionate care and dignity.

Although it is hard, discussing end-of-life problems with your family and medical crew is essential. Part of this discussion will in all likelihood involve advance care directives — a general time period for oral and written commands you deliver regarding your hospital treatment must you come to be unable to talk for yourself.

If you have an ICD, one critical attention to speak about with your family and docs is whether or not it needs to be turned off in order that it can not supply shocks to make your coronary heart maintain beating.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Making life-style adjustments can often help relieve signs and signs of coronary heart failure and prevent the sickness from worsening. These adjustments can be some of the most vital and beneficial you could make:

  • Stop smoking. Smoking damages your blood vessels, increases blood stress, reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood and makes your heart beat quicker.
    If you smoke, ask your doctor to advise an application to help you cease. You cannot be taken into consideration for a coronary heart transplant if you preserve to smoke. Avoid secondhand smoke, too.

  • Check your legs, ankles and feet for swelling daily. Contact your doctor if the swelling worsens.

  • Discuss weight monitoring with your doctor. Weight advantage may also mean that you're maintaining fluids and want an alternative for your remedy plan. Ask your doctor how often you ought to weigh yourself and when to contact your physician due to weight gain.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. If you're obese, a dietitian assist you to paintings in the direction of your best weight. Even losing a small amount of weight can help enhance your heart fitness.

  • Eat a healthy diet. Aim to eat a weight loss plan that includes end result and vegetables, whole grains, fats-loose or low-fat dairy products, and lean proteins.

  • Limit salt. Too much salt (sodium) can cause water retention, which makes your heart paintings harder and causes shortness of breath and swollen legs, ankles and feet.
    Ask your health practitioner in case you ought to follow a no-salt or low-salt food regimen. Keep in mind that salt is already introduced to prepared ingredients, and be cautious whilst the use of salt substitutes.

  • Limit saturated or trans fats in your diet. In addition to heading off salty ingredients, restriction the quantity of saturated and trans fat for your weight loss plan. These doubtlessly dangerous nutritional fat growth increases your risk of heart disease.

  • Get vaccinations. Ask your doctor about getting influenza, pneumonia and COVID-19 vaccinations.

  • Limit alcohol and fluids. Your health practitioner may also endorse that you do not drink alcohol when you have heart failure, when you consider that it is able to have interaction with your medicinal drug, weaken your heart muscle and increase your chance of bizarre heart rhythms.
    If you have excessive heart failure, your medical doctor might also propose that you restrict the amount of fluids you drink.

  • Be active. Moderate cardio activity allows you to maintain the rest of your body wholesome and conditioned, lowering the demands on your heart muscle. But be sure to speak to your physician about an exercising program that really is right for you. Your doctor can also suggest a walking program or a cardiac rehabilitation software at your neighborhood health facility.

  • Reduce stress. When you're aggravating or disillusioned, your coronary heart beats faster, you breathe greater closely and your blood pressure often goes up. This could make heart failure worse, on the grounds that your coronary heart is already having problems meeting the body's demands.
    Find methods to lessen stress to your existence. To provide your coronary heart a relaxation, strive napping or placing your toes up when possible. Spend time with friends and family to be social and assist keep strain at bay.

  • Sleep easy. If you are having shortness of breath, particularly at night, sleep together with your head propped up by the usage of a pillow or a wedge. If you snore or have had other sleep troubles, ensure you get tested for sleep apnea.

Coping and support

Proper coronary heart failure treatment can on occasion enhance signs and symptoms and assist you stay longer. You and your doctor can paint together to assist make you maximum secure. Pay attention to your body and the way you sense, and inform your medical doctor when you're feeling higher or worse. This manner, your physician will recognise what treatment works first-class for you.

These steps may help you manage heart failure:

  • Keep track of the medications you take. Make a listing of all the medicinal drugs you take, convey it with you and proportion it along with your medical doctors. Don't stop taking any medications without first speaking to your doctor. If facet outcomes from any medicines you're taking are uncomfortable or regarding, allow your doctor understand.

  • Check your medications. Some medications available without a prescription, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve) and food plan pills, can also worsen coronary heart failure and lead to fluid buildup. Talk to your doctor about all of the medicinal drugs you take.

  • Be careful about supplements. Some nutritional supplements might also interfere with heart failure medications or may want to worsen your circumstance. Talk to your doctor about any dietary supplements you are taking.

  • Use a diary to monitor your weight. Bring the notes to visit with your doctor. An increase in weight can be a sign of fluid buildup.

  • Keep track of your blood pressure. Consider shopping for a home blood pressure report. Write down your blood pressure numbers between health practitioner appointments and convey the file with you to visits.

  • Write down your questions for your doctor. Before a health practitioner's appointment, prepare a list of any questions or worries. For instance, is it safe for you and your associate to have sex? Most people with coronary heart failure can continue sexual activity once symptoms are underneath manipulate. Ask for clarification, if essential. Be certain you apprehend everything your physician wants you to do.

  • Know your doctor's contact information. Keep your physician's telephone variety, the medical institution's cell phone range, and directions to the medical institution or hospital reachable. You'll want to have those available if you have questions on your health practitioner otherwise you want to go to the clinic.

Managing heart failure requires an open conversation between you and your doctor. Be sincere about whether you are following recommendations regarding your weight loss program, way of life and taking medications. Your physician frequently can propose strategies that will help you get and live on track.

Preparing for your appointment

If you observe you could have coronary heart failure or you're worried about your coronary heart failure danger because of other underlying situations, make an appointment along with your family doctor. If coronary heart failure is discovered early, your treatment may be less complicated and extra powerful.

Because appointments may be brief and there are frequently loads to talk about, it is a very good idea to be organized for your appointment. Here's a few records to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to anticipate from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you are making the appointment, make sure to ask if there's anything you want to do earlier, which includes restricting your food regimen. For a few imaging tests, for instance, you could want to speed for a period of time beforehand.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to heart failure.

  • Write down key personal information, Together with a family history of coronary heart disorder, stroke, high blood pressure or diabetes, and any primary stresses or current existence adjustments. Find out if everybody in your own family has had heart failure. Some heart situations that reason coronary heart failure run in households. Knowing as a whole lot as you may about your own family records can be essential.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.

  • Take a family member or friend along, If possible. Sometimes it could be tough to don't forget all of the facts supplied to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you could consider something which you neglected or forgot.

  • Be prepared to discuss Your food plan and workout behavior. If you don't already follow a weight-reduction plan or workout routine, be geared up to speak for your health practitioner about any demanding situations you might face in getting started.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your health practitioner is restrained, so making ready a listing of questions will help you're making the maximum of it slow together. List your questions from maximum crucial to least critical in case time runs out. For heart failure, some primary inquiries to ask your medical doctor encompass:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests will I need? Do these tests require any special preparation?

  • What treatments are available? Which do you recommend for me?

  • What foods should I eat or avoid?

  • What's an appropriate level of physical activity?

  • How often should I be screened for changes in my condition?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing for me?

  • Do my family members need to be screened for conditions that may cause heart failure?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to invite your physician, don't hesitate to ask questions in the course of your appointment at any time when you don't apprehend something.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you some questions. Being ready to reply to them may additionally reserve time to go over any factors you need to spend extra time on. Your medical doctor can also ask:

  • When did you first notice your symptoms?

  • Do your symptoms occur all the time, or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • Does anything make your symptoms worse?

What you can do in the meantime

It's by no means too early to make healthful life-style modifications, such as quitting smoking, reducing down on salt and consuming wholesome meals. These modifications can help save you heart failure from starting or worsening.

General summary

Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle can’t pump blood effectively Heart failure is usually a result of damage to the heart muscle itself This damage may be caused by a heart attack coronary artery disease or high blood pressure.

What is the best treatment for heart failure?

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough oxygen-rich blood to meet the body’s needs Heart failure can occur when the heart has lost its ability to supply adequate blood flow or it may be due to an underlying condition that prevents normal ventricular function Either way the result is decreased cardiac output and reduced organ and tissue perfusion.

Can you recover from heart failure?

Heart failure is a condition that occurs when the heart doesn’t pump blood strongly enough to supply oxygen-rich blood to the body When this happens the patient may have trouble breathing and in severe cases can require an artificial ventilator Most of the time though heart failure is associated with arrhythmia and other conditions that can be managed and treated.

What is the first line treatment for heart failure?

Heart failure is a serious health condition that affects nearly 6 million Americans It occurs when the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs and the symptoms can be debilitating Left untreated heart failure can lead to life-threatening complications Fortunately there are treatments available to help both heart failure patients and their loved ones live better with the condition.

How long can you survive heart failure?

Heart failure is a condition in which your heart isn’t able to pump blood as well as it should The symptoms of heart failure include shortness of breath and swelling in the arms and legs according to the Mayo Clinic If you have heart failure you may need medications to help treat it but that doesn’t mean your life expectancy is shortened In fact some people with heart failure are able to live for decades with proper care and treatment.

How can I make my weak heart stronger?

In general the heart is a very strong muscle However if your heart has been weakened by a condition or disease it may be weaker than normal and need special care The following steps can help you get stronger and healthier: Eat right: Follow a healthy diet that includes lean proteins whole grains and plenty of fruits and veggies Limit items high in saturated fats like red meat and full-fat dairy products Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated Exercise regularly: Exercise strengthens the heart muscle improves blood flow to all parts of the body — including the heart — helps people lose weight and lowers their risk for type 2 diabetes People with weakened hearts.

What's the best exercise for your heart?

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that people age 18 to 65 do 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity such as brisk walking on five or more days a week If you are age 19 to 64 and overweight the AHA recommends at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity physical activity (or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise) If you have cardiovascular disease the AHA recommends at least two sessions a week of vigorous aerobic exercise The guidelines also recommend muscle strengthening activities on two or more days per week for all healthy adults.

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Heart Failure : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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