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Absence seizure : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What Is Absence Seizure?

An absence seizure reasons you to clean out or stare into space for some seconds. They can also be known as petit mal seizures. Absence seizures are most common in children and usually don’t cause any lengthy-term problems. These forms of seizures are often sparked off by way of a duration of hyperventilation.

Absence seizures commonly arise in kids between a long time 4 to 14. A baby can also have 10, 50, or maybe 100 absence seizures in a given day and they'll cross disregarded. Most kids who've regular absence seizures are otherwise regular. However, absence seizures can get inside the way of mastering and affect awareness at faculty. This is why setting off remedies is crucial.

Absence seizures are a sort of epilepsy, a condition that reasons seizures. Seizures are as a result of a peculiar brain hobby. These combined messages confuse your brain and cause a seizure.

Not each person who has a seizure has epilepsy. Usually, a diagnosis of epilepsy can be made after two or more seizures.

Absence seizures regularly arise alongside different types of seizures that cause muscle jerking, twitching, and shaking. Absence seizures can be stressed with different types of seizures. Doctors pay in interest on your signs and symptoms with a view to make the proper prognosis. This may be very essential for a powerful and safe remedy for your seizures.

It’s unusual for absence seizures to keep into maturity, however it’s possible to have a lack seizure at any age.

Affecting approximately  of each 1,000 human beings, absence seizures (previously referred to as ''petit mal'' seizures) are due to odd and severe electric activity within the mind.

Normally, the brain's nerve cells (neurons) speak with each other with the aid of firing tiny electric powered signals. But with a seizure, these signals become ordinary. Seizures might also affect an isolated part of the mind or may additionally involve peculiar pastime within the complete brain (known as generalized seizures). Absence seizures are one shape of generalized seizure. They typically are added on via exertion of a few sort.

Typically, this sort of seizure lasts between 10 and 30 seconds. The individual, most often an infant elderly 5 to fifteen, unexpectedly stops something they're doing (speaking, walking) and appears to "stare into an area." Absence seizures rarely cause a true convulsion wherein the character falls down or collapses. Despite briefly dropping consciousness, the character recovers completely without a lingering confusion or different sick effects. These "spells" may also arise occasionally or several times in line with the hour. In kids, absence seizures might also interfere with learning and are regularly misinterpreted as having a pipe dream or inattention. About 1 / 4 of people who've absence seizures will increase every other kind of generalized seizure known as tonic-clonic seizures (previously known as ''grand mal'' seizures). The massive majority of kids, however, will outgrow them.

What Is Absence Seizure?


medical terms

  • Absence seizures are a type of neurological disorder that can cause a person to have momentary lapses of consciousness or awareness. These seizures are often brief and may be confused with daydreaming or inattentiveness. They usually last for less than 15 seconds and do not cause any physical harm. It is estimated that about three percent of school-age children in the United States experience this type of seizure.

  • Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are a type of seizure that typically begins in children between the ages of four and thirteen. They are characterized by a brief loss of consciousness, often occurring without any warning signs. During a seizure, the person will appear to be staring off into space and won’t be responsive to their environment. This type of seizure usually lasts for a few seconds or up to two minutes.

  • Absence seizures contain brief, surprising lapses of cognizance. They're more commonplace in children than in adults.

  • Someone having a scarcity seizure might also appear to be she or he is staring blankly into an area for a few seconds. Then, there may be a short return to an everyday level of alertness. This kind of seizure typically would not result in physical harm.

  • Absence seizures generally can be managed with anti-seizure medications. Some youngsters who have them also broaden other seizures. Many kids outgrow absence seizures in their teens.

  • Absence seizures are short seizures all through which the affected person is unresponsive. They are usually seen in kids among 4 and 12 years of age. It has a classic EEG locating of three Hz spike and wave discharges. Absence epilepsy is an electroclinical diagnosis (clinical presentation and EEG findings). This hobby opinions the evaluation, analysis, and management of absence seizures and highlights the differential diagnosis of staring spells.

  • Absence seizures are a type of epilepsy that affects the consciousness and results in brief lapses of time during which the affected person appears to be staring into space The seizure lasts just a few seconds but can occur frequently throughout the day The episodes do not impair function because they take place when the person is doing something else such as working or talking During an absence seizure there are no visible signs such as jerking of the arms and legs Absence seizures can be mistaken for inattention and are often misdiagnosed.

  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus


  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

Absence seizures in babies

Absence seizures in babies are rare but when they do occur parents may be worried about what this seizure type means for their child's future Absence seizures in babies are also called petit mal seizures because unlike many other types of infantile seizures they don't cause any physical symptoms such as jerking or loss of consciousness Instead these seizures typically consist of staring spells that last around 15 seconds and may occur hundreds of times a day In some cases the baby appears to be awake during the absence seizure and will sometimes even turn his or her head away from something that is distracting.

Symptoms Absence seizure

The simplest manner to spot a scarcity seizure is to search for a clean stare that lasts for some seconds. People inside the midst of having a lack of seizure don’t talk, pay attention, or appear to recognize. An absence seizure doesn’t typically motive you to crumple. You could be in the middle of creating dinner, walking throughout the room, or typing an email when you have the seizure. Then all at once you snap out of it and hold as you were before the seizure.

An indication of easy absence seizure is a vacant stare, which may be incorrect for a lapse in attention that lasts approximately 10 seconds, even though it can last as long as 20 seconds, without any confusion, headache or drowsiness in a while. Signs and symptoms of absence seizures consist of:

  • Sudden stop in motion without falling

  • Lip smacking

  • Eyelid flutters

  • Chewing motions

  • Finger rubbing

  • Small movements of both hands

Afterward, there is no reminiscence of the incident. Some people have many episodes day by day, which interfere with school or activities.

A child may additionally have absence seizures for a while earlier than a person notices the seizures, because they are so brief. A decline in a baby's getting to know potential may be the first sign of this ailment. Teachers may remark approximately an infant's incapacity to pay attention or that a toddler is often daydreaming.

When to see a doctor

Contact your doctor:

  • The first time you notice a seizure

  • If this is a new type of seizure

  • If the seizures continue to occur despite taking anti-seizure medication

Contact 911 or emergency services in your area:

  • If you take a look at prolonged automated behaviors lasting minutes to hours — sports which include ingesting or moving without consciousness — or extended confusion, viable signs of a circumstance called absence fame epilepticus

  • After any seizure lasting more than five minutes

Causes Absence seizure

Researchers believe genetics performs a function in all generalized epilepsy kinds, which includes absence seizures. Several genes are thought to be concerned. Specific details about inheritance nonetheless aren’t regarded.

Many kids appear to have a genetic predisposition to absence seizures.

In standard, seizures are caused by ordinary electrical impulses from nerve cells (neurons) within the mind. The brain's nerve cells commonly send electrical and chemical alerts throughout the synapses that connect them.

In people who've seizures, the mind's standard electric activity is altered. During an absence seizure, these electrical alerts repeat themselves again and again in a three-2nd sample.

People who've seizures may additionally have altered stages of the chemical messengers that help the nerve cells speak with each other (neurotransmitters).

Risk factors Absence seizure

Absence seizures are maximum commonplace in children from age four to fourteen. However, older teenagers and adults may additionally have absence seizures.

Some human beings have absence seizures for lots of months or years before it’s recognized as a problem.

Certain elements are commonplace to youngsters who've absence seizures, together with:

  • Age. Absence seizures are more common in children between the ages of 4 and 14.

  • Sex. Absence seizures are more common in girls.

  • Family members who have seizures. Nearly half of children with absence seizures have a close relative who has seizures.

Complications Absence seizure

Absence seizures are the most common type of seizure in children It is a brief (1-2 second) event during which a child temporarily loses awareness and stops functioning An absence seizure feels like the child has "blanked out" for a moment Absence seizures are sometimes called petit mal seizures or "little falls." They are often confused with the normal state of daydreaming, staring off into space or spacing out.

While most children outgrow absence seizures, some:

  • Must take anti-seizure medications throughout life to prevent seizures

  • Eventually have full convulsions, such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures

Other complications can include:

  • Learning difficulties

  • Behavior problems

  • Social isolation

Prevention Absence seizure

Unfortunately, there isn’t a manner to prevent absence seizures, in view that genetics are a notion to play a position in their cause.

Taking your drugs exactly as your health practitioner prescribed is one of the quality approaches to manage absence seizures. But you can additionally make a few adjustments for your existence to help prevent absence seizures from going on. These encompass:

  • Get plenty of sleep each night.

  • Find ways to manage your stress.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Exercise regularly.

Diagnosis Absence seizure

Your healthcare company makes the diagnosis of absence epilepsy based totally on signs and symptoms, a hyperventilation test and outcomes of an electroencephalogram (EEG) check.

Be prepared to explain your infant’s symptoms, consisting of what occurred earlier than, in the course of and after the occasion. These statistics can also come from you or different family participants or school groups of workers.

Hyperventilating can trigger an absence seizure. To help make the diagnosis, your healthcare issuer may additionally want your toddler to carry out this test. If so, your infant can be requested to blow again and again for greater than two mins.

Your healthcare company will order an electroencephalogram take a look at. During this check, the electrical hobby of their mind is monitored via sensors placed in your baby’s scalp. Absence seizures are identified by a particular kind of brain wave sample.

Your physician will ask for a detailed description of the seizures and conduct a bodily examination. Tests may additionally include:

  • Electroencephalography (EEG). This painless procedure measures waves of electrical pastime in the thoughts. Brain waves are transmitted to the EEG machine through small electrodes connected to the scalp with paste or an elastic cap.
    Rapid respiratory (hyperventilation) in the course of an EEG take a look at can cause an absence seizure. During a seizure, the sample on the EEG differs from the everyday pattern.

  • Brain scans. In absence seizures, mind-imaging research, which includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can be normal. But checks including MRI can produce specific photographs of the mind, which could help rule out other troubles, consisting of a stroke or a brain tumor. Because your infant will need to hold still for lengthy durations, speak together with your health practitioner approximately the possible use of sedation.

Treatment Absence seizure

Certain seizure drug treatments can help prevent absence seizures. Usually those are endorsed for maximum youngsters. The medicines most generally used for absence seizures encompass ethosuximide (Zarontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), valproic acid (Depakene), or divalproex sodium (Depakote).

In about 7 out of 10 children with absence seizures, the seizures may work away through age 18. If this happens, medicines won't be wanted as an adult. Children who begin having absence seizures before age nine are much more likely to outgrow them than youngsters whose absence seizures start after age 10.

For different kids, seizure medicine can be needed lengthy-time period. A neurologist assists you to find out about the risks, treatments, and outlook for the destiny.

Your physician possibly will begin at the lowest dose of anti-seizure medicine viable and grow the dosage as hard to control the seizures. Children may be able to taper off anti-seizure medicines, under a doctor's supervision, once they've been seizure-unfastened for 2 years.

Drugs prescribed for absence seizure encompass:

  • Ethosuximide (Zarontin). This is the drug maximum doctors begin with for absence seizures. In maximum cases, seizures respond properly to this drug. Possible consequences include nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, hassle sleeping, hyperactivity.

  • Valproic acid (Depakene). Girls who maintain to need medicine into adulthood need to discuss capacity dangers of valproic acid with their docs. Valproic acid has been related to higher threat of birth defects in babies, and docs advise women in opposition to using it at some stage in being pregnant or while looking to conceive.
    Doctors may additionally propose the use of valproic acid in youngsters who have each absence and grand mal (tonic-clonic) seizures.

  • Lamotrigine (Lamictal). Some research shows this drug to be less powerful than ethosuximide or valproic acid, however it has fewer side effects. Side outcomes may also include rash and nausea.

How do you treat absence seizures without medication?

Absence seizures are one of the most common seizure types They also happen to be one of the easiest to treat without medication The first step is to recognize when an absence seizure is happening which can be difficult because some people with absence seizures have no warning signs However there are some triggers that may indicate an absence seizure: being startled in class or other situations where you're sitting quietly and suddenly become confused staring off into space for a few seconds blinking frequently moving your arms or legs repetitively walking into things and having difficulty with memory If you experience any of these symptoms while having an absence seizure it's important to get evaluated by a doctor to determine if this type of seizure is happening more often than.

What vitamin is good for seizures?

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin that has been shown to reduce the frequency of seizures for certain people with epilepsy The effect of vitamin B6 depends on how much of it is needed by the body and how much it's getting Some researchers have linked low levels of vitamin B6 to seizures in people with epilepsy Typically doses around 100 milligrams daily are effective for seizure reduction.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Dietary therapy

Following a food regimen it's excessive in fat and coffee in carbohydrates, referred to as a ketogenic weight-reduction plan, can enhance seizure management. This is used simplest if traditional medicines fail to govern the seizures.

This weight loss program isn't always clean to preserve, but is successful at lowering seizures for a few humans. Variations on an excessive-fats, low-carbohydrate diet, including the glycemic index and modified Atkins diets, though much less powerful, are not as restrictive because of the ketogenic weight loss plan and might additionally offer benefit.

Additional options

Here are other steps you would possibly take to assist with seizure control:

  • Take medication correctly. Don't adjust the dosage before speaking to your health practitioner. If you sense your medicine ought to be changed, discuss it with your doctor.

  • Get enough sleep. Lack of sleep can trigger seizures. Be sure to get good enough relaxation each night.

  • Wear a medical alert bracelet. This will help emergency employees realize a way to treat you correctly when you have another seizure.

  • Ask your doctor about driving or recreation restrictions. Someone with a seizure sickness will have to be seizure-free for reasonable lengths of time (periods range from kingdom to country) earlier than being capable of pressure. Don't shower or swim until a person else is nearby to help if needed.

Coping and support

If you are living with a seizure ailment, you may feel hectic or pressured approximately what your destiny holds. Stress can have an effect on your mental health, so it's crucial to talk together with your doctor about your feelings and seek sources for assistance.

At home

Your circle of relatives can provide a good deal-wished assist. Tell them what you recognize about seizure sickness. Let them know they are able to ask you questions, and be open to conversations about their worries. Help them recognize the circumstance through sharing any academic substances or other assets that your medical doctor has given you.

At school

Talk along with your baby's teachers and coaches approximately your baby's seizure disorder and how it impacts your child at college. Discuss what your toddler would possibly want from them if a seizure happens at school.

You're not alone

Remember, you don't ought to pass it on my own. Reach out to your own family and friends. Ask your health practitioner about local assistance organizations or be a part of an internet help community. Don't be afraid to ask for assistance. Having a strong aid system is critical to residing with any scientific situation.

Preparing for your appointment

You're probably to start by seeing your circle of relatives, medical doctor or a preferred practitioner. However, you'll probably be stated as a medical doctor who specializes in nervous machine issues (neurologist).

Here's some facts to help you get prepared for the appointment.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you notice, including any that may seem unrelated to seizures.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements you or your child takes.

  • Write down questions to ask the doctor.

Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of it slowly together with your physician. For absence seizure, some fundamental questions to ask your medical doctor encompass:

  • What's the most likely cause of these symptoms?

  • What tests are needed? Do these tests require special preparation?

  • Is this condition temporary or long lasting?

  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?

  • What are the side effects of the treatment?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Can my child also develop the grand mal type of seizure?

  • Are activity restrictions necessary? Are physical activities, such as soccer, football and swimming OK?

  • Do you have brochures or different revealed clothes I can take? What websites do you endorse?

Don't hesitate to ask any other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When did the symptoms begin?

  • How often have the symptoms occurred?

  • Can you describe a typical seizure?

  • How long do the seizures last?

  • Is there awareness of what happened after the seizure?

General summary

  1. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are a type of seizure that usually occurs in children. It is characterized by a brief loss of consciousness with no associated physical movement or jerking. It is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain and is a form of epilepsy. These seizures often last for less than 20 seconds and can be accompanied by lip smacking, eye blinking, or rolling of the eyes.

  2. Absence seizures, medically known as petit mal seizures, are a type of generalized seizure that cause a person to become unresponsive for a short period of time. Generally, the person will stare off into space and will not respond to their surroundings. These types of seizures can occur multiple times throughout the day and can last anywhere from one to fifteen seconds. Absence seizures usually occur in children between the ages of four and fourteen, but adults can experience them as well.

  3. Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are a type of seizure that manifests as brief periods of impaired consciousness. During an absence seizure, a person may appear to be staring off and not responding to their environment. They usually last less than 15 seconds and they can happen multiple times within a day. It is important to note that absence seizures do not involve convulsions, though they can occur alongside other types of seizures.

Absence seizure : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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