Aortic valve disease : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

 What Is Aortic Valve Disease?

Aortic valve disorder is a situation that occurs whilst your aorta (the primary artery of your body) and left ventricle (the decreased left chamber of your coronary heart) malfunction. The aortic valve determines how blood flows out of your left ventricle for your aorta.

There are  extraordinary styles of aortic valve ailment: aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation. In the case of aortic stenosis, the hole of your aortic valve is narrower than it needs to be resulting in restrained blood drift to the aorta. In aortic regurgitation, some of the blood leaks returned into your left ventricle due to the fact your aortic valve doesn’t close tightly enough.

A bicuspid aortic valve is a congenital heart illness that impacts the only-manner valve between your heart and your aorta, referred to as the aortic valve. Normally, your aortic valve has three cusps that modify blood drift out of your heart on your aorta. But if you have a bicuspid aortic valve, you best have  cusps.

What Is Aortic Valve Disease?
Aortic Valve Disease

Your aortic valve cusps, additionally referred to as leaflets or flaps, open and close to adjust blood go with the flow among your coronary heart and your aorta. These flaps ensure your oxygen-rich blood flows in the right course: Out of your coronary heart and into your aorta. They save your blood from flowing backward into your heart. The flaps must open extensively to allow blood flow from your coronary heart after which it closes securely.

If you simplest have two flaps, rather than three, it’s more difficult for your aortic valve to function inside the proper manner. You may additionally broaden valve diseases like aortic regurgitation or aortic stenosis.

  1. Circulatory system

    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

medical terms

  • Aortic valve disease is a medical condition that affects the heart’s aortic valve. This valve, which regulates the flow of blood from the left chamber of the heart to the aorta, can become stiff and narrow, preventing it from opening completely. This restricts the amount of blood that can flow through it. As a result, the heart has to work harder to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.

  • Aortic valve disease is a condition that affects the aortic valve a one-way valve between the heart and its largest artery As people age they're at greater risk of developing aortic stenosis or sclerosis which narrows the opening through the valve causing blood to back up in the vessels leading from the heart The resulting pressure causes the heart muscle to thicken This can lead to shortness of breath chest pain and fatigue.

  • Aortic valve disease symptoms are the same in both adults and children In this condition the aortic valve does not close properly causing blood to flow out of the heart into the aorta This causes pressure on the valves and can lead to heart failure chest pain or shortness of breath Those suffering from aortic valve disease symptoms should seek professional medical help as soon as possible.

Aortic valve disorder is a form of heart valve disorder. In aortic valve disorder, the valve among the lower left coronary heart chamber (left ventricle) and the principal artery to the frame (aorta) would not work properly. The aortic valve enables preserving blood flowing in the best course through the heart. A broken or diseased aortic valve can affect blood flow to the relaxation of the heart and body.

Aortic valve disease includes:

  • Aortic valve stenosis. The flaps (cusps) of the aortic valve end up thick and stiff, or they fuse collectively. These troubles cause the valve to become slender. The narrowed valve reduces or blocks blood float from the coronary heart to the rest of the body.

  • Aortic valve regurgitation. The aortic valve would not near properly, inflicting blood to drift backward into the left decrease coronary heart chamber (ventricle).

Aortic valve sickness may be a gift at the beginning (congenital coronary heart ailment), or it may arise later in life because of other fitness situations.

Treatment for aortic valve ailment relies upon the sort and severity of disorder. Some human beings may need surgical treatment to restore or replace the aortic valve.

Symptoms Aortic valve disease

Many people with aortic valve disease do not experience any signs and symptoms. As the disorder progresses, you may observe a well known decline in activity level.Some human beings with aortic valve ailment may not notice symptoms for decades. Signs and symptoms of aortic valve sickness may also include:

  • Whooshing or swishing heart sound (heart murmur)

  • Chest pain or tightness

  • Dizziness

  • Fainting

  • Fatigue after activity or having less ability to be active

  • Irregular heartbeat

  • Shortness of breath, particularly during vigorous activity or when lying down

  • Not eating enough (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis)

  • Not gaining enough weight (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis)

When to see a doctor

If you're having a sudden chest ache, get emergency scientific help.

Make an appointment with a health care provider if you have signs and symptoms or signs and symptoms of valve disease, along with shortness of breath, fatigue after activity, or sensations of a pounding or an abnormal heartbeat. Sometimes the first symptoms of aortic valve sickness are related to heart failure. See a healthcare company when you have fatigue that does not get higher with rest, shortness of breath, and swollen ankles and toes, which might be not unusual symptoms of coronary heart failure.

Causes Aortic valve disease

A buildup of calcium in your aortic valve’s leaflets can also cause aortic stenosis. As blood flows through your heart, calcium gradually builds up at the leaflets. The calcium deposit can cause the leaflets to stiffen and narrow your aortic valve. This shape of aortic valve disease typically appears in older adults.

Rheumatic fever and scarlet fever can also motivate aortic stenosis. Rheumatic fever and scarlet fever can start as strep throat and then leave scars on your aortic valve. The scars can reason your aortic valve to narrow. This scar tissue may additionally supply calcium to a floor in which it may collect.

Aortic valve sickness can be resulting from a heart illness gift at delivery (congenital heart disorder). Other reasons of aortic valve disease later in lifestyles encompass:

  • Age-related changes to the heart

  • Infections

  • High blood pressure

  • Injury to the heart

To better understand the causes of aortic valve disorder, it could be useful to know how the coronary heart valves normally paint.

The heart has 4 valves that preserve blood flowing in the ideal route. These valves are:

  • Aortic valve

  • Mitral valve

  • Tricuspid valve

  • Pulmonary valve

Each valve has flaps (cusps or leaflets) that open and near as soon as during every heartbeat. Sometimes, a valve would not open or close nicely. This can reduce or block blood float via the coronary heart to the rest of the body.

In aortic valve disorder, the valve between the decreased left coronary heart chamber (left ventricle) and the frame's important artery (aorta) would not paint nicely. The valve can be thickened and stiff (stenosis) or it may no longer close nicely, causing blood to go with the flow backward.

Risk factors Aortic valve disease

Generally, valve surgical procedures have a low chance of complications.Many matters can improve the risk of aortic valve disease, along with:

  • Older age. Calcium deposits can build up at the aortic valve as humans age, inflicting the aortic valve to stiffen and turn out to be slender.

  • Heart valve problems present at birth (congenital heart defects). Some humans are born with a lacking, more or fused valve flap (cusp), growing the danger of aortic valve regurgitation.

  • Rheumatic fever. This complication of strep throat can cause aortic stenosis, a type of valve ailment. If you have heart valve disorder due to rheumatic fever, it's called rheumatic coronary heart ailment. If no longer, it is called nonrheumatic heart disease.

  • Inflammation of the lining of the heart's chambers and valves (endocarditis). This life-threatening situation is common as a result of infection. It can harm the aortic valve.

  • History of radiation therapy to the chest. Some styles of cancer are handled with radiation remedy. Symptoms of coronary heart valve disorder may not be observed till a few years after radiation remedy is received.

  • Other health conditions. Chronic kidney ailment, lupus and Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue ailment, can increase the risk of aortic stenosis or regurgitation.

Complications Aortic valve disease

Bicuspid aortic valve sickness can result in severe headaches if untreated.

Potential headaches of aortic valve ailment might also encompass:

  • Blood clots

  • Stroke

  • Heart failure

  • Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias)

  • Death due to sudden cardiac arrest

Proper diagnosis and remedy can help reduce the hazard of headaches.

Prevention Aortic valve disease

A bicuspid aortic valve rarely poses any problems But if it does the condition can be treated with surgery or medication In some cases both treatment methods are needed.

Bicuspid aortic valve ailment can lead to severe complications if untreated. These encompass:

  • Heart failure. Aortic valve stenosis forces your heart to work tougher to force blood via your valve. Your coronary heart’s fundamental pumping chamber, your left ventricle, thickens and gets larger. It can’t pump blood as efficiently because it should. Over time, this ends in coronary heart failure. Other threat elements like smoking or high ldl cholesterol can speed up this procedure.

  • Aortic aneurysm rupture and dissection. About 1 in 3 human beings who've a bicuspid aortic valve even have a dilated (enlarged) aorta above their valve. As your aorta gets larger, its walls lose their power and stretch out of shape. Eventually, this could reason an aortic aneurysm (bulging of the aorta) to form. If the aneurysm grows too big, it is able to rupture or dissect. These are existence-threatening emergencies.

How long can you live with aortic valve disease?

Aortic valve disease is a condition in which the aortic valve doesn’t open completely or closes too soon This means that blood can’t flow easily from the heart to the rest of the body As a result blood pressure in the arteries may increase beyond normal levels.

Can you recover from heart valve disease?

Heart valve disease, which includes a broad range of disorders that can affect the valves in the heart, is a condition in which the heart’s valves no longer work properly. If you have heart valve disease you should know about it so that you can take steps to prevent serious complications such as heart failure and stroke.

Can an aortic valve repair itself?

Aortic valve repair is a surgical procedure in which the diseased aortic valve is replaced with an artificial or "prosthetic" one There are several types of prosthetic valves which work differently depending on the patient's condition and the type of valve that needs to be replaced For example patients who have had a previous heart surgery may require a mechanical valve while those who need a new valve because of rheumatic fever may require an autograft valve However different prosthetic valves all serve the same purpose: to help keep blood moving through the heart at a steady rate.

How can I improve my aortic valve?

If you have aortic valve stenosis the most common symptom is shortness of breath and fatigue You may also feel dizzy or lightheaded when you go from lying down to standing up too quickly If you are experiencing any of these symptoms see your doctor for an evaluation If aortic valve stenosis is found treatment options include medication or surgical procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or replacement of the aortic valve with an artificial valve.

Can you live a normal life after aortic valve replacement?

Aortic valve replacement is a surgical procedure used to replace a damaged heart valve with a new one It's done after patients have been diagnosed with aortic stenosis an abnormal narrowing of the valve that causes blood to pool in the heart and increases the risk of stroke heart failure and death Aortic valve replacement has proven to be effective at relieving chest pain and improving quality of life for patients suffering from severe aortic stenosis.

Diagnosis Aortic valve disease

At the Frankel Cardiovascular Center, our team will work with you to evaluate your signs and make an accurate prognosis. You may have a maximum of your tests done underneath one roof and often in a single go.

Diagnosing aortic valve sickness starts with a fitness evaluation, overview of your scientific history and physical exam. Your doctor will also listen to your heart for a whooshing sound (murmur), a signal of coronary heart valve ailment.

To diagnose aortic valve ailment, a health care issuer will typically do a physical examination and ask questions about your symptoms and signs and scientific history.

A health care provider may also pay attention to a whooshing or swishing sound (coronary heart murmur) when taking note of your heart with a stethoscope. If so, you'll be noted as a health practitioner skilled in coronary heart sicknesses (heart specialist).

Several checks may be accomplished to diagnose aortic valve sickness, together with:

  • Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart. Sound waves are used to create images of the heart in motion. An echocardiogram affords a better observation of the circumstance of the aortic valve and the aorta. It can assist in deciding the motive and severity of aortic valve disease.
    In a widespread echocardiogram, a wandlike device (transducer) that offers off sound waves is lightly pressed towards the pores and skin of the chest above the coronary heart. Sometimes, a transesophageal echocardiogram can be performed to get a closer study of the aortic valve. In this sort of echocardiogram, a small transducer attached to the give up of a tube is inserted down the tube main from the mouth to the belly (esophagus).

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This noninvasive takes a look at information about the electrical pastime of the coronary heart. Sticky patches with sensors (electrodes) are located at the chest and sometimes the legs. Wires join the patches to a pc, which presents outcomes.

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can display the situation of the heart and lungs. A fitness care company might also use the test result to look if the heart is enlarged, which can be a signal of sure forms of aortic valve sickness or heart failure. A chest X-ray may additionally display calcium buildup on the aortic valve or fluid in the lungs.

  • Cardiac MRI. A cardiac MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create specific photos of the coronary heart. This test can be used to decide the severity of aortic valve disorder and degree the dimensions of the aorta.

  • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan. A cardiac CT scan uses a chain of X-rays to create detailed pics of the heart and coronary heart valves. Doctors might also use this imaging method to measure the dimensions of the aorta and observe the aortic valve greater intently. A CT experiment can be used to evaluate the dimensions of the aorta, degree the quantity of calcium in the aortic valve or determine the severity of aortic valve stenosis.

  • Exercise tests or stress tests. These tests often contain taking walks on a treadmill or riding a stationary motorcycle while an ECG or echocardiogram is executed. Exercise tests help screen how the heart responds to physical interest and whether or not valve sickness signs and symptoms occur during exercising. If you're unable to workout, medications which have comparable outcomes as exercise in your heart can be used.

  • Cardiac catheterization. This take a look at isn't often used to diagnose aortic valve ailment. However, it can be used to determine the severity of aortic valve ailment or to diagnose the circumstance if other exams cannot. In this check, a skinny, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted right into a blood vessel, generally within the groin area or arm, and guided to the coronary heart. Cardiac catheterization can give more details about blood glide and how well the coronary heart is running. Certain coronary heart remedies may be performed during cardiac catheterization.


After checking out confirms a prognosis of aortic or other coronary heart valve disease, your fitness care company may additionally inform you of the degree of disease. Staging allows determining the most appropriate remedy.

The stage of heart valve disease depends on many things, which include signs, sickness severity, the shape of the valve or valves, and blood float through the coronary heart and lungs.

Heart valve ailment is staged into four simple groups:

  • Stage A: At risk. Risk factors for heart valve disease are present.

  • Stage B: Progressive. Valve disease is mild or moderate. There are no heart valve symptoms.

  • Stage C: Asymptomatic severe. There are no heart valve symptoms but the valve disease is severe.

  • Stage D: Symptomatic severe. Heart valve disease is severe and is causing symptoms.

Treatment Aortic valve disease

At the Frankel Cardiovascular Center, you’ll receive care from a nationally diagnosed software. We’re nationally ranked for Cardiology and Heart Surgery through U.S. News & World Report Best Hospitals. We’ve also obtained top rankings for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, aortic valve surgical operation and transcatheter aortic valve repair (TAVR).

There are currently no medications available to deal with the valve issues of aortic stenosis or aortic regurgitation, but your physician can prescribe medicines that may assist reduce the outcomes of the sickness.

Treatment for aortic valve disease depends on:

  • The severity (stage) of aortic valve disease

  • Whether the disease is causing symptoms

  • Whether the condition is getting worse

Treatment may consist of tracking, way of life modifications, medications, or surgical operation or different methods. If you have aortic valve ailment, recall being evaluated and dealt with at a medical middle with a multidisciplinary crew of heart ailment specialists (cardiologists) and others skilled and skilled in evaluating and treating coronary heart valve disorder.


If aortic valve sickness is mild or slight or in case you aren't having signs, you can most effectively want ordinary scientific checkups to display the condition.

Heart-wholesome lifestyle adjustments and medicinal drugs can be advocated to deal with symptoms of aortic valve sickness or lessen the threat of headaches. For instance, medicinal drugs may be used to:

  • Lower blood pressure

  • Prevent irregular heartbeats

  • Remove excess fluid from the body to reduce the strain on the heart

Surgery or other procedures

Eventually, surgical operation or a catheter technique may be had to restore or update the diseased aortic valve. Some people with aortic valve ailment want surgical treatment even if it's now not excessive or when it's not inflicting symptoms.

Surgery to restore or update an aortic valve is frequently done with open-coronary heart surgical procedure. Sometimes, the valve may be replaced throughout minimally invasive heart surgery, which uses smaller incisions than the ones wanted for open-heart surgical operation, or with a catheter-primarily based technique.

Aortic valve repair

During aortic valve repair, the medical professional may also do one or all of the following:

  • Separate valve flaps (cusps) that have fused

  • Add support to the base of the valve

  • Reshape or remove excess valve tissue so that the cusps can close tightly

  • Patch holes or tears in a valve

Aortic valve restore frequently calls for open-coronary heart surgery. However, less invasive options can be available. For example, a catheter method can be used to insert a plug or device to repair a leaking substitute aortic valve.

In babies and youngsters with aortic valve stenosis, a less invasive procedure called balloon valvuloplasty may be executed to briefly open a narrowed valve. During this technique, the doctor inserts a thin, hollow tube (catheter) into a blood vessel, usually within the groin, and threads it to the coronary heart. A balloon is inflated to widen the valve commencing, after which deflated and removed. This valve repair system may also be performed in adults who are too ill for surgical procedure or who're looking forward to a valve alternative.

Aortic valve replacement

In aortic valve alternative, a healthcare professional removes the damaged valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made from cow, pig or human heart tissue (organic tissue valve).

Sometimes, the aortic valve is replaced with your personal lung (pulmonary) valve. Then your pulmonary valve is changed with an organic lung tissue valve. This greater complicated surgical treatment is called the Ross procedure.

You and your fitness care issuer will speak about the benefits and risks of each form of valve to choose the first-class option for you.

Aortic valve alternative typically requires open-heart surgery, which involves a cut (incision) inside the chest. Sometimes, surgeons can use a minimally invasive process known as transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to update a narrowed aortic valve with an organic tissue valve. TAVR makes use of smaller incisions than the ones utilized in open-coronary heart surgery. TAVR may be a choice for human beings at extended chance of heart valve surgical procedure complications.

  1. heart transplant
  2. Heart valve transplantation

Lifestyle and home remedies

After diagnosis or remedy of aortic valve ailment, you may need normal health checkups to screen your circumstance. Your health care company may additionally suggest making heart-healthy lifestyle changes, including:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet. Eat a variety of end results and greens, low-fat or fat-loose dairy products, chicken, fish, and whole grains. Avoid saturated and trans fat and extra salt and sugar.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight. Ask your health care issuer what a healthy weight is for you. If you are overweight or obese, your fitness care issuer may advise that you lose weight.

  • Getting regular exercise. As a standard aim, purpose for a minimum 30 minutes of slight bodily hobby each day. Ask your fitness care issuer before starting a brand new workout recurring.

  • Managing stress. Find ways to assist reduce emotional stress. Getting greater exercise, practicing mindfulness and connecting with others in aid companies are a few approaches to tame pressure.

  • Quitting smoking. If you want help quitting smoking or using tobacco, ask your health care company about resources to help. Joining a help organization can be beneficial.

For women with aortic valve disease, it's crucial to speak with a healthcare company before becoming pregnant. Your fitness care company can discuss with you which medicines you can effectively take and whether or not you could need a process to treat your valve situation prior to being pregnant.

Women with aortic valve disorder probably require close monitoring with the aid of a healthcare company throughout being pregnant. Health care carriers might also propose that girls with extreme coronary heart valve ailment keep away from being pregnant to avoid the threat of headaches.

Coping and support

If you've got aortic valve sickness, here are a few steps which could assist you manipulate the situation:

  • Take medications as prescribed. Take your medicinal drugs as directed by using your healthcare provider.

  • Get support. Connecting with others who've the same or a comparable circumstance can be helpful. Ask your fitness care issuer to approximately help corporations in your vicinity.

  • Stay active. Regular workout is one of the first-rate ways to enhance heart health. Ask your health care company about how tons and what kinds of bodily activity are safe for you.

Preparing for your appointment

If you believe you studied you have got aortic valve disease, make an appointment to see your fitness care issuer. Here's some records to help you put together for your appointment.

  • Be aware of pre-appointment restrictions. When you are making the appointment, ask if there's whatever you need to do in advance.

  • Write down your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to heart valve disease.

  • Write down key personal information, Which includes a family history of heart sickness, and any principal stresses or latest lifestyle adjustments.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements you take.

  • Take a family member or friend along, If possible. Someone who accompanies you could assist you bear in mind records you get hold of.

  • Be prepared to discuss Your food regimen and workout conduct. If you do not already consume well and exercising, be prepared to talk to your fitness care provider about the challenges you might face in getting started out.

  • Write down questions to ask your healthcare provider.

For aortic valve disorder, a few basic questions to ask your fitness care provider include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?

  • What tests will I need?

  • What's the best treatment?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • If I need surgery, which surgeon do you recommend for heart valve surgery?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

  1. Aortic valve disease is a condition that affects the aortic valve of the heart. This means that the valve does not open and close correctly, causing the heart to work harder to pump blood throughout the body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as a genetic predisposition, age-related wear and tear, or an infection. As a result, the valve can become narrowed or even leak, which can cause chest pain, fatigue, and increased risk of stroke.

  2. Aortic valve disease is a condition in which the aortic valve of the heart becomes damaged or weakened. This condition can cause the aortic valve to become narrowed or leaky, which can lead to a buildup of pressure in the heart and reduce its efficiency. The narrowing of the aortic valve, also known as aortic stenosis, usually occurs when calcium deposits form on the valve, restricting the amount of blood that can pass through it. Aortic regurgitation, or the leaking of blood through the valve, typically happens when one or more of the leaflets that make up the valve become damaged or weakened.

  3. Aortic valve disease is a condition which involves the aortic valve of the heart, which is responsible for controlling the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the aorta. The aortic valve can become narrowed, thickened, calcified or some combination of these, which can affect the amount of blood that is able to pass through the valve. This narrowing or thickening is referred to as aortic stenosis, and can lead to an increased strain on the heart muscle. In severe cases, this strain can result in an inability of the heart to pump blood effectively - a condition known as heart failure.

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