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Ankylosing spondylitis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

 What is Ankylosing spondylitis?

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of chronic inflammatory arthritis that mainly affects the spine and the sacroiliac (SI) joints. It is a form of axial spondyloarthritis, which is a group of diseases that cause inflammation and stiffness in the spine, hips, and other parts of the body. The main symptom of AS is pain and stiffness in the lower back. In some cases, AS can also cause joint pain and swelling, especially in the hips, shoulders, and other large joints.

What is Ankylosing spondylitis?
Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory condition that affects the spine. It is most commonly seen in people under the age of 45 and typically involves pain and stiffness in the lower back, hips, and other parts of the body. In some cases, the inflammation can cause the vertebrae of the spine to fuse together, leading to a reduced range of motion and disability. Ankylosing spondylitis can also involve extra-articular features, such as uveitis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Musculoskeletal system

  1. Human skeleton

  2. Joints

  3. Ligaments

  4. Muscular system

  5. Tendons

Medical terms

  • (AS) is an inflammatory condition that affects the spine and other parts of the body. It is a form of arthritis that typically occurs in young adults and can cause inflammation, pain, stiffness, and permanent damage to the spine. People with AS may also experience fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, AS can cause the vertebrae in the spine to fuse together, leading to a stooped posture.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine. It is a type of spondyloarthritis, in which the affected joints experience chronic inflammation. In more severe cases, the inflammation can affect other joints and organs, including the lungs and eyes. AS can lead to a gradual fusion of the affected joints, which may cause the spine to become increasingly rigid.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of chronic arthritis that primarily affects the spine, resulting in inflammation of the spinal joints and the ligaments and tendons that attach it to the bones. The condition may also spread to other areas, such as the hips, shoulders, and ribs. It can cause the spine to become rigid and immobile and can lead to ankylosis, or the fusion of the vertebrae. Symptoms of AS can include pain and stiffness in the lower back and hips, fatigue, and restricted mobility.

Symptoms Ankylosing spondylitis

Early signs and symptoms and signs of ankylosing spondylitis would possibly consist of pain and stiffness inside the lower lower back and hips, especially within the morning and after durations of state of being inactive. Neck pain and fatigue are also common. Over time, signs may get worse, improve or forestall at abnormal periods.

The regions maximum normally affected are:

  • The joint among the bottom of the backbone and the pelvis

  • The vertebrae in the lower back

  • The locations in which tendons and ligaments attach to bones, specifically inside the spine, but every now and then alongside the again of the heel

  • The cartilage between the breastbone and the ribs

  • The hip and shoulder joints

When to look a doctor

Seek clinical attention if you have low lower back or buttock ache that gets here on slowly, is worse inside the morning or awakens you from your sleep within the second 1/2 of the night — specifically if this pain improves with workout and worsens with rest. See an eye professional right away if you develop a painful crimson eye, severe mild sensitivity or blurred vision.

Causes Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis has no known precise motive, even though genetic factors appear to be concerned. In specific, humans who have a gene called HLA-B27 are at a significantly elevated risk of growing ankylosing spondylitis. However, only a few humans with the gene expand the condition.

Having this kind of situations may also increase your hazard:

  • Crohn’s disorder.

  • Ulcerative colitis.

  • Psoriasis.

Risk Ankylosing spondylitis

Onset usually happens in late early life or early adulthood. Most human beings who have ankylosing spondylitis have the HLA-B27 gene. But many humans who've this gene by no means develop ankylosing spondylitis.

Complications Ankylosing spondylitis

In excessive ankylosing spondylitis, new bone bureaucracy as a part of the body's attempt to heal. This new bone step by step bridges the gap among vertebrae and sooner or later fuses sections of vertebrae. Those elements of the spine turn out to be stiff and rigid. Fusion also can stiffen the rib cage, limiting lung ability and function.

Other headaches may consist of:

  • Eye inflammation (uveitis). One of the maximum common headaches of ankylosing spondylitis, uveitis can cause fast-onset eye ache, sensitivity to mild and blurred imaginative and prescient. See your doctor properly if you increase these symptoms.

  • Compression fractures. Some humans' bones weaken throughout the early stages of ankylosing spondylitis. Weakened vertebrae can crumple, growing the severity of a stooped posture. Vertebral fractures can place stress on and likely injure the spinal twine and the nerves that bypass through the backbone.

  • Heart issues. Ankylosing spondylitis can cause issues with the aorta, the biggest artery inside the body. The inflamed aorta can extend to the point that it distorts the form of the aortic valve inside the heart, which impairs its characteristic. The inflammation associated with ankylosing spondylitis will increase the danger of coronary heart ailment in widespread.

How can I prevent ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory condition that affects the spine and other parts of the body. It is a form of arthritis that typically occurs in young adults and can cause inflammation, pain, stiffness, and permanent damage to the spine. People with AS may also experience fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, AS can cause the vertebrae in the spine to fuse together, leading to a stooped postureAnkylosing spondylitis cannot be prevented, but there are certain lifestyle changes that can reduce its symptoms. Regular exercise, such as swimming, stretching, and yoga, can help to improve flexibility and reduce inflammation. It is also important to maintain a healthy diet and avoid processed foods and sugar. Additionally, stress management techniques and adequate amounts of rest can help to reduce pain and inflammation.

  • (AS) is not curable, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms. Exercise, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, and physical therapy can help to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life. Medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, and certain biologics can also be used to reduce inflammation and pain. In some cases, surgery may be needed to correct spinal deformities caused by AS.

Diagnosis Ankylosing spondylitis

During the bodily examination, your fitness care issuer may ask you to bend in special directions to test the variety of motion for your backbone. Your company may attempt to reproduce your ache by way of pressing on specific quantities of your pelvis or by shifting your legs into a selected role. You additionally may be requested to take a deep breath to look if you have difficulty increasing your chest.

  1. Electroencephalography

Imaging checks

X-rays permit docs to test for changes in joints and bones, though the symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis won't be evident early within the ailment.

An MRI makes use of radio waves and a sturdy magnetic field to provide greater-detailed pix of bones and smooth tissues. MRI scans can screen proof of ankylosing spondylitis in advance within the disorder process, however are a lot more expensive.

  1. X-ray

  2. (computed tomography) scans(CT)

  3. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Lab tests

There aren't any unique lab assessments to become aware of ankylosing spondylitis. Certain blood tests can check for markers of inflammation, but infection can be because of many one of a kind health troubles.

Blood may be examined for the HLA-B27 gene. But many human beings who have that gene do not have ankylosing spondylitis and people can have the sickness while not having the gene.

Treatment Ankylosing spondylitis

The intention of treatment is to relieve pain and stiffness and save you or postpone headaches and spinal deformity. Ankylosing spondylitis treatment is a success earlier than the disease causes irreversible damage.


Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory capsules (NSAIDs) — such as naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, others) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) — are the medicines docs most generally use to treat ankylosing spondylitis. These medicines can relieve infection, ache and stiffness, but additionally they might cause gastrointestinal bleeding.

If NSAIDs are not beneficial, your health practitioner might endorse beginning a tumor necrosis issue (TNF) blocker or an interleukin-17 (IL-17) inhibitor. These pills are injected underneath the pores and skin or through an intravenous line. These forms of medicinal drugs can reactivate untreated tuberculosis and make you more prone to infections.

Examples of TNF blockers consist of:

  • Adalimumab (Humira)

  • Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia)

  • Etanercept (Enbrel)

  • Golimumab (Simponi)

  • Infliximab (Remicade)


Physical therapy is an essential part of remedy and can offer some of advantages, from ache remedy to improved power and versatility. A physical therapist can design specific sports for your wishes. To help maintain correct posture, you will be taught:

  • Range-of-motion and stretching physical activities

  • Strengthening physical activities for abdominal and lower back muscle groups

  • Proper slumbering and on foot positions


Most human beings with ankylosing spondylitis do not need surgical treatment. Surgery can be encouraged when you have extreme ache or if a hip joint is so broken that it needs to be replaced.

  1. Healthy foods for the musculoskeletal system
  2. Rehabilitation program and health tips for the musculoskeletal system
Lifestyle and home remedies

Lifestyle choices also can help manage ankylosing spondylitis.

  • Stay active. Exercise can assist ease pain, hold flexibility and improve your posture.

  • Don't smoke. If you smoke, end. Smoking is normally bad to your fitness, but it creates extra problems for human beings with ankylosing spondylitis, together with in addition hampering respiration.

  • Practice right posture. Practicing status directly in the front of a replicate permits you to keep away from a number of the troubles associated with ankylosing spondylitis.

Coping and support

The course of your circumstance can change over the years, and you may have painful episodes and durations of less ache at some point of your lifestyles. But most of the people are capable of living an effective life notwithstanding a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis.

You might need to sign up for an online or in-individual support group of human beings with this condition, to percentage reports and assist.

Preparing on your appointment

You may first convey your signs to the attention of your own family medical doctor. He or she might also refer you to a health practitioner who specializes in inflammatory problems (rheumatologist).

Here's some information that will help you get equipped for your appointment.

What you could do

Make a listing of:

  • Your symptoms, along with any which can appear unrelated to the cause you made the appointment, and once they commenced

  • Key personal facts, such as main stresses, recent life adjustments and circle of relatives clinical records

  • All medicines, vitamins and other supplements you take and their doses

  • Questions to invite your health practitioner

  • Take a family member or friend alongside, if possible, that will help you bear in mind the information you're given.

For ankylosing spondylitis, primary questions to ask your health practitioner include:

  • What's probably causing my symptoms?

  • Other than the most likely motive, what are different possible reasons for my symptoms?

  • What assessments do I want?

  • Is my situation in all likelihood temporary or chronic?

  • What's the exceptional direction of movement?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary method you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I exceptionally manipulate them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a consultant?

  • Are there brochures or other revealed material I could have? What websites do you recommend?

What to assume out of your physician

Your medical doctor is probable to invite you questions, which include:

  • Where is your pain?

  • How excessive is your pain?

  • Have your signs and symptoms been non-stop or occasional?

  • What, if something, appears to worsen or enhance your signs?

  • Have you taken medicinal drugs to relieve the pain? What helped maximum?

General summary

  1. can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly, getting regular medical checkups, and reducing stress levels can help to prevent or reduce the risk of developing AS. Regular exercise can also help to improve flexibility and reduce pain. Additionally, smoking can increase the risk of AS, so avoiding cigarettes and other tobacco products is recommended.
  2. is caused by genetic and environmental factors, so it is not always possible to prevent it. However, there are a few things that can be done to reduce the risk of developing AS, such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy and balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding smoking. Additionally, regular check-ups can help detect the disease early and start treatment as soon as possible.
  3. cannot be cured, but there are ways to manage the disease. Exercise and physical therapy can help reduce pain and stiffness, while medications and lifestyle changes can help control symptoms. It is also important to practice good posture habits and take regular breaks during the day to avoid further stress on the spine. Additionally, a healthy diet can help keep inflammation under control and reduce joint pain.

Ankylosing spondylitis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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