Aortic valve regurgitation : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Aortic Valve Regurgitation?

Aortic regurgitation, or aortic insufficiency, is a circumstance that impacts the aortic valve and the float of blood through it to the coronary heart. The aortic valve has flaps (called cusps or leaflets) that manipulate the blood wave through the valve. If the ones flaps fail to close tightly, the result is a leaky aortic valve, inflicting aortic insufficiency.

Aortic regurgitation allows some of the blood that was pumped out of the left ventricle to leak returned in. As the left ventricle works harder to keep pushing blood through the aortic valve, it is able to in the end make it bigger and weaker. A weakened left ventricle may also result in heart failure.

What is Aortic Valve Regurgitation?
Aortic Valve Regurgitation

When your aortic valve leaks, it is called aortic valve regurgitation or aortic insufficiency. The aortic valve is one of the heart’s 4 valves. These valves help the blood waft via the heart and out to the frame. Normally, the aortic valve stops blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood wealthy in oxygen and nutrients to the body. With aortic valve regurgitation, some blood leaks return through the valve as the coronary heart relaxes. The valve is typically made from 3 tissue flaps (leaflets) that open and close collectively like a door to allow blood to bypass. Aortic valve regurgitation takes place more often with age. It can have an effect on anyone.

Aortic valve regurgitation may be acute or chronic. With acute aortic valve regurgitation, the valve all at once will become leaky. The heart doesn’t have time to get used to the leak within the valve. With persistent aortic valve regurgitation, the valve slowly becomes leakier. This offers the heart time to get used to the leak.

  1. Circulatory system

    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

Medical terms

  • Aortic valve regurgitation is a condition that occurs when the aortic valve, located between the left ventricle and the aorta, fails to shut completely. As a result, some of the blood that has been pumped out of the left ventricle flows back into it rather than continuing through the aorta. This process, known as regurgitation, can lead to serious cardiac problems if not treated promptly. Symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue and an irregular heartbeat.

  • Aortic valve regurgitation — or aortic regurgitation — is a situation that happens when your coronary heart's aortic valve does not close tightly. As a result, a number of the blood pumped from your heart's primary pumping chamber (left ventricle) leaks backward.

  • The leakage may additionally prevent your coronary heart from efficiently pumping blood to the rest of your frame. As a result, you can feel fatigued and short of breath.

  • Aortic valve regurgitation can broaden  or over decades. Once aortic valve regurgitation will become extreme, surgical treatment is regularly required to repair or replace the aortic valve.

  • Aortic valve regurgitation occurs when the aortic valve doesn’t close properly which means that blood flows backward through the valve and into the left ventricle of the heart The problem usually isn’t noticed until symptoms occur but you can take steps to lower your risk by visiting your doctor for regular checkups and eating a healthy diet.

  • Aortic valve regurgitation occurs when the aortic valve does not properly close. When this happens the heart's pumping action is reduced and blood can leak back into the heart creating a murmur. The condition is common in patients with rheumatic heart disease because their damaged hearts don't contract as well as healthy hearts.

Symptoms Aortic valve regurgitation

People with greater excessive aortic regurgitation may notice coronary heart palpitations, chest pain, fatigue, or shortness of breath. Other symptoms include trouble respiration when mendacity down, weak spot, fainting, or swollen ankles and ft.Most often, aortic valve regurgitation develops regularly. You can also not have any symptoms or symptoms for years. You can be unaware that you have the situation. However, on occasion aortic valve regurgitation occurs , normally due to an infection of the valve.

As aortic valve regurgitation worsens, signs and symptoms may include:

  • Shortness of breath with exercise or when you lie down

  • Fatigue and weakness, especially when you increase your activity level

  • Heart murmur

  • Irregular pulse (arrhythmia)

  • Lightheadedness or fainting

  • Chest pain (angina), discomfort or tightness, often increasing during exercise

  • Sensations of a rapid, fluttering heartbeat (palpitations)

  • Swollen ankles and feet

When to see a doctor

Contact your health practitioner properly if you have signs and symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation.

Sometimes the primary signs of aortic valve regurgitation are associated with coronary heart failure. Make an appointment with your medical doctor if you have fatigue that doesn't get better with rest, shortness of breath, and swollen ankles and feet, which might not be unusual signs of heart failure.

Causes Aortic valve regurgitation

Any situation that prevents the aortic valve from closing completely can cause this hassle. When the valve does not close all the manner, a little blood comes lower back each time the heart beats.

When a massive quantity of blood comes again, the coronary heart ought to paint harder to force out sufficient blood to fulfill the body's needs. The left decrease chamber of the coronary heart widens (dilates) and the coronary heart beats very strongly (bounding pulse). Over time, the heart becomes much less capable of supplying sufficient blood to the frame.

The aortic valve is one in every of four valves that control blood flow through the coronary heart. It separates the coronary heart's primary pumping chamber (left ventricle) and the main artery that produces oxygen-rich blood on your body (aorta). The valve has flaps (cusps or leaflets) that open and near as soon as for the duration of every heartbeat.

In aortic valve regurgitation, the valve does not close well, inflicting blood to leak back into the coronary heart's primary pumping chamber (left ventricle). As a result, the left ventricle holds greater blood, probably causing it to increase and thicken.

At first, the larger left ventricle enables preserving good blood to go with the flow with greater pressure. But ultimately these changes weaken the left ventricle — and your coronary heart average.

Aortic valve regurgitation normally happens progressively, however it may develop unexpectedly because of a valve contamination. Any circumstance that damages the aortic valve can cause regurgitation. However, you could increase aortic valve regurgitation without any recognised risk factors.

Causes of aortic valve regurgitation include:

  • Congenital heart valve disease. Some people are born with an aortic valve that has handiest two cusps (bicuspid valve) or fused cusps in place of the regular three separate cusps. Sometimes a valve can also most effectively have one cusp (unicuspid) or 4 cusps (quadricuspid), however this is less not unusual.
    These congenital coronary heart defects placed you liable to developing aortic valve regurgitation at a time in your lifestyles. If you have a parent or sibling with a bicuspid valve, it will increase the chance that you may have a bicuspid valve. However, you can have a bicuspid valve even in case you don't have a circle of relatives records of the defect.

  • Narrowing of the aortic valve (aortic stenosis). Calcium deposits can increase on the aortic valve as you age, causing the aortic valve to stiffen and end up slender. This condition, referred to as aortic stenosis, prevents the valve from commencing, causing a blockage. Aortic stenosis may additionally prevent the valve from ultimately nicely.

  • Inflammation of the lining of the heart's chambers and valves (endocarditis). This life-threatening situation is generally caused by infection. It can damage the aortic valve.

  • Rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a complication of strep throat and became as soon as a commonplace formative years contamination in the United States. It can motivate the aortic valve to become stiff and narrow (stenosis), causing blood to leak. If you have got a peculiar heart valve because of rheumatic fever, it is called rheumatic coronary heart sickness.

  • Other diseases. Other uncommon situations can amplify the aorta and aortic valve and cause regurgitation, which include Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disease. Some autoimmune conditions, along with lupus, also can cause aortic valve regurgitation.

  • Tear or injury of the body's main artery (aorta). A worrying chest damage or aortic tear (dissection) may also cause backward float of blood via the aortic valve.

Risk factors Aortic valve regurgitation

Things that make you more likely to increase aortic valve regurgitation encompass:

  • Older age

  • Certain heart conditions present at birth (congenital heart disease)

  • History of infections that can affect the heart

  • Certain conditions that can affect the heart, such as Marfan syndrome

  • Other heart valve conditions, such as aortic valve stenosis

  • High blood pressure

Complications Aortic valve regurgitation

Possible complications of aortic valve regurgitation include:

  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded

  • Heart failure

  • Infections that affect the heart, such as endocarditis

  • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)

  • Death

Prevention Aortic valve regurgitation

If you have any type of heart condition, see your doctor often so he or she will reveal you. If you have a figure, toddler, brother or sister with a bicuspid aortic valve, you ought to have an echocardiogram to check for aortic valve regurgitation. Catching aortic valve regurgitation or any other heart circumstance earlier than it develops or within the early ranges might also make it extra easily treatable.

Also, take steps to prevent situations that can improve your threat of aortic valve regurgitation, which include:

  • Rheumatic fever. If you've got an intense sore throat, see a medical doctor. Untreated strep throat can result in rheumatic fever. Strep throat is easily handled with antibiotics.

  • High blood pressure. Check your blood pressure often. Make positive it is nicely controlled to save you aortic regurgitation.

What is the best treatment for aortic regurgitation?

The best treatment for aortic regurgitation is to undergo surgery that replaces the defective heart valve with an artificial one. The surgeon can replace the aortic valve in two ways.

When is surgery needed for aortic regurgitation?

Aortic regurgitation is one of the most common and serious heart conditions There are several different types of aortic regurgitation each requiring a different treatment plan for optimal patient outcome Surgery may be required for patients who have severe symptoms or have had their condition for a long time Patients with mild valve problems are often monitored closely with regular check-ups to determine if they need surgery in the future.

Should I be worried about aortic regurgitation?

When your heart pumps blood it first sends it to the left ventricle which then pumps it through the body Aortic regurgitation is a condition in which blood flows backward (regurgitates) out of the aortic valve into the left ventricle If you have aortic regurgitation and your doctor hears an abnormal heart sound when listening to your chest with a stethoscope you may need further testing Depending on how severe your condition is treatment options include medications and surgery.

How fast does aortic valve regurgitation progress?

What is aortic valve regurgitation? Aortic valve regurgitation (AVR) is the most common heart valve disorder It occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly and blood flows backward into the left ventricle AVR can be caused by several things including age degeneration of the heart valves due to rheumatic fever or bacterial endocarditis atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in arteries) and Marfan syndrome AVR usually gets worse over time and needs to be treated with medications or surgery if it causes symptoms or complications.

Diagnosis Aortic valve regurgitation

Even if you don’t have signs and symptoms, your medical doctor can be able to come across aortic regurgitation via being attentive to your heart with a stethoscope.If your medical doctor hears a whooshing sound in among beats, it can imply you've got valve issues. The whooshing sound there is a strange float of blood via the valve.

To diagnose aortic valve regurgitation, your health practitioner will do a physical exam and ask questions on your signs and symptoms and symptoms and also you and your family's clinical records. Your doctor might also pay attention to an ordinary sound (murmur) while listening to your heart with a stethoscope. A physician trained in heart disease (heart specialist) may also evaluate you.

Your physician can also order several assessments to diagnose aortic valve regurgitation and decide its reason. Tests may additionally consist of:

  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves directed at your heart from a wandlike device (transducer) hung on your chest create photos of your heart in motion. This check can assist medical doctors closely study the circumstance of the aortic valve and the aorta. It can assist doctors determine the motive and severity of your circumstance and notice when you have additional coronary heart valve situations. Doctors may use a three-D echocardiogram.
    A transesophageal echocardiogram may be finished to get a closer examination of the aortic valve. In this kind of echocardiogram, a small transducer attached to the give up of a tube is inserted down the tube leading from your mouth to your stomach (esophagus).

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). In this check, wires (electrodes) attached to pads to your skin measure the electric interest of your coronary heart. An ECG can locate enlarged chambers of your coronary heart, coronary heart disease and odd heart rhythms.

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can show if your heart or aorta is enlarged. It also can help docs determine the condition of your lungs.

  • Exercise tests or stress tests. Exercise tests assist doctors see whether or not you have got symptoms and signs of aortic valve disease at some point of physical hobby. These checks can assist in deciding the severity of your condition. If you're unable to exercise, medicinal drugs that have comparable effects as exercise on your coronary heart may be used.

  • Cardiac MRI. Using a magnetic field and radio waves, this test produces detailed pictures of your heart, including the aorta and aortic valve.

  • Cardiac catheterization. This test is not frequently used to diagnose aortic valve regurgitation, however it is able to be carried out if other assessments are not able to diagnose the condition or determine its severity. Doctors may do cardiac catheterization prior to valve substitute surgery to see if there are blockages within the coronary arteries, so they may be fixed at the time of the valve surgical operation.
    In cardiac catheterization, a medical doctor threads a skinny tube (catheter) through a blood vessel, normally for your groin, to an artery for your coronary heart. Dye flows through the catheter to make your blood vessels show up more surely on X-ray. This offers your medical doctor with an in depth picture of your heart arteries and how your heart functions. It also can decrease the stress within the heart chambers.

Treatment Aortic valve regurgitation

Treatment varies in keeping with how severe your circumstance is. If you've got a slight form of the situation, you could need the handiest ordinary, take a look at-united States with your healthcare provider. You won't have symptoms for decades. Symptoms may additionally get worse slowly through the years and not have an effect on day by day life.

In excessive aortic regurgitation, surgical treatment is generally advised. The timing of surgical operation is important to discuss together with your healthcare company and doctor. In a few instances, severe aortic regurgitation may be dealt with with medication. Medicine can also be used in the quick-time period before valve alternative surgery. Or it could be used ongoing if you are not capable of having valve replacement surgical operation.

Treatment of aortic valve regurgitation relies upon the severity of your circumstance, whether you are having signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms, and in case your situation is getting worse. The dreams of aortic valve regurgitation remedy are to ease symptoms and prevent headaches.

If your signs are moderate or you aren't having signs, your doctor may additionally reveal your situation with ordinary observe-up appointments and propose healthy life-style changes. You may need normal echocardiograms to be sure your aortic valve regurgitation would not emerge as extreme.


Your physician might also endorse that you take medicinal drugs to treat symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation or reduce your hazard of complications. Medications may be prescribed to decrease blood stress.

Surgery or other procedures

You can also subsequently want surgery to repair or update the diseased aortic valve, specifically if you have excessive aortic regurgitation and signs. However, some human beings want surgery even though it is not intense, or when they are not having symptoms.

The decision to repair or replace a broken aortic valve depends on your symptoms, age and ordinary fitness, and whether or not you want heart surgical treatment to correct some other coronary heart problem. If you are having every other heart surgical procedure, medical doctors might also perform aortic valve surgical procedure at the same time.

Surgery to restore or replace an aortic valve may be carried out as an open-heart surgical procedure, which entails a cut (incision) inside the chest. Sometimes medical doctors can carry out minimally invasive heart surgical procedures to replace the aortic valve. This procedure, referred to as transcatheter aortic valve alternative (TAVR), makes use of smaller incisions than those utilized in open-heart surgical operation.

Surgery for aortic valve regurgitation includes:

  • Aortic valve repair. To restore an aortic valve, surgeons may also separate valve flaps (cusps) that have fused, reshape or take away extra valve tissue so that the cusps can close tightly, or patch holes in a valve. Doctors may additionally use a catheter process to insert a plug or tool to repair a leaking substitute aortic valve.

  • Aortic valve replacement. In aortic valve replacement, your health practitioner gets rid of the damaged valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve crafted from cow, pig or human coronary heart tissue (biological tissue valve). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive coronary heart method to replace a narrowed aortic valve with an organic tissue valve.
    Sometimes, the aortic valve is replaced together with your very own lung (pulmonary) valve. Your pulmonary valve is changed with a biological lung tissue valve from a deceased person. This greater complex surgical procedure is known as the Ross method.Biological tissue valves damage down over time and can sooner or later need to be replaced. People with mechanical valves will want to take blood-thinning medicines for life to prevent blood clots. Your doctor will talk with you about the advantages and dangers of each type of valve to select the great one for you.

Lifestyle and home remedies

You'll have regular follow-up appointments together with your medical doctor to monitor your situation.

While way of life modifications cannot prevent or deal with your circumstance, your health practitioner would possibly propose that you comprise numerous heart-healthy ones into your life. These may encompass:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet. Eat a variety of culmination and vegetables, low-fat or fats-unfastened dairy merchandise, poultry, fish, and entire grains. Avoid saturated and trans fat, and excess salt and sugar.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight. Aim to preserve a healthy weight. If you are obese or obese, your medical doctor may also recommend which you shed pounds. Ask your health practitioner what intention weight is healthful for you.

  • Getting regular physical activity. Aim to consist of approximately half-hour of bodily interest, inclusive of brisk walks, into your day by day health recurring. Ask your medical doctor for guidance earlier than starting to workout, in particular if you're thinking about aggressive sports activities.

  • Managing stress. Find approaches to assist manage your stress, including via rest activities, meditation, exercising, and spending time with family and buddies.

  • Avoiding tobacco. If you smoke, give up. Ask your medical doctor about sources to help you stop smoking. Joining an assisted institution can be useful.

  • Controlling high blood pressure. If you're taking blood pressure medication, take it exactly as your doctor has prescribed.

Pregnancy and aortic valve regurgitation

For girls with aortic valve regurgitation, it's essential to talk with your health practitioner before you turn out to be pregnant. Your medical doctor can discuss with you which medications you may safely take, and whether you could want a process to deal with your valve condition previous to pregnancy.

You'll in all likelihood require near tracking by means of your health practitioner in the course of pregnancy. Doctors may propose that women with extreme valve conditions keep away from pregnancy to avoid the risk of complications.

Preparing for your appointment

You're possibly starting by seeing your own family physician. After your preliminary appointment, your medical doctor may also refer you to a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions (heart specialist).

If you have got aortic valve regurgitation, take into account being evaluated and dealt with at a scientific middle with a crew of cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons, and other doctors and clinical personnel who specialize in heart valve disease remedy.

Here's some information that will help you put together your appointment.

What you can do

  • Write down your symptoms and how long you've had them.

  • Make a list of your key medical information, Inclusive of other latest health troubles you've had and all prescription and over the counter medications and supplements you take.

  • Take a family member or friend with you to the appointment, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help remember what the doctor says.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

For aortic valve regurgitation, questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?

  • Are there any other possible causes?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What treatment approach do you recommend?

  • What are the alternatives to the approach you're recommending?

  • Will I need surgery? If so, what surgeon do you recommend for aortic valve surgery?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions, as well.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

  • Do you have heart disease in your family?

General summary

  1. Aortic valve regurgitation also known as aortic valve insufficiency is a condition that occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly It is one of the four main types of heart valve disorders and can have serious consequences if left untreated The regurgitation creates an abnormal flow of blood through the aorta which is the largest artery in your body.

  2. Aortic valve regurgitation, also known as aortic insufficiency, is a condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly. This leads to a backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle, which can cause the heart to work harder and eventually lead to heart failure. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors such as infection, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. It is important to diagnose and treat aortic regurgitation early in order to prevent further damage to the heart.

  3. Aortic valve regurgitation, also known as aortic insufficiency, is a disorder caused by a leaky aortic valve, which forces the heart to work harder than normal in order to pump blood through the body. This condition can be caused by either congenital heart defects, wear and tear caused by age, or damage to the aortic valve due to infection or inflammation. Some symptoms of aortic valve regurgitation include fatigue, shortness of breath, swollen ankles and feet, and chest pain. If left untreated, aortic valve regurgitation can lead to more serious problems such as heart failure and stroke.

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