Arteriosclerosis - Atherosclerosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis could be a hardening of your arteries caused by gradual plaque buildup. Risk factors embrace high sterol, high pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, lack of exercise and a diet high in saturated fat. coronary-artery disease develops over time and should not show symptoms till you have got complications sort of a heart failure or stroke.

Atherosclerosis could be an unwellness that happens once plaque builds abreast of the within walls of your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that deliver blood and O from the guts to the remainder of the body.

Plaque could be a sticky substance fabricated from fat, sterol, atomic number 20 and alternative substances. As plaque builds up, your arteries become onerous and slim.

Atherosclerosis could be a form of sclerosis, that is any hardening of the arteries. Your arteries will become onerous or stiff for several totally different reasons. One reason is plaque buildup. That’s what coronary-artery disease refers to.

But the 2 terms are typically accustomed to an equivalent factor.

Hardening of your arteries will cause many issues. slim or blocked arteries can’t deliver enough blood, O and nutrients to the remainder of your body. Blockages will eventually cause tissue death or infection in your arms, legs or alternative components of your body.

A piece of plaque will become independent from and so grind to a halt somewhere in your body, inflicting harm. Also, blood will type in a very slim artery. It will eventually loosen and travel through the artery.

Atherosclerosis could begin once you’re a toddler, and worsens over time.

Atherosclerosis will cause serious health issues and medical emergencies, including:

  • Blood clots.

  • Carotid artery disease.

  • Chronic kidney disease.

  • Coronary artery disease.

  • Heart attack.

  • Peripheral artery disease.

  • Stroke.

Medical terms

  • Atherosclerosis is the hardening and narrowing of arteries due to the buildup of plaque. This plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, this buildup restricts blood flow and causes health complications. Atherosclerosis can cause high blood pressure, chest pain, stroke, and heart attack.Atherosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD) is a type of cardiovascular disease involving the hardening of arteries due to the accumulation of plaque on the artery walls. This plaque builds up over time, reducing blood flow and oxygen delivery to vital organs, such as the heart and brain. It is the leading cause of death in the United States, with an estimated 610,000 Americans dying from a heart attack each year. Atherosclerosis is also associated with increased risk of stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and aneurysm formation.

  • When plaque builds up in arteries and can't be removed by the body's natural detoxification mechanisms blood flow is compromised This causes inflammation and damage to the artery wall as well as reduced blood flow to vital organs or limbs When arterial blockage occurs it reduces or completely blocks blood flow to the heart brain kidneys or legs If this condition goes untreated it can lead to a heart attack stroke or gangrene requiring amputation

  • Atherosclerosis is a chronic process that can affect any artery in the body but most commonly affects arteries in the heart (coronary arteries) or brain (cerebrovascular system) It is a systemic disease characterized by an abnormal deposit of fatty material called plaque on the walls of these blood vessels The build-up of plaque causes blood flow to be restricted and decreases oxygen delivery to tissues or organs Atherosclerosis also promotes clot formation within blood vessels and is responsible for most heart attacks strokes peripheral vascular disease and aortic aneurysms.

Arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis are sometimes used to mean the same thing, but there's a difference between the two terms.

  • Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic, but over time, the walls in your arteries can harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis is a specific sort of sclerosis.

Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fats, steroid alcohol and alternative substances in and on your artery walls. This buildup is named plaque. The plaque will cause your arteries to slim, obstruct blood flow. The plaque also can burst, resulting in blood.

Although induration of the arteries is usually thought-about a heart downside, it will have an effect on arteries anyplace in your body. induction of the arteries may be treated. Healthy life-style habits will facilitate stop induration of the arteries. 

Symptoms Atherosclerosis

Mild arteriosclerosis sometimes does not have any symptoms.

You usually will not have arteriosclerosis symptoms till AN artery is therefore narrowed or clogged that it cannot provide enough blood to your organs and tissues. generally a grume utterly blocks blood flow, or perhaps breaks apart and may trigger an attack or stroke.

Symptoms of moderate to severe arteriosclerosis depend upon that arteries are affected. For example:

  • If you have atherosclerosis in your heart arteries, you may have symptoms, such as chest pain or pressure (angina).

  • If you have atherosclerosis in the arteries leading to your brain, you may have signs and symptoms like abrupt symptoms or weakness in your arms or legs, issue speaking or unintelligible speech, temporary loss of vision in one eye, or drooping muscles in your face. These signal a transient anemia attack (TIA), which, if left untreated, could reach a stroke. 

  • If you have atherosclerosis in the arteries in your arms and legs, you may have signs or symptoms of peripheral artery unwellness, like leg pain once walking (claudication) or remittent pressure in AN affected limb. 

  • If you have atherosclerosis in the arteries leading to your kidneys, you develop high blood pressure or kidney failure.

When to see a doctor

If you're thinking that you have got coronary artery disease, visit your doctor. additionally concentrate on early symptoms of inadequate blood flow, like hurting (angina), leg pain or symptoms.

Early identification and treatment will stop coronary artery disease from worsening and forestall a heart failure, stroke or another medical emergency. 

Causes Atherosclerosis

Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart throughout your body. They are lined by a skinny layer of cells referred to as the epithelial tissue. It keeps the within of your arteries in form and sleek, that keeps blood flowing.

Atherosclerosis could be a slow, progressive illness which will begin as early as childhood. Though the precise cause is unknown, coronary artery disease might begin with harm or injury to the inner layer of the associate artery. The harm could also be caused by:

  • High blood pressure

  • High cholesterol

  • High triglycerides, a type of fat (lipid) in your blood

  • Smoking and other sources of tobacco

  • Insulin resistance, obesity or diabetes

  • Inflammation from an unknown cause or from diseases such as arthritis, lupus, psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease

Once the inner wall of AN artery is broken, blood cells and different substances typically clump at the injury website and build up within the inner lining of the artery.

Over time, fatty deposits (plaque) fabricated from sterol and different cellular merchandise additionally build up at the injury website and harden, narrowing your arteries. The organs and tissues connected to the blocked arteries then do not receive enough blood to perform properly.

Eventually, items of the fatty deposits might break off and enter your blood.

In addition, the graceful lining of the plaque might rupture, spilling sterol and different substances into your blood. This might cause blood, which might block the blood flow to a particular part of your body, like what happens once blocked blood flow to your heart causes an attack. A blood may also visit different components of your body, interference flow to a different organ.

Risk factors Atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries occurs over time. Besides aging, factors that may increase your risk of atherosclerosis include:

  • High blood pressure

  • High cholesterol

  • High levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation

  • Diabetes

  • Obesity

  • Sleep apnea

  • Smoking and other tobacco use

  • A family history of early heart disease

  • Lack of exercise

  • An unhealthy diet

Complications Atherosclerosis

The complications of atherosclerosis depend on which arteries are blocked. For example:

  • Coronary artery disease. When arteriosclerosis narrows the arteries on the brink of your heart, you will develop arterial illness, which may cause hurting (angina), a heart failure or heart condition. 

  • Carotid artery disease. When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries close to your brain, you may develop carotid artery disease, which can cause a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke.

  • Peripheral artery disease. When hardening of the arteries narrows the arteries in your arms or legs, you will develop circulation issues in your arms and legs referred to as peripheral artery illness. This could cause you to be less sensitive to heat and cold, increasing your risk of burns or injury. In rare cases, poor circulation in your arms or legs will cause tissue death (gangrene).

  • Aneurysms. Atherosclerosis also can cause aneurysms, a heavy complication which will occur anyplace in your body. an associate degree aneurysm may be a bulge within the wall of your artery.
    Most people with aneurysms don't have any symptoms. Pain associate degreed throbbing within the space of an aneurysm could occur and may be a medical emergency.If an associate degree aneurysm bursts, you will face grave internal harm. Though this can be typically a fulminant, harmful event, a slow leak is feasible. If a grume inside an associate degree aneurysm dislodges, it's going to block the associate degree artery for some distant purpose. 

  • Chronic kidney disease. Atherosclerosis can cause the arteries leading to your kidneys to narrow, preventing oxygenated blood from reaching them. Over time, this can affect your kidney function, keeping waste from exiting your body.

Prevention Atherosclerosis

The same healthy way changes suggested to treat arteriosclerosis conjointly facilitate forestall it. These include:

  • Quitting smoking

  • Eating healthy foods

  • Exercising regularly

  • Maintaining a healthy weight

  • Checking and maintaining a healthy blood pressure

  • Checking and maintaining healthy cholesterol and blood sugar levels

Just remember to make changes one step at a time, and keep in mind what lifestyle changes are manageable for you in the long run.

Can arteriosclerosis be reversed?

Arteriosclerosis is a gradual buildup of fatty deposits in your arteries As the inner walls of these vessels become clogged with plaque they narrow which makes it increasingly difficult for blood to flow through them This can prevent proper oxygen delivery to vital organs that could potentially cause complications such as a heart attack or stroke Because developing arteriosclerosis often takes years reversing it is not an option However you can work on preventing it from further progression and even reverse some of its effects by making lifestyle changes and seeking treatments like exercise weight loss and medications.

What is the solution for atherosclerosis?

If you're feeling like your cardiovascular system is on a steady decline or you've already had a heart attack or stroke don't lose hope A healthy diet and lifestyle can help prevent cardiovascular disease Paying close attention to how you eat and exercise can mean the difference between living with atherosclerosis and eliminating it from your body forever It's never too late to start making healthier choices in life!.

What are the warning signs of arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis?

Risk factors for developing arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis include: high blood cholesterol high levels of blood pressure being overweight or obese and having a family history with heart disease Some warning signs of arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis are: Numbness or tingling in the arms or hands usually in both sides at the same time; Difficulties with body movement; Vision problems such as blurred vision or double vision; Heart palpitations that come on suddenly and can be very scary; Dizziness when you stand up quickly which may cause you to faint (especially if the fainting happens.

Does lemon juice clean your arteries?

If you have high cholesterol then chances are you have been bombarded with the same old advice for years: Make sure to cut down on fat and eat lots of whole grains and produce. But what if that advice is wrong? What if dietary fat is not as bad for your heart as we're led to believe? That's exactly what some doctors and nutrition experts now suggest Instead of getting rid of all forms of fat they say you should be focusing on cutting out certain types of saturated fats like butter and red meat And instead of focusing so much on eating more healthy carbs get rid of the processed foods in your diet.

Does aspirin reduce plaque in arteries?

Yes but it's not recommended as a regular treatment for heart disease While short-term use of aspirin is effective at reducing plaque in the arteries there may be serious side effects with long-term use Common side effects of aspirin include stomach irritation and internal bleeding; less common but more severe side effects can include ulcers in the digestive system and even death People with asthma should use caution when taking aspirin because it can trigger an asthma attack in people sensitive to aspirin.

Diagnosis Atherosclerosis

Early diagnosing is essential for managing coronary-artery disease. To diagnose the condition, we tend to raise questions about your case history and do a physical test. Throughout the physical test, your Dr. will use a medical instrument to concentrate your arteries to associate abnormal whooshing sound known as a gossip (broo-E). A gossip could indicate poor blood flow thanks to plaque buildup.

Your doctor can perform a physical test and raise questions about your personal and family health history. you will be spoken to by a doctor that focuses on heart diseases (cardiologist).

Your doctor could hear a whooshing sound (bruit) once paying attention to your arteries with a medical instrument.

Depending on the results of the physical test, your doctor could counsel one or additional tests, including:

  • Blood tests. Your doctor can order blood tests to envision your blood glucose and cholesterol levels. High levels of blood glucose and cholesterol raise your risk of arteriosclerosis. A supermolecule|C-reactive protein|CRP|serum globulin} (CRP) taken conjointly could also be done to envision a protein coupled to inflammation of the arteries. 

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This simple and painless test records the electrical signals in your heart.

  • Exercise stress test. If your signs and symptoms occur most frequently throughout exercise, your doctor might suggest this take a look at. you will walk on a treadmill or ride a stationary bike whereas you are connected to Associate in Nursing electrocardiogram. As a result of exercise makes your heart pump more durable and quicker than it will throughout most daily activities, Associate in Nursing exercise assay will reveal issues among your heart which may preferably be incomprehensible.
    If you are unable to exercise, you will incline to a drug that mimics the result of exercise on your heart. 

  • Echocardiogram. This test uses sound waves to show how well blood moves when the heart beats and through your arteries. Sometimes it is combined with exercise stress testing.

  • Doppler ultrasound. Your doctor could use a special ultrasound device (Doppler ultrasound) to live your pressure level at numerous points on your arm or leg. These measurements will facilitate your doctor confirming the degree of any blockages, in addition because of the speed of blood flow in your arteries. 

  • Ankle-brachial index (ABI). This check will tell if you have got induration of the arteries within the arteries in your legs and feet.
    During AN ABI check, your doctor compares the pressure level in your articulatio talocruralis with the pressure level in your arm. AN abnormal distinction could also be a signal of peripheral tube unwellness, that is sometimes caused by induration of the arteries. 

  • Cardiac catheterization and angiogram. This check will show if your coronary arteries area unit narrowed or blocked.
    During this procedure, a doctor inserts a skinny, versatile tube (catheter) into a vas and to your heart. Dye flows through the tubing. because the dye fills your arteries, the arteries appear on X-ray, revealing areas of blockage. 

  • Coronary calcium scan. Also known as a heart scan, this common check uses computerized axial tomography (CT) imaging to form careful footage of your heart. It will show metallic element deposits within the artery walls. Results of the check are given as a score. Once a metallic element is a gift, the lower the score, the lower your risk of cardiomyopathy. 

  • Other imaging tests. Your doctor may also use magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or positron emission tomography (PET) to study your arteries. These tests can show hardening and narrowing of large arteries, as well as aneurysms.

Treatment Atherosclerosis

Treatment for coronary-artery disease includes a healthy diet, exercise and medicine to regulate or presumably reverse your condition. If enlarged blood vessels are diagnosed, our goal is to develop associate degree individualized treatment set up therefore blood clots don't kind.

Lifestyle changes, like uptake a healthy diet and physical exercise, are the primary treatment for hardening of the arteries — and will be all that you simply ought to treat your hardening of the arteries. However, generally, medication or surgical procedures are also required.


Many different drugs are available to slow — or even reverse — the effects of atherosclerosis. Here are some medications used to treat atherosclerosis:

  • Statins and other cholesterol medications. Aggressively lowering your lipoprotein (LDL) sterol — the unhealthy sterol — will slow, stop or maybe reverse the buildup of fatty deposits in your arteries.
    Statins square measure normally prescribed to lower sterol, improve artery health and forestall induration of the arteries. Their square measures several alternative varieties of cholesterol-lowering medications. Another common kind may be a sterol absorption matter referred to as ezetimibe (Zetia). you'll like quite one style of sterol medication. 

  • Blood thinners. Your doctor could inflict blood-thinning medications, like analgesic, to scale back your risk that platelets can clump in narrowed arteries, kind a grume and cause any blockage. 

  • Blood pressure medications. Drugs to lower blood pressure don't help reverse atherosclerosis but instead prevent or treat complications related to the disease. For example, certain blood pressure medications can help reduce your risk of a heart attack.

  • Other medications. Your doctor could order alternative medications to regulate health conditions that raise your risk of induration of the arteries, like polygenic disorder. And, specific medications to treat symptoms of induration of the arteries, like leg pain throughout exercise, could also be prescribed. 

Surgery or other procedures

Sometimes more aggressive treatment is needed to treat atherosclerosis. If you have severe symptoms or a blockage, your doctor may recommend one of the following surgical procedures:

  • Angioplasty and stent placement. This procedure — additionally known as transdermal coronary intervention (PCI) — helps open a clogged or blocked artery. Your doctor inserts a tube into the pathologic artery. A second tube with a deflated balloon on its tip is well-versed with the primary tube to the blockage. Your doctor inflates the balloon, widening the artery. A mesh tube (stent) is typically left within the artery to assist it open. 

  • Endarterectomy. Sometimes, plaque buildup must be surgically removed from the walls of a narrowed artery. When the procedure is done on arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries), it's called a carotid endarterectomy.

  • Fibrinolytic therapy. If you have an artery that's blocked by a blood clot, your doctor may use a clot-dissolving drug to break it apart.

  • Coronary artery bypass surgery. During this sort of heart surgery, your doctor takes a healthy vase from another part of the body to form a bypass round the blocked artery, redirecting blood flow. Typically the bypass may be a graft fabricated from artificial material. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

Lifestyle changes can help you prevent or slow the progression of atherosclerosis.

  • Stop smoking. Smoking damages your arteries. Quitting smoking is the neatest thing you'll do to stay healthy and prevent coronary artery disease complications. 

  • Exercise most days of the week. Regular exercise improves blood flow, lowers force per unit area, and reduces your risk of conditions that increase the danger of induration of the arteries and cardiovascular disease.
    Aim to exercise a minimum of half-hour most days of the week. If you cannot work it all into one session, strive breaking it up into 10-minute intervals.You can take the steps rather than the elevator, walk round the block throughout your lunch hour, or do some sit ups or pushups while watching tv. 

  • Lose extra pounds and maintain a healthy weight. If you're overweight, losing even just a few pounds can reduce your risk of high blood pressure and high cholesterol, two of the major risk factors for developing atherosclerosis. Ask your doctor what your target weight should be.

  • Eat healthy foods. A wholesome diet jam-packed with fruits, vegetables and whole grains — and low in refined carbohydrates, sugars, saturated fat and metal — will assist you in managing your weight, pressure, sterol and glucose.
    Try subbing whole-grain bread in situ. Grab AN apple, a banana or carrot sticks as a snack. browse nutrition labels as a guide to manage the quantity of salt and fat you eat. Use monounsaturated fats, like oil, and cut back or eliminate sugar and sugar substitutes. 

  • Manage stress. Reduce stress to the maximum amount possible. follow healthy techniques for managing stress, like muscle relaxation and deep respiratory.
    If you've got high cholesterin, high vital sign, unwellness} or another chronic disease, work along with your doctor to manage the condition and promote overall health. 

Alternative medicine

It's thought that some foods and flavors supplements will facilitate cutting back your high steroid alcohol level and high pressure level, 2 major risk factors for developing hardening of the arteries. along with your doctor's OK, you may contemplate these supplements and products:

  • Alpha-linolenic acid

  • Barley

  • Beta-sitosterol (found in supplements and some margarines, such as Promise Activ)

  • Blond psyllium (found in seed husk and products such as Metamucil)

  • Calcium

  • Cocoa

  • Fish oil

  • Garlic

  • Green tea

  • Oat bran (found in oatmeal and whole oats)

  • Sitostanol (found in supplements and some margarines, such as Benecol)

Talk to your doctor before adding any of those or different supplements to your arteriosclerosis treatment. Some supplements will move with medications, inflicting harmful facet effects.

You can conjointly observe relaxation techniques, like yoga or deep respiration, to assist you relax and cut back your stress level. These practices will briefly cut back your pressure level, reducing your risk of developing arteriosclerosis.

Preparing for your appointment

If you're thinking that you'll have arteriosclerosis or square measure trouble concerning having arteriosclerosis due to a powerful case history of cardiovascular disease, create a briefing along with your doctor to have your steroid alcohol level checked.

Here's some info to assist you prepare for your appointment and apprehend what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. When you build the appointment, raise whether or not there is something you would like to try to do prior to, like limit your diet. Several blood tests, together with steroid alcohol and triglycerides, require that you simply avoid intake and drinking for a precise quantity of hours before the tests. 

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing. Atherosclerosis could be a risk issue for cardiovascular disease. perpetually tell your doctor if you have got symptoms like chest pains or shortness of breath. Such info helps your doctor decide a way to best treat your arteriosclerosis. 

  • Write down key personal information, including a family history of high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure or diabetes, and any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.

  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Someone who goes with you may remember something that you missed or forgot.

  • Be prepared to talk about your diet and exercise habits. If you don't already eat a healthy diet or exercise, your doctor can give you tips on how to get started.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time with your doctor. For atherosclerosis, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What tests will I need?

  • What's the best treatment?

  • What foods should I eat or avoid?

  • What's an appropriate level of exercise?

  • How often do I need a cholesterol test?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary treatment you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask any other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • Do you have a family history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure or heart disease?

  • What are your diet and exercise habits like?

  • Do you or did you smoke or use tobacco in any form?

  • Do you have discomfort in your chest or pain in your legs while walking or at rest?

  • Have you had a stroke or unexplained numbness, tingling or weakness of one side of your body or difficulty speaking?

What you can do in the meantime

It's ne'er too early to form healthy manner changes, like quitting smoking, consuming healthy foods and obtaining additional exercise. These squares measure straightforward ways in which to shield yourself against induration of the arteries and its complications, together with attack and stroke.

General summary

  1. Arteriosclerosis also known as hardening of the arteries is a condition in which fats and other materials build up on the walls of arteries As these deposits grow larger blood flow to vital organs slows down or stops entirely Arteriosclerosis can lead to serious health problems such as heart attacks stroke kidney failure and blindness People who are at risk for developing arteriosclerosis include diabetics smokers and those with high cholesterol or a family history of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which arteries harden and narrow due to deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste, calcium, and other substances on their inner wall. It is a result of an inflammatory response in the walls of arteries and can lead to serious health problems including stroke, heart attack, and aneurysm. Atherosclerosis can be caused by lifestyle factors such as smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, obesity, lack of exercise, and high blood pressure, as well as genetic factors. It is a major contributor to heart disease and is considered one of the leading causes of death around the world.

  3. Atherosclerosis is a chronic condition of the circulatory system characterized by the hardening and narrowing of arteries due to a buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, fat, and cellular waste and is formed on the inside of artery walls. Over time, plaque buildup can cause the arteries to become stiff, limiting blood flow throughout the body and increasing the risk of heart attack or stroke. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, meaning that it can worsen over time without proper medical intervention.

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