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Arteriovenous malformation : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is an arteriovenous malformation (AVM)?

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) occur once a group of blood vessels in your body is formed incorrectly. In these malformations, arterioles and venules are uninterrupted and form direct connections, bypassing conventional tissues. Sometimes this happens during prenatal development or shortly thereafter.

Most people with an AVM do not have any initial symptoms or problems. Instead, it is once caught health care providers treat another, unrelated health problem. In general, the rupture of a blood vessel in an AVM can make medical attention difficult. In general, AVMs are only found at death, during an autopsy.

What is an arteriovenous malformation (AVM)?
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are tangles of abnormal blood vessels or arteries and veins in the brain that deplete sickle red blood cells. To nearby tissues where this happens large amounts of waste build up within these tissues and around the defective tangle of arteries and veins and this is called a stroke. also.

  1. Circulatory system
  2. Brain
  3. Blood

Medical terms

  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of vascular malformation in which there is a tangle of abnormal and weak blood vessels in the brain or spine. The arteriovenous malformation can be classified into three types based on the size of the arteries, venules, and capillaries involved. Small AVMs can be treated with medication, while large AVMs may require surgery. AVMs can cause serious medical complications depending on their location and size, so it is important to recognize them as early as possible.

  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the body. This connection allows blood to bypass the capillaries and flow directly from the arteries into the veins, resulting in an increased volume of blood flow and higher pressure on the walls of the veins. In some cases, this can lead to rupture and even death. An AVM can also cause problems such as swelling of the extremities, vision problems, and stroke.

  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels that connect arteries and veins that disrupts normal blood flow and oxygen circulation

  • It is very difficult to resolve the dispute

  • If the AVM disrupts this critical process, some of the surrounding tissues may not get enough oxygen as well because the tangled blood vessels that make up the AVM are abnormal and can weaken and rupture if bleeding occurs which can cause bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). ) Stroke or brain damage damage

  • The cause of AVM is uncertain and it is rarely passed down between families

  • When a brain AVM is diagnosed, it can often be treated successfully to prevent or reduce the risk of complications

Facts about the arteriovenous malformation

  • Most people with AVMs can't have any problems. If symptoms don't appear by the time someone turns 50, they never appear. Women generally experience symptoms as a result of the stress that the physiological condition places on the blood vessels. However, approximately 12% of individuals with an AVM experience some symptoms.
  • No one knows the reason for the type of AVM. Some consultants believe that the chance of developing AVMs may be hereditary. AVM will write anywhere inside the body. People who write within the brain or predispose to neural synthesis, known as a neurogenic arteriovenous malformation, are assumed to have prolonged effects.
  • The biggest concern associated with an AVM is that it will cause damage or uncontrollable bleeding. Less than 4% of cases of AVM bleed, but people who develop it will have severe, even fatal, effects. Death occurs immediately from Associate in Nursing results regarding 1% of individuals with an AVM.
  • Sometimes AVMs reduce the amount developed as to the brain and neural structure (this is commonly known as the result of a 'steal', as if the blood was 'stolen' from nowhere it should be flowing from). AVMs will generally put pressure on the surrounding tissues. Tinnitus may also occur elsewhere on the body, such as the hands or feet, but it may not be so obvious.
  • An AVM occurs once arteries and veins are not formed properly in a neighborhood of the body. Arteries normally carry blood from the guts to the body. Contemporary blood atomic number 8 and nutrients are transported through the arteries to terribly small vessels known as capillaries. Through these small vessels, blood travels to the tissues of the body. The blood then exits the tissues through the capillaries and empties into the veins, which return the blood to the viscera. Capillaries are small vessels that facilitate the ebb of blood. This enables the blood to deliver atomic number 8 and nutrients to the tissues.
  • In the AVM, there are no capillaries, so the blood does not constrict, and it cannot deliver atomic number 8 and nutrients to the tissues of the body. Instead, the blood that is flowing at any given time (high flow) goes directly from the organ in the nursing artery to the vein. On rare occasions, if there is too much flow through the Associate in Nursing AVM, it will cause the guts to be too exhausted to stay up, resulting in heart disease.

Although gifted at birth, Associate in Nursing is also found precocious at birth or plentiful later in life, depending on its size and location. An AVM will appear when a fellow nurse develops into a nursing accident or when a young child grows into an adult nurse (during puberty). As the patient's body grows, so does the arteriovenous malformation.

AVMs grow and change over time. AVMs are usually staged using a scale known as the Schöbinger staging system. Not all AVMS systems are tolerant of every stage.

  • Stage I (quiet): The AVM is 'quiet'. The skin above the AVM may be warm and pink or red in color.

  • The second stage (expansion): the size of the anti-vehicle mines increases. A pulse may be felt or heard in an AVM.

  • Stage III (destruction): The AVM causes pain, bleeding, or an ulcer.

  • Stage IV (decompensation): heart failure occurs.

Symptoms of arteriovenous malformation

Symptoms of an AVM can vary depending on where it is located or how it was formed. Besides bleeding, the first signs and symptoms may occur after bleeding has occurred. Symptoms of an AVM are also varied, including:

  • It is very difficult to resolve conflict when everyone assumes they are right

  • Headache

  • Vomiting and nausea

  • seizures

  • Unconsciousness

Other possible signs and symptoms include:

  • weak muscles

  • Paralysis in one part of the body

  • Gait disturbance can cause problems

  • It is very difficult to resolve the dispute

  • Weakness in the lower extremities

  • Back ache

  • Dizziness

  • Vision problems including: loss of part of your field of vision, loss of control of eye movements, or swelling of part of the optic nerve

  • Language problems

  • Unusual sensations including numbness, tingling, or sudden pain

  • Memory loss or dementia

  • hallucinations

  • confusion

Children and teens may have difficulty learning or behaving

The vein of the Gallen defect is located deep in the brain. Signs can include:

  • Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain) causes the head to swell

  • Swelling of the veins in the scalp

  • seizures

  • failure to thrive

  • congestive heart failure

when to see a doctor

If you have any of the signs and symptoms of an AVM, such as headache, dizziness, seizures, or changes in thinking or neurological function - seek medical attention immediately if the AVM is usually associated with other problems

It causes arteriovenous malformation

AVMs result from abnormal direct connections between arteries and veins, but doctors don't yet know why this happens. Some genetic changes may play a role, but most types of AVMs are not usually inherited.

Risk factors for arteriovenous malformation

It is rare for people to have a family history of AVM, but most of these types are not hereditary

Certain genetic conditions may increase the risk of developing an AVM. These conditions include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also called Osler-Weber-Rindau syndrome.

Complications of an arteriovenous malformation

The most common complications of an AVM are bleeding and seizures. If left untreated, bleeding can cause significant neurological damage and may be fatal.

What is the difference between AVF and AVM?

AVF stands for arteriovenous fistula which is a direct connection between an artery and a vein in the body, the arteriovenous malformation is actually a group of abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can develop anywhere throughout the body, they are two different terms for two different conditions but both can cause It causes serious health problems.

Is arteriovenous malformation life threatening?

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal tangles of blood vessels. They most often develop in the brain, but they can also form in other parts of the body. AVMs can rupture and bleed, and are a life-threatening complication that usually requires emergency surgery to stop the bleeding. You don't have symptoms of an AVM and you don't realize it's there until it ruptures—about 20 percent of people with an AVM will die from a hemorrhage before the age of 60. Survivors sometimes need further surgical treatment for clots or bleeding.

Do all types of AVM need treatment?

All AVMs need treatment Most AVMs that are found incidentally will not bleed or require treatment during the person's life but there is no way to know if the finding is just an incidental finding if the patient has symptoms of the AVM such as bleeding or Headache treatment options then become available for the doctor and patient to discuss.

Can you live with an arteriovenous malformation?

In some cases, people with an AVM live for years without symptoms or complications, and this means that brain aneurysms must be closely monitored because they can leak and cause serious health problems.

It is a defect in which a blood vessel loaded with deoxygenated blood fails to drain properly. Not much is known about the causes of an AVM but it is believed to be genetic or congenital. The places where they develop are the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs.

Diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation

Your doctor may diagnose you with an AVM based on a review of your symptoms and an examination

Hearing loss may be caused by the very rapid flow of blood through the arteries and veins from an AVM.

Tests commonly used to help diagnose an AVM include: MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), CT scan, and angiography

  • Cerebral angiography . This test uses a special type of dye called a contrast agent to highlight the blood vessels. This allows the doctor to see the structures in the blood vessels better on the x-ray.

  • Computed tomography (CT) . A CT scan uses X-rays to create images of the brain, head or spinal cord and can help show bleeding

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) . MRI machines use powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of tissues, and MRIs can pick up on small changes in these tissues.

  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) . An MR image captures the pattern and speed of blood flow through vascular abnormalities

Treatment of arteriovenous malformation

Treatment options depend on the location of the abnormality in which you are experiencing symptoms and your general health as well as the risks of treatment. Some types of AVM are monitored with regular imaging exams to watch for changes or problems that require treatment.

  • hemorrhage

  • It causes symptoms other than bleeding

  • This type of treatment is performed in the brain and can be administered safely


Medications can help manage many symptoms including seizures, headaches, and back pain


The main treatment for an AVM is surgery. Your doctor may recommend surgery if you're at high risk of bleeding. Your doctor may recommend removal if you have a large AVM with risks of damage to surrounding vital structures due to excessive expansion and rupture. Surgery is usually performed when the AVM is located in an area that can be surgically removed with little risk of causing significant damage and no other treatments. That will help in this case the brain tissue

Angioplasty is a type of surgery in which a surgeon threads a catheter through the arteries into the AVM, then injects a substance to close off parts of the AVM to reduce blood flow. It may also be done before brain surgery or radiosurgery to help reduce the risk of infection. Bleeding after brain surgery or other types of radiation therapy for complications of cancer

Stereotactic radiosurgery is sometimes used to treat AVMs. This uses highly focused beams of radiation to destroy blood vessels and stop the blood supply to the AVM.

Follow up

After treatment of an AVM, you may need regular follow-up visits with your doctor. Your doctor if your AVM is recurring or if it causes such a severe headache that you can't open your eyes.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation
  2. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

Coping and support

Knowing you have an malformation can be frightening, it can make you feel like you have little control over your health but there are steps you can take to deal with the feelings that come with a diagnosis and recovery:

  • For information about the AVM, you need to know the facts about your condition. Ask your doctor about the size and location of the AVM and what that means for your treatment options.

  • Accept your feelings. Complications of an AVM, such as bleeding and stroke, may cause emotional problems as well as physical problems. Compliance with the diagnosis may help.

  • Keep friends and family close. Friends and family can help you with practical things like accompanying you to doctor's appointments, and they can also provide emotional support by listening when you need them

  • Find someone to talk to. Talking to a friend or family member about your hopes and fears can be helpful. Ask your doctor about support groups in your area. Check the Yellow Pages for support groups in your area. Visit the American Stroke Association for more information on stroke rates, aneurysm statistics, and the Foundation. AVM, a group dedicated to raising awareness of cerebral aneurysms based in the US. The directors are all volunteers and receive no compensation for their work

Preparing for your appointment

The diagnosis of an AVM may be made immediately after an attack or bleeding has occurred, and it may also be detected after other symptoms appear on immediate imaging examinations.

Some AVMs are found during an unrelated medical condition If you don't have any symptoms, you may then be referred to you by a doctor trained in diseases of the brain and nervous system (neurologist or interventional neurosurgeon) for evaluation of the AVM.

It's a good idea to be well prepared for your appointment and here are some tips to help you prepare for your visit and what to expect from your doctor

What can you do

  • If you don't know of any pre-appointment restrictions, ask the doctor. When you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including all medical concerns, physical conditions and problems that may seem unrelated to the reason for the appointment

  • Make a list of all medications. If you are taking vitamins and supplements, tell the doctor the amounts of these substances that you are taking

  • Ask a family member or friend to go with you if someone accompanies you, it can help you remember the information you were given

  • Write a question to ask your doctor. Don't be afraid to ask questions that arise during your appointment

For an AVM, you should prepare a list of questions to ask your doctor. Here are some that may be helpful:

  • What other symptoms can the symptoms cause?

  • What tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis?

  • What are the treatment options and the advantages and disadvantages of each?

  • What results can I expect?

  • What kind of follow-up should I expect?

What do you expect from your doctor

The neurologist will ask about your symptoms if any physical examination and run a series of tests to confirm the diagnosis

The tests gather information about the size and location of the AVM to help guide your treatment options. Your doctor may ask you to:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Are the symptoms persistent or occasional?

  • How severe are the symptoms?

  • What if anything seems to improve symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to be worsening your symptoms?

General summary

  1. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a circulatory disorder. This is caused by an abnormal connection between the arteries and the veins that bypass the capillaries, forming a direct link between the two. As a result, oxygenated blood flows directly from the arteries into the veins without circulating through the body; Thus, oxygen-starved tissues, organs and cells occur in the affected area. An AVM can affect any part of the body, but it is most common in the brain, spinal cord, and lungs.

  2. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between veins and arteries, bypassing capillaries and resulting in direct blood flow from an artery into a vein. This increases the amount of oxygenated blood entering the veins, which can lead to high blood pressure. An AVM can cause a range of symptoms, from no symptoms at all to stroke, seizures, and bleeding. In addition, an AVM can lead to structural changes in the body, such as enlargement of affected vessels or narrowing of other nearby vessels.

  3. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM), also known as an vascular malformation, is a tangle of blood vessels characterized by the irregular growth of the walls of blood vessels. The disorder occurs when new blood vessels sprout from an artery or vein and do not connect normally to existing ones. birth or develop later in life due to damage to the veins and arteries. A patient with an AVM may experience symptoms ranging from headache attacks, epileptic seizures, vision problems, dizziness, weakness, and loss of sensation in the extremities if they occur within the brain. when it affects the vascular network.

  4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are tangled clumps of abnormal blood vessels that can form anywhere in the body including the brain. It may include headaches and vision problems. Most patients with an AVM do not show symptoms until it ruptures. If this occurs, treatment options range from observation to surgery to cauterization to prevent leakage into surrounding tissues or the brain.

Arteriovenous malformation : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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