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Atrial flutter : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Atrial flutter?

Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm, which means that it is too fast or too slow. It is a type of arrhythmia, which is a medical term for any abnormal heart rhythm. Atrial flutter usually occurs when the atria of the heart beat too quickly. This can happen because of an electrical problem in the heart, which causes the atria to quiver instead of beating regularly.

What is Atrial flutter?
Atrial flutter

  1. Circulatory system
    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

medical terms

  • Atrial flutter (AFL) is a heart disorder in which the atria of the heart beat rapidly and in a disorganized manner. It is a form of supraventricular tachycardia, meaning that the heart beats faster than normal, but it is not a form of fibrillation. The atria of the heart beat at a very fast rate, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is too fast for the ventricles of the heart to keep up with. As a result, the ventricles beat more slowly, usually between 140 and 160 beats per minute.

  • Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm in which the upper chambers of the heart beat too quickly. This cardiac arrhythmia is caused by a single, rapid circuit throughout the atria, leading to an abnormal ventricular rate. The condition can often be accompanied by symptoms such as palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness. In some cases, atrial flutter may cause complications such as stroke, heart failure, and even death.

Types Atrial flutter

  • Typical (maximum not unusual kind): Abnormal electrical signals cross in a counterclockwise circle for your right atrium.

  • Reverse standard: Abnormal electrical alerts circulate in a clockwise course on your right atrium.

  • Atypical (no longer commonplace until you’ve had coronary heart surgical treatment or ablations before): Abnormal electric indicators can show up for your left or proper atrium.

Types Heart arrhythmia

In fashion, heart arrhythmias are grouped by way of the speed of the heart charge. For instance:

  • Tachycardia is a quick coronary heart. The resting heart charge is extra than 100 beats a minute.

  • Bradycardia is a gradual heartbeat. The resting heart fee is much less than 60 beats a minute.

Types of tachycardias encompass:

  1. Ventricular fibrillation
  2. Atrial flutter
  3. Ventricular tachycardia
  4. Supraventricular tachycardia
  5. Atrial fibrillation

Symptoms Atrial flutter

The condition known as atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that causes the heart to beat too quickly. Symptoms of atrial flutter can include chest pain, dizziness, fatigue, and palpitations. In some cases, atrial flutter may also cause shortness of breath due to the inadequate flow of oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. Moreover, this condition may be accompanied by high blood pressure or an irregular pulse.

Some humans don’t have symptoms of atrial flutter. For others, signs and symptoms consist of:

  • Shortness of breath.

  • Dizziness.

  • Lack of strength.

  • Heart palpitations.

  • Fast pulse.

  • Chest ache.

  • Passing out.

  • Lightheadedness.

When to see a doctor

If you experience something like your coronary heart beating too rapidly or too slowly, or it's skipping a beat, make an appointment to see a health practitioner. Seek instant medical help if you have shortness of breath, weak point, dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting or near fainting, and chest ache or discomfort.

A form of arrhythmia referred to as ventricular traumatic inflammation can motivate a dramatic drop in blood pressure. Collapse can occur inside seconds and shortly the individual's respiratory and pulse will forestall. If this happens, comply with those steps:

  • Call 911 or the emergency quantity in your location.

  • If there may be no one close by skilled in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), offer hands-only CPR. Push hard and rapid on the middle of the chest at a fee of a hundred to 120 compressions a minute until paramedics arrive. You do not want to do rescue respiration.

  • If you or someone nearby is aware of CPR, start CPR. CPR can help maintain blood drift to the organs until an electrical shock (defibrillation) can be given.

  • If an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available nearby, have someone get the tool and follow the instructions. An AED is a portable defibrillator device that could supply a surprise which can restart heartbeats. No schooling is required to operate an AED. The AED will let you know what to do. It's programmed to permit a shock most effective when suitable.

Causes Atrial flutter

Electrical signals that are too common purpose atrial flutter, making the top chambers of your coronary heart agreement (pump) too often.

Causes of atrial flutter encompass:


  • Heart valve problems.

  • Heart situation gift at birth.

  • Coronary artery disorder.

  • High blood strain.

  • Overactive thyroid.

Risk factors Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter is a common cardiac arrhythmia. It is characterized by a rapid and irregular heartbeat. The atria, the upper chambers of the heart, beat in rapid succession and fail to properly pump blood throughout the body. Symptoms of atrial flutter include palpitations, dizziness, and chest pain.

You’re at a higher threat of atrial flutter if you’re older, assigned male at beginning or you've got:

  • Other coronary heart problems, like heart failure or a valve issue.

  • High blood stress.

  • A thyroid trouble.

  • Diabetes.

  • Lung sickness.

  • A clinical history that consists of alcohol use sickness.

  • Obstructive sleep apnea.

  • Obesity.

Diagnosis Atrial flutter

To diagnose a heart arrhythmia, the medical doctor will generally do a bodily examination and ask questions on your clinical history and signs and symptoms. Tests can be carried out to verify an abnormal heartbeat and search for conditions which could cause arrhythmias, including heart sickness or thyroid ailment.

Tests to diagnose coronary heart arrhythmias might also include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). During an ECG, sensors (electrodes) that can come across the electric pastime of the coronary heart are connected to the chest and every so often to the hands or legs. An ECG measures the timing and length of each electrical phase in the heartbeat.

  • Holter display. This portable ECG tool may be worn for an afternoon or more to record your coronary heart's hobby as you cross approximately your routine.

  • Event recorder. This wearable ECG tool is used to hit upon sporadic arrhythmias. You press a button while symptoms occur. An occasion recorder may be worn for an extended period of time (up to 30 days or until you've got an arrhythmia or traditional signs and symptoms).

  • Echocardiogram. In this noninvasive check, a hand held tool (transducer) positioned at the chest makes use of sound waves to supply pix of the coronary heart's length, structure and movement.

  • Implantable loop recorder. If symptoms are very infrequent, an event recorder may be implanted under the skin in the chest region to always record the heart's electrical activity and discover irregular coronary heart rhythms.

  • Stress take a look at. Some arrhythmias are triggered or worsened through workout. During a pressure check, the coronary heart's activity is monitored while you experience it on a stationary bicycle or stroll on a treadmill. If you've got an issue with workout, a drug can be given to stimulate the coronary heart in a manner similar to exercising.

  • Tilt table take a look at. A medical doctor may suggest taking a look at if you've had fainting spells. Your coronary heart charge and blood stress are monitored as you lie flat on a table. The table is then tilted as if you had been status up. The doctor observes how your coronary heart and the worried gadget that controls it respond to the trade in perspective.

  • Electrophysiological testing and mapping. In this check, additionally known as an EP observe, a physician threads skinny, bendy tubes (catheters) tipped with electrodes via the blood vessels to unique areas in the coronary heart. Once in an area, the electrodes can map the spread of electrical impulses through the heart.

  • Sometimes, a coronary heart doctor (heart specialist) uses the electrodes to stimulate the coronary heart to conquer at charges that may cause — or prevent — an arrhythmia. Doing this enables the medical doctor to determine the vicinity of the arrhythmia, its possible causes and the exceptional treatment alternatives. This take a look at may also be executed to decide if a person with sure fitness situations is liable to growing coronary heart arrhythmias.

Treatment Atrial flutter

Medicines work properly for many people with atrial flutter. Any remedy could have side outcomes, but the benefits normally are greater than the risks. When drug treatments don’t paint, your company may also suggest a system which can help.


Medicines for the remedy of atrial flutter consist of:

  • Medicines to gradual down your heart charge: Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers.

  • Medicines to stop the ordinary rhythm: Antiarrhythmic pills.


Procedures to deal with atrial flutter encompass:


  • Cardioversion thru electric surprise.

  • Catheter ablation, a system a company can use to destroy the tissue that’s developing ordinary signals.

  • Temporary change in your pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) setting.

Preparing in your appointment

If you suspect you can have a coronary heart arrhythmia, make an appointment with your doctor. If a coronary heart arrhythmia is determined early, remedy may be simpler and extra effective. You may be stated as a doctor trained in coronary heart situations (cardiologist).

If a coronary heart arrhythmia persists for extra than a few minutes or is accompanied through fainting, shortness of breath or chest pain, name 911 or your nearby emergency range or have a person drive you to the closest emergency room.

Because appointments may be quick, and due to the fact there's often lots to speak about, it's an excellent concept to be organized for your appointment. Here's a few statistics that will help you get prepared for your appointment, and what to anticipate from your medical doctor.

What you could do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you're making the appointment, make sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your food regimen. You may additionally need to do that if your health practitioner orders any blood exams.

  • Write down any signs you are having, together with any that could appear unrelated to heart arrhythmia.

  • Write down key non-public information, which include a family history of heart disorder, stroke, high blood strain or diabetes, and any essential stresses or current life modifications.

  • Make a listing of all medications, including nutrients or dietary supplements that you're taking.

  • Take a family member or friend alongside, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all of the data supplied to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may not forget something that you neglected or forgot.

  • Write down questions to ask your physician.

Your time along with your doctor is limited, so getting a list of questions will help you make the most of it. List your questions from maximum vital to least vital in case time runs out. For heart arrhythmias, a few primary inquiries to ask your health practitioner encompass:

  • What's the maximum likely cause of my signs?

  • Are there different possible reasons for my signs and symptoms?

  • What types of exams will I want? Do I want to do whatever to put together for those exams?

  • What's the most appropriate treatment?

  • Are there any meals or liquids which you advise I avoid? Is there something you suggest that I upload to my weight loss plan?

  • What's an appropriate stage of bodily interest?

  • How often ought to I be screened for heart disorder or different complications of an arrhythmia?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I high-quality control those conditions together?

  • Is there a typical opportunity for the drugs you are prescribing?

  • Are there any brochures or different printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you propose journeying?

What to assume out of your physician

Your medical doctor is probably inviting you to ask a number of questions. Being prepared to answer them may reserve time to move over any factors you need to spend greater time on. Your health practitioner may additionally ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing signs?

  • Have your signs been continuous, or do they arrive and pass?

  • How severe are your signs and symptoms?

  • Does something seem to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if something, appears to get worse your signs and symptoms?

  • Is there a circle of relatives with a history of arrhythmia?

General summary

  1. Atrial flutter is an abnormally fast heart rhythm that typically starts in the atria of the heart, or the upper chambers. This type of arrhythmia is often caused by electrical signals that move too quickly through the atria. Symptoms of atrial flutter include heart palpitations, lightheadedness, dizziness, and chest pain. In some cases, atrial flutter can lead to fatigue and shortness of breath.

  2. Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm, or arrhythmia, that causes your heart to beat too quickly. It is caused by a re-entry circuit within the atria, which results in the atria to beat at a rate of around 250 to 350 beats per minute. This is much faster than the normal range of 60 to 100 beats per minute. It often presents itself with symptoms like chest pain, palpitations, fatigue, lightheadedness, and shortness of breath.

  3. Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that affects the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. It is similar to the condition known as atrial fibrillation, but differs in that the heart rate is more regular. A person with atrial flutter may experience symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. In severe cases, it can cause a decrease in blood pressure, worsening chest pain, and even heart failure.

Atrial flutter : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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