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Atrial septal defect (ASD): Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)?

An atrial septal defect is an opening in the atrial septum,or dividing wall between the 2 higher chambers of the heart, referred to as the proper and left atria. ASD is a non inheritable (present at birth) heart defect, or it may end up from the failure of traditional postnatal closure of a hole that's a gift in the heart of each fetus. 

Normally, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, travels to the right ventricle, then is pumped-up into the lungs wherever it receives oxygen. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes into the left ventricle, so is pumped-up and bent the body through the aorta.

What is Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)?
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

associate chamber congenital heart defect permits oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left atrium of the heart, through the gap within the septum, and then combine with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right atrium.An atrial septal defect (ASD) may be a hole in the septum, that is that the muscular wall that separates the heart’s 2 higher chambers (atria). associate ASD is a defect you're born with (congenital defect) that happens once the septum doesn't kind properly. It's commonly known as a “hole within the heart.”

A secundum ASD may be a hole in the middle of the septum. The outlet let's blood result from one aspect of the atria to the other. The direction depends on what quantity pressure is in the atria.

Additional difficult and rare forms of ASDs involve completely different elements of the septum and abnormal blood coming from the lungs (sinus venosus) or heart valve defects (primum ASDs).

  1. Circulatory system

    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

Medical terms

  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that results in an abnormal opening between the two atria, or upper chambers, of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix, resulting in an inefficient flow of blood to the lungs. In some cases, the defect can be managed with lifestyle changes, but in other cases, surgery or other treatments may be necessary. Surgery to close the ASD is usually successful in repairing the symptoms, and most people with repaired ASDs are able to lead normal lives with minimal restrictions.

  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a congenital heart condition in which a hole exists between the two upper chambers of the heart, the atria. This defect can cause abnormal blood flow, leading to an increase in blood pressure in the lungs and other organs. In some cases, ASD can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. In severe cases, it can cause arrhythmia, or an irregular heartbeat.

  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole within the heart between the higher chambers (atria). The opening will increase the number of blood that flows through the lungs. The condition is a gift at birth (congenital heart defect). tiny chamber congenital heart defects may be found inadvertently and ne'er cause a concern. Others shut throughout infancy or early childhood. A large, lone atrial septal defect will harm the guts and lungs. Surgery may be required to repair an atrial septal defect and to stop complications. 

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the heart's atrial septum the wall that separates the upper chambers of the heart Through this hole blood can flow from one side of the heart to the other mixing oxygen-poor blood with oxygen-rich blood instead of allowing it to be pumped out to the rest of body This condition is also called "hole in heart".

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect that occurs when there is a hole between the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) Blood flows from the left side of the heart to the right side bypassing some important structures This can cause blood to leak into other parts of the body.

Types Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Types of atrial septal defects include:

  • Secundum. This is the most common type of ASD. It occurs in the middle of the wall between the upper heart chambers (atrial septum).

  • Primum. This type of ASD affects the lower part of the atrial septum and might occur with other congenital heart defects.

  • Sinus venosus. This rare type of ASD usually occurs in the upper part of the wall that separates the ventricles of the heart. It is also linked to other changes in the structure of the heart that are present at birth. 

  • Coronary sinus. In this rare type of ASD, part of the wall between the coronary sinus, which is part of the heart's venous system, and the upper left  chamber (left atrium) is missing. 

Symptoms Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Many people ANy i don't have any} plan . They need an ASD as a result of not having symptoms. Some patients verify regarding the defect once a chest X-ray for one more downside shows that the correct aspect of the guts is greater than normal. By age 50, an ASD will cause symptoms like shortness of breath, fainting, irregular heart rhythms or fatigue once delicate activity or exercise.Many babies born with chamber septate defects have no signs or symptoms. Signs or symptoms can begin in adulthood.

Atrial septal defect signs and symptoms can include:

  • Shortness of breath, especially when exercising

  • Fatigue

  • Swelling of legs, feet or belly (abdomen)

  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)

  • Sensation of a rapid, pounding heartbeat (palpitations) or skipped beats

  • Whooshing sound that can be heard through a stethoscope (heart murmur)

When to see a doctor

Serious innate heart defects, together with massive chamber septate defects, are typically diagnosed before or presently when a toddler is born. Contact your health care supplier if you or your child has:

  • Shortness of breath

  • Easy tiring, especially after activity

  • Swelling of legs, feet or belly (abdomen)

  • Sensations of a rapid, pounding heartbeat (palpitations) or skipped beats

Causes Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Normally, blood cannot flow between the 2 higher heart chambers. However, AN ASD permits this to happen. Once blood flows between the two heart chambers, this can be referred to as a shunt. Blood most frequently flows from the left to the proper aspect. Once this happens the right side of the guts enlarges. Over time pressure within the lungs could build up. Once this happens, the blood flowing through the defect will then go from right to left. If this occurs, there'll be less O in the blood that goes to the body.The reason for chamber congenital heart defect is unclear. a chamber congenital heart defect could be a structural drawback that happens throughout heart development whereas a baby remains within the womb. Genetics, bound medical conditions, use of certain medications, and environmental or fashion factors, reminiscent of smoking or alcohol misuse, could play a role.

How the heart works

To understand the reason for the chamber septate defect, it's going to be useful to understand however the guts usually work. The everyday heart is formed of 4 chambers — 2 higher chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). The proper facet of the heart moves blood to the lungs. within the lungs, blood picks up chemical elements so returns it to the heart' left side. The left side of the heart then pumps the blood through the body' main artery (aorta) and bent the remainder of the body. an outsized atrial septal defect can cause additional blood to fill the lungs and overwork the proper facet of the guts. If not treated, the right side of the heart eventually grows larger and becomes weak. The force per unit area within the arteries in the lungs also can increase, resulting in pneumonic hypertension.

Risk factors Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Atrial septal defect (ASD) happens because the baby' heart is developing throughout maternity. Sure health conditions or drug use during pregnancy might increase a baby' risk of chamber septal defect or different inherent heart defect. this stuff include:

  • German measles (rubella) infection during the first few months of pregnancy

  • Diabetes

  • Lupus

  • Alcohol or tobacco use

  • Illegal drug use, such as cocaine

  • Use of certain medications, including some anti-seizure medications and drugs to treat mood disorders

Some sorts of non inheritable  heart defects occur in families (inherited). If you've got or somebody in your family has congenital heart disease, as well as ASD, screening by a genetic counselor will facilitate confirming the chance of bound heart defects in future children.

Complications Atrial septal defect

A small atrial septal defect might never cause any concern. Small atrial septal defects often close during infancy.

Larger atrial septal defects can cause serious complications, including:

  • Right-sided heart failure

  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)

  • Stroke

  • Early death

  • High blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension)

Pulmonary high blood pressure will cause permanent respiratory organ damage. This complication, referred to as Eisenmenger syndrome, sometimes develops over a few years and happens uncommonly in individuals with massive chamber body part defects. Treatment can stop or facilitate managing several of those complications.

Atrial septal defect and pregnancy

If you have got Associate in Nursing chamber congenital heart defect and are pregnant or considering changing into pregnant, it's vital to speak to your health care supplier and to hunt for correct antepartum care. A health care provider might suggest ASD repair before conceiving. an outsized atrial septal defect or its complications will result in a speculative pregnancy.

Prevention Atrial septal defect

There is no well-known thanks to forestall the defect. A number of the complications are often prevented with early detection.Because the reason behind chamber congenital heart defect (ASD) is unclear, interference might not be possible. However, obtaining smart antepartum care is important. If you've got associate ASD and are reaching to become pregnant, schedule a visit together with your healthcare provider. This visit ought to include:

  • Discussing current health conditions and medications. You'll have to monitor bound health conditions, corresponding to polygenic disorder or lupus, throughout pregnancy. Your health care supplier may additionally suggest adjusting or stopping certain medications before pregnancy. 

  • Reviewing your family medical history. If you have a case history of inherent heart defects or alternative genetic conditions, contemplate talking with a genetic counselor to see your specific risks. 

  • Getting tested for immunity to German measles (rubella). Rubella within the mother has been coupled to some styles of non inheritable  heart defects in the baby. If you're not immune, raise your health care supplier regarding obtaining vaccinated. 

Atrial septal defect (asd)

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) The hole is present at birth and allows oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the heart to go directly into the right side.

How is ASD and VSD corrected?

The most common treatment is to surgically patch the hole in the heart The surgeon must do this when the child is still a baby usually between 2 and 6 months old but sometimes as late as 1 year of age After surgery most children have no symptoms or heart problems In some cases however doctors need to follow up with additional procedures as the child grows up These procedures may include inserting small tubes in or around the heart that drain fluid from it and make sure it is working properly; implanting a pacemaker; or replacing part of an artery leading to the lungs with a vein so that oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs can go into the rest of.

What size ASD requires surgery?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder that can impact individuals in different ways A number of factors affect how an individual with ASD will experience the disorder including mild or severe symptoms delayed or early onset and intellectual disability as well as language skills The severity of autism spectrum disorders can vary from person to person Not all people with ASD require surgery for treatment however some may benefit from minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic adenoidectomy or laser ablation for management of sleep apnea In some cases weight loss through bariatric surgery may be helpful for increasing respiratory function and sometimes surgical removal of non-functioning parathyroid glands can.

When should ASD be repaired?

Once the ASD is diagnosed it should be repaired as soon as possible There is a risk of complications with an untreated ASD These include infection stroke and heart damage There are two options for repairing an ASD: surgery or medication A surgeon can repair the atrial septal defect using open-heart surgery or through a catheter in the groin area (transcatheter) The preferred method of repair is open-heart surgery which allows for a larger patch to be used than a catheter would allow For smaller defects or those that occur in people who cannot undergo open-heart surgery transcatheter repair may be necessary.

Diagnosis Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Many doctors can hear your child’s heart employing a stethoscope. one in all the primary signs of ASD has a heart murmur. Heart murmurs sound totally different from a standard heartbeat. This is often as a result of blood flowing abnormally through the heart. Your child may have to visit a medical heart surgeon (heart doctor) to search out specifically what’s wrong. A pediatric cardiologist has special coaching in caring for kids with heart problems.Some chamber body part defects are diagnosed before or before long once a toddler is born. However, smaller atrial septal defects might not be diagnosed till later in life. If AN chamber congenital heart defect is present, the health care supplier could hear a whooshing sound (heart murmur) once taking note of the center with a stethoscope.

Tests that are done to help diagnose an atrial septal defect include:

  • Echocardiogram. This is the foremost usually used take a look at to diagnose Associate in Nursing chamber septate defect. Sound waves are wont to produce footage of the center in motion. Associate in Nursing sonogram will show however well blood is moving through the heart and heart valves.

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray shows the condition of the heart and lungs.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick and painless test records the electrical activity of the heart. An ECG can help identify irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias).

  • Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. This imaging check uses magnetic fields and radio waves to make elaborated pictures of the heart. A health care supplier would possibly request this kind of MRI if the diagnostic procedure didn't offer a definitive diagnosis. 

  • Computed tomography (CT) scan. This uses a series of X-rays to make elaborate pictures of your heart. It may be wont to diagnose AN chamber congenital heart defect and connected innate heart defects if diagnostic technique hasn't undoubtedly diagnosed an atrial septal defect. 

Treatment Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Treatment for patients with associate ASD depends on the kind and size of the defect, its impact on the heart, and different health conditions you've got, akin to respiratory organ hypertension, valve sickness or arterial disease. In general, treatment is suggested if you have an oversized ASD that causes important shunting (flow of blood through the defect) and also the right aspect of your heart is larger than normal, otherwise you have any of the symptoms delineated previously. the larger the defect is, the additional shunting you have. And, the more shunting you have, the bigger your risk of issues like arrhythmia and respiratory organ hypertension. Also, the number of shunting you've got sometimes relates to how enlarged the correct aspect of your heart is.Treatment for chamber congenital heart defect depends on the dimensions of the opening within the heart and whether or not you or your kid has different inborn heart defects. several atrial septal defects shut on their own throughout childhood. For people who don't close, some tiny atrial septal defects may not need treatment. A doctor specializing in heart diseases (cardiologist) would possibly suggest observing it with regular health checkups to visualize if it closes on its own. Your health care supplier can ask you once you or your kid wants treatment. Several persistent chamber septate defects eventually need surgery. However, closure isn't suggested if severe respiratory organ cardiovascular disease is present.


Medications won't repair a chamber congenital heart defect, however they'll facilitate reduced signs and symptoms. Medications for atrial septal defect would possibly embrace medicine to regulate the heartbeat (beta blockers) or to cut back the danger of blood clots (anticoagulants).

Surgery or other procedures

Many cardiologists suggest surgery to repair a medium to giant chamber congenital heart defect that's diagnosed throughout childhood or adulthood to stop future complications.

For adults and children, atrial septal defect repair surgery involves closing the hole in the heart. This can be done two ways:

  • Catheter-based repair. A thin, versatile tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel, typically within the groin, and guided  to the guts victimization imaging techniques. A mesh patch or plug is tried and true on the tube and accustomed to shut the hole. Heart tissue grows round the seal, for good closing the hole. The catheter-based repair procedure is employed just for the secundum kind of chamber septate defects. Some massive secundum atrial septal defects, however, may need open-heart surgery. 

  • Open-heart surgery. This type of chamber congenital heart defect repair surgery involves AN incision through the chest wall to access the center directly. The surgeons use patches to shut the hole. This open-heart repair surgery is solely thanks to fix primum, sinus venosus and sinus atrial defects. Sometimes, atrial septal defect repair will be done victimizing tiny incisions (minimally invasive surgery) and with a automaton (robot-assisted heart surgery). Anyone who has had surgery for atrial septal defect desires regular echocardiograms and health checkups to look at for attainable complications, corresponding to irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias), heart valve problems, high pressure within the respiratory organ arteries (pulmonary hypertension) and heart failure. individuals with giant chamber septate defects who don't have surgery to shut the outlet generally have worse long-run outcomes. They'll have a lot of issues acting in everyday activities (reduced practical capacity) and are at bigger risk for arrhythmias and pulmonary hypertension. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you or your kid has an associate degree chamber body part defect, the health care supplier could advocate some fashion steps to stay the center healthy and to forestall complications.

  • Exercise. Exercise is sometimes safe in patients with chamber septate defects. however if ASD repair is needed, a health care supplier could advocate avoiding sure activities till the center defect is fixed. A doctor trained in heart diseases (cardiologist) will assist you learn what activity is safest for you or your child. 

  • Extreme changes in altitude. Changes in altitude could cause concern if you've got an unrepaired chamber body part defect. If you intend to Aqua-Lung dive or hike in high altitudes, speak together with your medical specialist to make sure the activities are safe. 

  • Dental work. If you later had ASD repair surgery and wish dental work, your health care supplier can probably advocate that you just take preventive antibiotics for about six months when the opening within the heart is closed. 

Preparing for your appointment

You or your kid can doubtless be observed by a doctor trained in heart disorders (cardiologist). Here's some data to assist you prepare for your appointment.

What you can do

Make a list of:

  • Your or your child's symptoms, and when you noticed them

  • Key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes, and family history of heart defects

  • All medications, vitamins or other supplements you or your child takes, including doses

  • Questions to ask your healthcare provider

For atrial septal defect, questions to ask your health care provider include:

  • What's the most likely cause of these symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes?

  • What tests are needed?

  • Is the atrial septal defect temporary or long lasting?

  • What are the treatment options?

  • What are the risks of repair surgery?

  • Are there any activity restrictions?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask many questions, including:

  • Have the symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • Do symptoms get worse with exercise?

  • Does anything else seem to make the symptoms worse?

  • Is there anything that seems to improve the symptoms?

  • Is there a family history of congenital heart defects?

General summary

  1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect where there is an abnormal opening in the atrial septum, the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart. This defect can have various sizes, ranging from small to large, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects in adults. Depending on the size of the defect, it can cause a range of symptoms, from palpitations to shortness of breath. In some cases, it may not be diagnosed until adulthood, when a physical exam or an echocardiogram reveals the ASD.

  2. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect in which there is an opening in the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to mix with oxygen-poor blood and can then cause strain on the heart and other organs. Complications can arise from ASD, including an irregular heartbeat, stroke, and pulmonary hypertension. For this reason, it is important to diagnose and treat ASD early on to avoid any long-term complications.

  3. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect which is present at birth. It is a hole in the wall that separates the two top chambers of the heart—the left and right atrium. Because of this hole, oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the heart can mix with oxygen-poor blood from the right side of the heart. This means that some oxygen-poor blood is pumped out of the heart, reducing the amount of oxygen that is delivered to the body.

Atrial septal defect (ASD): Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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