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Avascular necrosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Avascular necrosis ?

Avascular sphacelus happens once one thing blocks the flow of blood to your bone tissue. Your bones are perpetually dynamical as your systema skeletale makes new bone tissue to switch aging bone tissue that eventually breaks down and dies.

Think of this as a cycle — your body makes new tissue to switch the tissue that’s breaking down and dying. This pattern must happen properly to stay healthy and powerful. Blood carries the nutrients and atomic number 8 bones have to be compelled to keep healthy and regenerate. while not blood flow, your systema skeletale cannot build new bone tissue quick enough. The dying bone begins to crumble and eventually collapses.

What is Avascular necrosis ?
Avascular necrosis

Between 10,000 and 20,000 Americans develop avascular sphacelus once a year. It will have an effect on all ages and genders, however this condition happens most frequently to folks in their 30s and 40s.

  1. Musculoskeletal system

  1. Human skeleton

  2. Joints

  3. Ligaments

  4. Muscular system

  5. Tendons

Medical terms

  • Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a condition in which the bone's blood supply is interrupted. This can lead to bone death or permanent damage, often in the hip or shoulder joints. AVN is caused by a number of factors, including trauma, certain medications, and diseases such as sickle cell anemia or lupus. Symptoms of AVN may include joint pain, decreased mobility, swelling, and eventual deformity.

  • Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a pathological condition resulting from the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply. This condition can cause pain, joint destruction and often disability. AVN can also lead to total joint replacement and is caused by trauma, long-term corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, and other conditions. It can happen in any bone, but it is most commonly seen in the hip, shoulder, knee, elbow and ankle joints.

  • Avascular sphacelus is the death of bone tissue because of an absence of blood. additionally referred to as osteonecrosis, it will cause little breaks within the bone and therefore the bone's ultimate collapse.

  • A broken bone or disjointed joint will interrupt the blood flow to a region of bone. avascular sphacelus is additionally related to long-run use of high-dose steroid medications and excessive alcohol intake.

  • Anyone will be affected, however the condition is most typical in folks between the ages of thirty and fifty.

  • of the femoral head Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) sometimes referred to as osteonecrosis of the femoral head or hip joint is a rare but life-threatening disease of the hip The disorder occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the bone marrow where new bone and blood cells are made

  • Avascular necrosis is a condition in which there is a loss of blood supply and death of bone tissue (osteonecrosis) due to the blockage or lack of blood flow Avascular necrosis can cause pain swelling and deformity The most common area for avascular necrosis is the femoral head (hip) Other common sites include the knee ankle shoulder and elbow While it can occur at any age avascular necrosis frequently affects middle-aged men who participate in high-impact sports like football and basketball There are three main types of avascular necrosis: Hip Nec.

Many people haven't any symptoms within the early stages of avascular sphacelus. because the condition worsens, your affected joint would possibly hurt only if you set weight thereon. Eventually, you would possibly feel the pain even once you are lying down.

Pain is delicate or severe and typically develops step by step. Pain related to avascular sphacelus of the hip would possibly center on the groin, thigh or body part. Besides the hip, the areas possible to be affected are the shoulder, knee, hand and foot.

Some folks develop avascular sphacelus on each side (bilaterally) — like in each hips or in each knees.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have persistent pain in any joint. Seek immediate medical attention if you believe you have a broken bone or a dislocated joint.

Causes Avascular necrosis

Bone fractures or sickness that forestall blood flow to bone tissue causes avascular gangrene. regarding two hundredth of avascular gangrene cases happen while not an understandable cause.

Avascular gangrene happens once blood flow to a bone is interrupted or reduced. Reduced blood offer is caused by:

  • Joint or bone trauma. An injury, such as a dislocated joint, might damage nearby blood vessels. Cancer treatments involving radiation also can weaken bone and harm blood vessels.

  • Fatty deposits in blood vessels. The fat (lipids) can block small blood vessels, reducing the blood flow that feeds bones.

  • Certain diseases. Medical conditions, like red blood cell anemia and monogenic disorder, can also cause diminished blood flow to bone.
    Regarding twenty five p.c of individuals with avascular death, the reason for interrupted blood flow is unknown. 

Risk factors Avascular necrosis

Risk factors for developing avascular necrosis include:

  • Trauma. Injuries, such as hip dislocation or fracture, can damage nearby blood vessels and reduce blood flow to bones.

  • Steroid use. Use of high-dose corticosteroids, like anti-inflammatory drugs, may be a common reason for avascular gangrene. The explanation is unknown, however one hypothesis is that corticosteroids will increase macromolecule levels in your blood, reducing blood flow. 

  • Excessive alcohol use. Consuming several alcoholic drinks a day for several years also can cause fatty deposits to form in your blood vessels.

  • Bisphosphonate use. Long-term use of medicines to extend bone density may contribute to developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. This rare complication has occurred in some folks treated with high doses of those medications for cancers, like myeloma and pathologic process carcinoma. 

  • Certain medical treatments. Radiation therapy for cancer can weaken bone. Organ transplantation, especially kidney transplant, also is associated with avascular necrosis.

Medical conditions associated with avascular necrosis include:

  • Pancreatitis

  • Diabetes

  • Gaucher's disease


  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Sickle cell anemia

Complications Avascular necrosis

Untreated, avascular mortification worsens with time. Eventually, the bone will collapse. avascular mortification conjointly causes bone to lose its sleek form, probably resulting in severe inflammatory disease.

Prevention Avascular necrosis

To reduce your risk of avascular necrosis and improve your general health:

  • Limit alcohol. Heavy drinking is one of the top risk factors for developing avascular necrosis.

  • Keep cholesterol levels low. Tiny bits of fat are the most common substance blocking blood supply to bones.

  • Monitor steroid use. Make sure your doctor is aware of your past or gift use of high-dose steroids. Steroid-related bone injury seems to worsen with continual courses of high-dose steroids. 

  • Don't smoke. Smoking increases the risk.

What happens if avascular necrosis is left untreated?

If a bone lacks the blood supply to heal it is likely to begin dying This process of death and decay in one part of the body results in avascular necrosis also known as dying of starvation Bone cells that are deprived of supplies die and are reabsorbed by the body The body will eventually replace dead bone with new bone tissue; however this takes time If untreated for an extended period avascular necrosis can lead to serious health problems or even death.

Is avascular necrosis serious?

Avascular necrosis more commonly known as bone death or osteonecrosis is a term that refers to the destruction of bone in one or more joints caused by a lack of blood supply to that area AVN typically affects younger adults between the ages of 20 and 40 and its causes are usually traumatic in nature While AVN can be directly caused by trauma — like falling on your knee — it can also occur when there's an interruption or decrease in blood flow to a joint or bones involved in weight-bearing activities This interruption can be due to trauma (such as a car accident) prolonged immobilization.

Is walking good for avascular necrosis?

Walking is a great way to keep fit It burns calories and strengthens your heart muscles and bones The exercise doesn’t require any special equipment or training so it can be easily added into your day-to-day routine Walking regularly can help reduce the effects of osteoarthritis in the knees and hips strengthen your back for better posture and promote healthy weight gain if you’re overweight or obese Chapter 6 - Writing Paragraphs on Various Topics Practice Passages Collection Five: Essay What should consumers do when they suspect that they have become ill from food they.

What does AVN pain feel like?

The majority of people with AVN pain experience tenderness at first which can be intermittent and dull As the condition progresses AVN pain becomes more severe frequent constant and sharp in nature It can feel like a knife-like sensation or burning sensations in your lower back Some people have reported feeling as though they have been kicked in their back.

Can you exercise with avascular necrosis?

Yes you can exercise with AVN As long as you have no pain or unstable bones physical activity is encouraged Exercise will relieve stress and help keep your weight under control The goal is to do what you find enjoyable though be careful not to overdo it if it's painful Talk to your doctor about the right level of exercise for you so that any injuries from exercise don't make things worse by promoting further damage or dislocation of the hip joint.

How do you increase blood flow to bones?

Exercise is essential to maintain bone health as well as prevent osteoporosis in later years Exercise improves bone density and strength through several mechanisms By increasing the rate of bone formation and decreasing the rate of bone resorption exercise helps increase bone mass and density Increased muscle activity around a joint also leads to more efficient loading on bones that carry weight-bearing loads when those muscles contract during.

Diagnosis Avascular necrosis

During a physical communication your doctor can possibly press around your joints, checking for tenderness. Your doctor may also move the joints through a spread} of positions to envision if your range of motion has been reduced.

Imaging tests

Many disorders can cause joint pain. Imaging tests can help pinpoint the source of pain. Options include:

  • X-rays. They can reveal bone changes that occur in the later stages of avascular necrosis. In the condition's early stages, X-rays usually appear normal.

  • MRI and CT scan. These tests produce detailed images that can show early changes in bone that might indicate avascular necrosis.

  • Bone scan. A small quantity of material is injected into your vein. This tracer travels to the elements of your bones that are livid or healing and shows up as bright spots on the imaging plate. 

Treatment Avascular necrosis

The goal is to prevent further bone loss.

Medications and therapy

In the early stages of avascular necrosis, symptoms might be eased with medication and therapy. Your doctor might recommend:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Medications, like Motrin (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or Anaprox (Aleve) would possibly relieve the pain related to avascular gangrene. 

  • Osteoporosis drugs. Medications, such as alendronate (Fosamax, Binosto), might slow the progression of avascular necrosis, but the evidence is mixed.

  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs. Reducing the number of cholesterin and fat in your blood may facilitate forestall the vessel blockages that may cause avascular sphacelus. 

  • Blood thinners. If you have a clotting disorder, blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), might be recommended to prevent clots in the vessels feeding your bones.

  • Rest. Reducing the burden and stress on your affected bone will slow the injury. you may ought to prohibit your physical activity or use crutches to stay weight off your joint for many months. 

  • Exercises. A physical therapist can teach you exercises to help maintain or improve the range of motion in your joint.

  • Electrical stimulation. Electrical currents may encourage your body to grow new bone to interchange the broken bone. Electrical stimulation is often used throughout surgery and applied on to the broken space. Or it is often administered through electrodes connected to your skin. 

Surgical and other procedures

Because most people don't develop symptoms until avascular necrosis is fairly advanced, your doctor might recommend surgery. The options include:

  • Core decompression. The medico removes a part of the inner layer of your bone. Besides reducing your pain, the additional house among your bones stimulates the assembly of healthy bone tissue and new blood vessels. 

  • Bone transplant (graft). This procedure can help strengthen the area of bone affected by avascular necrosis. The graft is a section of healthy bone taken from another part of your body.

  • Bone reshaping (osteotomy). A wedge of bone is removed higher than or below a weight-bearing joint, to assist shift your weight off the broken bone. Bone reshaping may modify you to put off joint replacement. 

  • Joint replacement. If your diseased bone has collapsed or other treatments aren't helping, you might need surgery to replace the damaged parts of your joint with plastic or metal parts.

  • Regenerative medicine treatment. Bone marrow aspirate and concentration may be a newer procedure that may be acceptable for early stage avascular mortification of the hip. Stem cells square measure harvested from your bone marrow. Throughout surgery, a core of dead bone is removed and stem cells inserted in its place, probably granting growth of recent bone. A lot of study is required. 

Preparing for your appointment

Your family doctor might refer you to a doctor who specializes in disorders of the joints (rheumatologist) or to an orthopedic surgeon.

What you can do

Make a list of:

  • Your symptoms, including any that will appear unrelated to the rationale why you scheduled the appointment, and after they began 

  • Key medical information, including other conditions you have and history of injury to the painful joint

  • All medications, vitamins or other supplements you take, including doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Ask a relative or friend to accompany you, if doable, to assist you bear in mind the data you receive.

Some inquiries to raise your doctor regarding avascular gangrene include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What treatments are available?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, including:

  • Where's your pain?

  • Does a particular joint position make the pain better or worse?

  • Have you ever taken steroids such as prednisone?

  • How much alcohol do you drink?

General summary

  1. Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a condition caused by reduced or interrupted blood flow to bones. It is most often seen in the hip and shoulder, but can happen in any bones in the body. In AVN, the cells of the bone are deprived of oxygen and nutrients in the blood, leading to tissue death and resulting in weak and painful bones. The condition can be caused by an injury, but can also be caused by certain conditions such as diabetes, lupus, and alcohol abuse.

  2. Avascular necrosis is the death of bone tissue due to loss of blood supply It usually occurs in the hip bone and femur but can also develop in other bones such as those that run along the outside of a person's knee or arm Avascular necrosis is caused by injury trauma or disease processes Osteonecrosis most commonly affects young people between their late teens and mid-twenties with males affected more often than females Most people have some amount of AVN that doesn't cause any symptoms or health problems at all The extent of this disease depends on what body parts are affected.

Avascular necrosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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