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Bacterial vaginosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection caused by an imbalance in the normal flora of the vagina. The condition is caused by an overgrowth of bacteria normally found in the vagina in small numbers. The most common symptom of BV is a fishy-smelling discharge from the vagina. Other symptoms may include itching, burning during urination, and pain during intercourse.

What is Bacterial vaginosis?
Bacterial vaginosis

  1. Female Reproductive System

    • Internal reproductive organs

    1. Ovaries

    2. Fallopian tubes

    3. Uterus

    4. Cervix

    5. Placenta

    • External reproductive organs

    1. Vulva

    2. Clitoris

    3. Vagina

Medical terms

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an imbalance of the vaginal bacteria. It is the most common vaginal infection in women of reproductive age. BV occurs when the normal bacteria in the vagina become disrupted, allowing for an overgrowth of other organisms. Symptoms include a thin, white/gray discharge with a fishy odor, burning or pain during urination, and itching around the outside of the vagina.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disorder characterized by an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora. It is caused by an overgrowth of certain bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, and a decrease in the number of the normal lactobacilli. Symptoms may include a thin, grayish-white vaginal discharge with a fishy odor, which may be more noticeable after intercourse. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, antifungals, or probiotics.

Symptoms Bacterial vaginosis

Up to eighty four% of people with bacterial vaginosis (BV) don’t have signs.

Bacterial vaginosis signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms may additionally include:

  • Thin, gray, white or green vaginal discharge

  • Foul-smelling "fishy" vaginal odor

  • Vaginal itching

  • Burning throughout urination

  • Many women with bacterial vaginosis don't have any symptoms or signs.

When to look a physician

Make an appointment to look your health practitioner if:

  • You have vaginal discharge, it's new and associated with a smell or fever. Your doctor can assist in deciding the reason and identify signs and symptoms.

  • You've had vaginal infections earlier than, however the color and consistency of your discharge appears distinctive this time.

  • You have more than one sex partner or a current new associate. Sometimes, the symptoms and symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection are similar to the ones of bacterial vaginosis.

  • You strive for self-treatment for yeast contamination with an over-the-counter treatment and your signs persist.

Causes Bacterial vaginosis

Your vagina is domestic to a couple of varieties of bacteria (called a microbiome), just like your digestive device. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) occurs whilst some of the vaginal micro organisms develop quicker than others. Too lots of 1 sort of micro organism leads to an imbalance.

Bacterial vaginosis effects from overgrowth of one in all several microorganisms clearly determined in your vagina. Usually, "desirable" bacteria (lactobacilli) outnumber "bad" bacteria (anaerobes). But if there are too many anaerobic bacteria, they disappoint the herbal balance of microorganisms to your vagina and cause bacterial vaginosis.

Risk factors Bacterial vaginosis

Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis encompass:

  • Having more than one sex companion or a brand new sex companion. Doctors do not fully understand the hyperlink among sexual pastime and bacterial vaginosis, but the condition takes place more frequently in women who have multiple sex partners or a new intercourse accomplice. Bacterial vaginosis additionally takes place more often in ladies who have intercourse with ladies.

  • Douching. The exercise of rinsing out your vagina with water or a cleansing agent (douching) upsets the herbal stability of your vagina. This can cause an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria, and cause bacterial vaginosis. Since the vagina is self-cleansing, douching isn't essential.

  • Natural lack of lactobacilli microorganisms. If your natural vaginal surroundings don't produce sufficient amounts of the best lactobacilli bacteria, you are much more likely to develop bacterial vaginosis.

Complications Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis does not typically cause complications. Sometimes, having bacterial vaginosis can also lead to:

  • Preterm beginning. In pregnant ladies, bacterial vaginosis is linked to premature deliveries and low delivery weight babies.

  • Sexually transmitted infections. Having bacterial vaginosis makes girls extra liable to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, chlamydia or gonorrhea. If you have HIV, bacterial vaginosis will increase the percentages that you'll skip the virus on in your associate.

  • Infection threat after gynecologic surgery. Having bacterial vaginosis may additionally increase the chance of developing a put-up-surgical contamination after methods which include hysterectomy or dilation and curettage (D&C).

  • Pelvic inflammatory ailment (PID). Bacterial vaginosis can every now and then cause PID, an contamination of the uterus and the fallopian tubes which could increase the chance of infertility.

Prevention Bacterial vaginosis

To assist save you bacterial vaginosis:

  • Minimize vaginal irritation. Use moderate, non deodorant soaps and unscented tampons or pads.

  • Don't douche. Your vagina does not require cleaning aside from ordinary bathing. Frequent douching disrupts the vaginal stability and can increase your hazard of vaginal contamination. Douching won't resolve a vaginal infection.

  • Avoid a sexually transmitted infection. Use a male latex condom, restrict your variety of sex partners or abstain from intercourse to minimize your danger of a sexually transmitted infection.

Difference between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a yeast infection

Both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and yeast infections are vaginal infections that boom discharge. Here’s how you could inform the distinction:

  • Discharge: The hallmark sign of BV is discharged with a “fishy” scent. Discharge from yeast infections doesn’t normally have a robust scent but may also look like cottage cheese.

  • Vaginal irritation: Typically, BV doesn’t cause vaginal infection or itchiness. Yeast infections do.

  • Over-the-counter remedy: You can treat yeast infections with over-the-counter medications. You’ll need to peer your healthcare company to get antibiotics for BV.

How long does bacterial vaginosis last?

  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that affects the vaginal pH balance of women. It is caused by an imbalance of different types of bacteria that naturally occur in the vagina. While the exact duration of BV may depend on each person and the type of treatment, it typically lasts anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. Typically, BV can be managed by over-the-counter medications or antibiotics prescribed by a doctor.

  • Bacterial vaginosis, a common type of vaginal infection, is caused by an imbalance of “good” and “bad” bacteria in the vagina. Fortunately, most cases of bacterial vaginosis are not serious, and can be treated with antibiotics. How long does bacterial vaginosis last? The length of treatment for bacterial vaginosis varies, depending on the type and severity of the infection.

Diagnosis Bacterial vaginosis

During an examination, your healthcare issuer takes a sample of fluid from your vagina. Healthcare companies view the fluid beneath a microscope, check it within the workplace or ship it to the lab for evaluation.

O diagnose bacterial vaginosis, your medical doctor may additionally:

  • Ask questions on your scientific records. Your physician may additionally ask approximately any previous vaginal infections or sexually transmitted infections.

  • Perform a pelvic exam. During a pelvic examination, your health practitioner visually examines your vagina for signs and symptoms of infection, and inserts  palms into your vagina while pressing on your abdomen with the other hand to test your pelvic organs for signs which could imply disorder.

  • Take a pattern of vaginal secretions. This can be done to test for an overgrowth of anaerobic micro organisms on your vaginal flora. Your health practitioner may additionally examine the vaginal secretions under a microscope, looking for "clue cells," vaginal cells included with bacteria which might be a signal of bacterial vaginosis.

  • Test your vaginal pH. Your health practitioner may check the acidity of your vagina by means of placing a pH. Take a look at the strip on your vagina. A vaginal pH of 4.5 or higher is a sign of bacterial vaginosis.

Treatment Bacterial vaginosis

To deal with bacterial vaginosis, your doctor can also prescribe one of the following medicines:

  • Metronidazole (Flagyl, Metrogel-Vaginal, others). This medicine can be taken as a tablet with the aid of mouth (orally). Metronidazole is likewise available as a topical gel which you insert into your vagina. To lessen the hazard of stomach disenchanted, abdominal pain or nausea at the same time as the use of this medicinal drug, keep away from alcohol throughout treatment and for as a minimum one day after finishing treatment — test the instructions on the product.

  • Clindamycin (Cleocin, Clindesse, others). This remedy is to be had as a cream that you insert into your vagina. Clindamycin cream may additionally weaken latex condoms all through treatment and for as a minimum three days once you stop using the cream.

  • Tinidazole (Tindamax). This medication is taken orally. Tinidazole has the identical potential for belly disappointment and nausea as oral metronidazole does, so keep away from alcohol throughout remedy and for at least three days after finishing remedy.

  • Secnidazole (Solosec). This is an antibiotic you are taking orally in a single dose. The remedy comes as a packet of granules that you sprinkle onto a gentle food, which includes applesauce, pudding or yogurt. You eat the mixture within 30 minutes, being cautious not to crunch or chew the granules.

It's normally now not essential to treat an inflamed woman's male sexual accomplice, however bacterial vaginosis can spread between female sexual companions. Female partners should be looking for checking out and can want treatment. It's particularly vital for pregnant ladies with symptoms to be dealt with to help decrease the risk of untimely shipping or low birth weight.

Take your medication or use the cream or gel for as long as your physician prescribes it — even in case your signs depart. Stopping treatment early may increase the chance of recurrence.


It's common for bacterial vaginosis to recur inside 3 to twelve months, in spite of remedy. Researchers are exploring treatments for recurrent bacterial vaginosis. If your signs and symptoms recur quickly after remedy, speak along with your health practitioner about remedies. One option can be extended-use metronidazole remedy.

A self-help approach is lactobacillus colonization remedy — which attempts to enhance the quantity of desirable bacteria to your vagina and re-establish a balanced vaginal surroundings — probably done by eating positive kinds of yogurt or other meals containing lactobacilli. While cutting-edge research suggests there may be some benefit to probiotic therapy, greater studies are needed on the difficulty.

  1. healthy sexual relations

Preparing on your appointment

Try to agenda your appointment on a day when you don't have your duration. That way, your number one care medical doctor or gynecologist can study and compare your vaginal discharge without menstrual discharge getting inside the manner. Avoid using tampons and vaginal deodorant sprays, and do not douche or have intercourse for 24 hours before your appointment.

What you may do

To make the high-quality use of a while together with your medical doctor and prevent you from forgetting an critical question:


  • Make a listing of any signs and symptoms you are experiencing. Include all of your symptoms, even if you don't assume they may be associated.

  • Make a listing of any medications, nutrients, herbs or other supplements you're taking. Include how often you're taking them and the doses.

  • Take a notepad or digital device with you. Take notes of crucial facts at some stage in your visit.

  • Prepare a listing of questions to ask your physician. List your most vital questions first, in case time runs out.

For bacterial vaginosis, a few simple questions to ask your medical doctor include:

  • Can I do whatever to prevent bacterial vaginosis?

  • What signs and symptoms and signs and symptoms should I search for?

  • Do I want to take medicinal drugs?

  • Does my associate additionally want to be examined or handled?

  • Are there any unique instructions for taking the medicine?

  • Are there any over-the-counter products as a way to deal with my circumstances?

  • What can I do if my signs and symptoms go back after treatment?

Don't hesitate to invite questions all through your appointment if you don't recognize something.

Questions your health practitioner may additionally ask

Be prepared to reply questions your doctor may additionally have, along with:


  • What signs are you experiencing?

  • How lengthy have you ever had your signs and symptoms?

  • Are you aware of a sturdy vaginal scent?

  • Have you ever been dealt with for a vaginal infection?

  • Have you tried any over-the-counter products to deal with your circumstance?

  • Have you recently taken antibiotics for any purpose?

  • Are you sexually lively?

  • Are you pregnant?

  • Do you operate scented cleaning soap or bubble bath?

  • Do you douche or use feminine hygiene spray?

General summary

  1. Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition that causes an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina. It is sometimes referred to as BV and can last for several weeks or months. It is generally treated with antibiotics and typically resolves on its own without further treatment. In some cases, however, the infection may recur and require additional treatment or lifestyle changes to prevent future occurrences.

  2. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection. It is caused by an imbalance of naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina. It is not a sexually transmitted infection, but it can be passed on through sexual contact. The duration of BV varies, but it can last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks.

Bacterial vaginosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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