Chagas disease : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is Chagas disease?

Chagas malady may be a tropical parasitic infection transmitted by travel, blood-sucking insects (kissing bugs). you will have flu-like symptoms or none the least bit. however the malady will result in serious complications. With prompt treatment, the majority with Chagas malady, additionally called yank trypanosomiasis, recover totally.

Chagas malady is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, that is transmitted to animals and other people by insect vectors and is found solely within the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of geographical areas wherever poorness is widespread). Chagas malady (T. cruzi infection) is additionally cited as yank trypanosomiasis.

It is calculable that as several as eight million folks in Mexico, Central America, and South America have Chagas malady, most of whom don't understand they're infected. If untreated, infection is womb-to-tomb and might be life threatening.

What is Chagas disease?
Chagas disease

The impact of Chagas malady isn't restricted to solely rural areas of geographical area during which vector borne transmission (diseases transmitted by insects) happens. Large-scale population movements from rural to urban areas of geographical area and to alternative regions of the planet have magnified the geographic distribution and adjusted the medical specialty of Chagas malady. Within the U.S. and in alternative regions wherever Chagas malady is currently found however isn't endemic, management methods ought to specialize in preventing transmission from introduction, organ transplantation, and mother-to-baby (congenital transmission).

  1. Medical And Anatomical Concept Of The Human Body

Medical terms

  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is an infection caused by a parasite that is primarily found in parts of Central and South America. The parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, can be contracted through contact with an infected insect or through transfusions of infected blood or tissue donations. This infection is potentially life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of Chagas disease can vary and can range from mild to severe.

  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) parasite. The disease is spread by infected insects, which are known as triatomine bugs or kissing bugs, and can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, and swelling of the eyelids. These symptoms can be mild or serious, and in some cases can even lead to heart failure or life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment for Chagas disease usually involves a combination of medications, although in some cases, surgery may be necessary.

  • Chagas (CHAH-gus) disease is AN inflammatory, communicable disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite is found within the BM of the triatomine (reduviid) bug. This bug is additionally referred to as the "kissing bug." Chagas illness is common in South America, Central America and Mexico, the first home of the triatomine bug. Rare cases of Chagas illness have conjointly been found within the southern u. s..

  • Also known as yankee trypanosomiasis, Chagas illness will infect anyone. Left untreated, Chagas illness later will cause serious heart and organic process issues.

  • During the acute section of infection, treatment of Chagas illness focuses on killing the parasite. In those that have chronic Chagas illness, it's not potential to kill the parasite. Treatment during this later section is regarding managing signs and symptoms. you'll be able to conjointly take steps to forestall infection.

  • Chagas illness, conjointly referred to as yankee trypanosomiasis, may be a tropical parasitic infection transmitted by travel, blood-sucking insects (kissing bugs). The reduviid is sort of exclusive to continental Latin America.

  • The infection results from the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). In most cases, the illness passed to human UN agencies are exposed (bitten) by AN infected triatomine bug (kissing bug).

  • Chagas illness, conjointly referred to as yankee trypanosomiasis, may be a probable critical malady caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. regarding 6­–7 million individuals worldwide square measure calculable to be infected with T. cruzi. The illness is found chiefly in endemic areas of twenty one continental Latin American countries (1), wherever it's been principally transmitted to humans and different mammals by contact with excreta or body waste of triatomine bugs (vector-borne), referred to as stimulation bugs, among several different well-liked names, counting on the geographical region. 

  • Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which is spread to humans through contact with the feces of infected triatomine insects also known as “kissing bugs.” These insects live in southern and central parts of the United States especially Texas Arizona and New Mexico The disease can be passed from mother to infant through breast-feeding or blood transfusions Symptoms range from mild flu-like symptoms to severe heart failure and death There is no cure for Chagas disease However early detection and treatment can help prevent serious health problems later in life.

Symptoms Chagas disease

Much of the clinical data regarding Chagas sickness comes from expertise with those that became infected as youngsters through contact with triatomines. The severity and course of a personal infection will vary supporting a variety of things, as well as the age at which an individual becomes infected, the means during which an individual non heritable the infection, or the actual strain of the T. cruzi parasite.

There are 2 parts of Chagas disease: the acute part and also the chronic phase. Each phase is often symptom free or life threatening.

Chagas sickness presents in 2 phases. The initial acute part lasts for approximately 2 months after infection. Throughout the acute part, a high range of parasites flow within the blood, however in most cases symptoms are unit absent or gentle and broad. In but five hundredths of individuals bitten by a triatomine bug, characteristic initial visible signs are often a skin lesion or a violet swelling of the lids of 1 eye. In addition, they'll give fever, headache, enlarged humor glands, pallor, muscle pain, issues in respiratory, swelling, and abdominal or pain.

During the chronic part, the parasites area unit hidden chiefly within the heart and organic process muscle. One to a few decades later, up to half-hour of patients suffer from internal organ disorders and up to 100 percent suffer from organic process (typically enlargement of the gullet or colon), neurologic or mixed alterations. In later years the infection in those patients will cause the destruction of the guts muscle and system, resulting in internal organ arrhythmias or progressive heart condition and extra time.

Chagas disease can cause a sudden, brief illness (acute), or it may be a long-lasting (chronic) condition. Symptoms range from mild to severe, although many people don't experience symptoms until the chronic stage.

Acute phase

The acute phase of Chagas disease, which lasts for weeks or months, is often symptom-free. When signs and symptoms do occur, they are usually mild and may include:

  • Swelling at the infection site

  • Fever

  • Fatigue

  • Rash

  • Body aches

  • Eyelid swelling

  • Headache

  • Loss of appetite

  • Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting

  • Swollen glands

  • Enlargement of your liver or spleen

Signs and symptoms that develop during the acute phase usually go away on their own. In some cases, if the infection isn't treated, Chagas disease will advance to the chronic phase.

Chronic phase

Signs and symptoms of the chronic part of Chagas illness might occur ten to twenty years after initial infection, or they'll ne'er occur. In severe cases, Chagas illness signs and symptoms might include:

  • Irregular heartbeat

  • Heart failure

  • Sudden cardiac arrest

  • Difficulty swallowing due to enlarged esophagus

  • Stomach pain or constipation due to enlarged colon

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you reside in or have traveled to a region where Chagas illness is widespread and you've got signs and symptoms of the condition. Symptoms might embrace swelling at the infection website, fever, fatigue, body aches, rash and nausea.

Causes Chagas disease

The unwellness is caused by a blood infection with a parasite (T. cruzi). In most cases, those who develop Chagas unwellness are exposed to T. cruzi from the body waste or weewee of Associate in Nursing infected triatomine (kissing bug).

The triatomine could be a blood-sucking insect that feeds on animals and humans. They hide throughout the day and crawl at night time to feed.

They usually bite at night when you’re asleep. The bites are oftentimes on or around your face, this can be however they got the name ‘kissing bug.’ whereas feeding, the bugs pee and poop (depositing the parasite T. cruzi ) on the point of the bite. you will accidentally rub or scratch the bite, smearing the parasite into the gap in your skin. This enables the parasite T. cruzi to succeed in your blood.

The explanation for Chagas' unwellness is that the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, that is unfolding from an Associate in Nursing insect referred to as the triatomine bug, or "kissing bug." These insects will become infected by this parasite once they swallow blood from an Associate in Nursing animal that's infected with the parasite.

Triatomine bugs live primarily in mud, thatch or adobe huts in North American countries, South America and Central America. They hide in crevices within the walls or roof throughout the day and are available out at night time — typically feeding on sleeping humans.

Infected bugs eliminate once feeding, let go parasites on the skin. The parasites will then enter your body through your eyes, mouth, a cut or scratch, or the wound from the bug's bite.

Scratching or rubbing the bite website helps the parasites enter your body. Once in your body, the parasites multiply and unfold.

You may also become infected by:

  • Eating uncooked food contaminated with feces from bugs infected with the parasite

  • Being born to a person who is infected with the parasite

  • Getting a blood transfusion or an organ transplant from someone who was infected with the parasite

  • Being accidentally exposed to the parasite while working in a lab

  • Spending time in a forest that contains infected wild animals, such as raccoons and opossums

Risk factors Chagas disease

The following factors may increase your risk of getting Chagas disease:

  • Living in poor rural areas of Central America, South America and Mexico

  • Living in a residence that contains triatomine bugs

  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant from a person who carries the infection

It's rare for travelers to the at-risk areas in South America, Central America and North American nations to catch Chagas unwellness as a result of travelers tend to remain in well-constructed buildings, like hotels. Triatomine bugs are sometimes found in structures designed with mud or adobe or thatch.

Complications Chagas disease

If Chagas unwellness progresses to the long (chronic) part, serious heart or organic process complications could occur. These could include:

  • Heart failure. Heart failure occurs when your heart becomes so weak or stiff that it can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs.

  • Enlargement of the esophagus (megaesophagus). This rare condition is caused by the abnormal widening (dilation) of your esophagus. This can result in difficulty with swallowing and digestion.

  • Enlargement of the colon (megacolon). Megacolon occurs when your colon becomes abnormally dilated, causing stomach pain, swelling and severe constipation.

Prevention Chagas disease

The large reservoir of T. cruzi parasites in wild animals on the ground implies that the infection can not be eradicated. Instead, the management targets area unit elimination of the transmission to humans and early health-care access of the infected folks.

There is no immunogen to forestall Chagas sickness. T. cruzi will infect several species of triatomine bugs, the bulk of that area unit found within the Americas. Vector management has been the foremost effective methodology of bar in Latin America. Blood screening is critical to forestall infection through transfusion and organ transplantation and to extend detection and care of the affected population everywhere the planet.

If you live in a high-risk area for Chagas disease, these steps can help you prevent infection:

  • Avoid sleeping in a mud, thatch or adobe house. These types of residences are more likely to harbor triatomine bugs.

  • Use insecticide-soaked netting over your bed when sleeping in thatch, mud or adobe houses.

  • Use insecticides to remove insects from your residence.

  • Use insect repellent on exposed skin.

How long does Chagas disease last?

Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi) which is transmitted to humans and animals through contact with blood from the feces of infected insects mainly triatomine bugs The acute phase occurs around six weeks after being bitten by an infected bug when symptoms include swelling of lymph nodes in the armpit or groin fever body aches and a rash on the hands and feet The primary infection heals without treatment within four months in 90 percent of people However between 30 to 50 percent of patients develop long-term complications years later such as cardiac problems.

Is chronic Chagas treatable?

Chagas disease also known as American trypanosomiasis is a potentially fatal sickness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi This chronic disease affects roughly 8 to 14 million people worldwide in Latin America and the Caribbean but it can affect people anywhere who are infected with the parasite.

How do you test for chronic Chagas?

Testing for Chagas disease can be done by taking a blood sample and running it through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing which will screen for the parasite Another option is to do an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which screens for antibodies to the parasite after you have had your blood drawn and taken to the lab they will put your blood into a centrifuge after that they test different parts of your blood looking for specific things such as: parasites or antibodies in order to make sure you don't have Chagas Disease.

How is leishmaniasis treated in humans?

Leishmaniasis can be treated with medications that kill the Leishmania protozoa The treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimonial drugs which include sodium stibogluconate meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B For cutaneous leishmaniasis topical treatments are used in addition to local measures to heal open lesions.

Diagnosis Chagas disease

Your care supplier diagnoses Chagas unwellness with a straightforward biopsy. Then take a look at the appearance of the presence of antibodies against the parasite.

After a positive designation and complete history, your supplier might suggest internal organ testing to rule out heart or channel complications.

Your doctor can conduct a physical examination, asking regarding your symptoms and any factors that place you in danger of Chagas unwellness.

If you have got the signs and symptoms of Chagas unwellness, blood tests will ensure the presence of the parasite or the proteins that your system creates (antibodies) to fight the parasite in your blood.

If you are diagnosed with Chagas unwellness, you will probably have a lot of tests. These tests are also done to work out whether or not the unwellness has entered the chronic section and caused heart or biological process complications. Tests might include:

  • Electrocardiogram, a test that records your heart's electrical activity

  • Chest X-ray, an imaging test which lets your doctor see if you have an enlarged heart

  • Echocardiogram, a test that uses sound waves to capture moving images of your heart, allowing your doctor to see any changes to the heart or its function

  • Abdominal X-ray, a test that uses radiation to capture images of your stomach, intestines and colon

  • Upper endoscopy, a procedure in which you swallow a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) that transmits images of your esophagus onto a screen

Treatment Chagas disease

To kill the parasite, Chagas malady is treated with benznidazole or nifurtimox. Each medicines square measure nearly 100 percent effective in activity of the malady if given presently when infection at the onset of the acute part, together with the cases of non inheritable transmission. The effectiveness of each diminishes, however, the longer someone has been infected and also the adverse reactions square measure a lot of frequent at older age. Treatment is additionally indicated for those in whom infection has been reactivated (for example, thanks to immunosuppression), and for patients throughout the first chronic part, together with ladies and ladies of childbearing age (before or when pregnancy) to forestall non inheritable transmission.

Infected adults, particularly those with no symptoms, ought to be offered treatment as a result of antiparasitic treatment can even forestall or curb malady progression. In different cases, the potential advantages of medication in preventing or delaying the event of Chagas malady ought to be weighed against the length of treatment (up to a pair of months) and doable adverse reactions (occurring in up to four-hundredth of treated adult patients). Benznidazole and nifurtimox mustn't be taken by pregnant girls or by individuals with excretory organs or liver failure. Nifurtimox is additionally contraindicated for individuals with a background of medical specialty or medicine disorders. In addition, specific treatment for viscus, or organic process or medical specialty manifestations is also needed.

Treatment for Chagas malady focuses on killing the parasite and managing signs and symptoms.

During the acute part of Chagas malady, the prescription medications benznidazole and nifurtimox (Lampit) are also profitable. each medication square measure on the market within the regions most stricken by Chagas malady. Within the US, however, the medication is obtained solely through the Centers for malady management and bar.

Once Chagas malady reaches the chronic part, medications will not cure the malady. But, the medication is also offered to individuals younger than age fifty as a result they will facilitate slow the progression of the malady and its most serious complications.

Additional treatment depends on the specific signs and symptoms:

  • Heart-related complications. Treatment may include medications, a pacemaker or other devices to control your heart rhythm, surgery, or even a heart transplant.

  • Digestive-related complications. Treatment may include diet changes, medications, corticosteroids or, in severe cases, surgery.

Preparing for your appointment

You're doubtless to start out by seeing your general practitioner. counting on his or her findings, your doctor could refer you to Associate in Nursing communicable disease specialist.

It's a sensible plan to organize well for your appointment. Here's some data to assist you prepare for your appointment, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, including travel to other countries, major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements that you're taking.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time with your doctor. For Chagas disease, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • Is my condition likely temporary or long lasting?

  • What treatments are available?

  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?

  • Am I contagious? Are others who traveled with me likely infected?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Does anything improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

  • Have you lived or traveled anywhere, such as Mexico, where the triatomine bug or Chagas disease is common?

General summary

  1. The doctor noticed dark blotchy patches on the 28-year-old woman's arms neck and face The woman explained that the spots had been around for years But now they had moved from her torso to her limbs She also said she often felt faint or dizzy when walking up a flight of stairs Given these symptoms and the woman's medical history — including long-ago trips to rural Mexico to attend extended family weddings — the doctor suspected Chagas disease an infection caused by a parasite passed through bloodsucking insects known as "kissing bugs." [10 Diseases That Will Be Gone in 30 Years.

  2. Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a serious and potentially life-threatening illness caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is typically spread to humans via blood-sucking insects. It is estimated that 8 million people in Latin America are currently living with the infection, with millions more living in the United States and other countries. Chagas disease can cause long-lasting, debilitating symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and an enlarged heart or liver. Although there is no cure for the infection, early detection and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent further medical complications.

  3. Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic in Central and South America, with the only known vector being triatomine bugs, commonly referred to as “kissing bugs.” Infected individuals can develop chronic chagasic encephalopathy, in which the parasite invades the central nervous system, leading to neurological complications and even death. Chagas disease is an important global health issue, as it affects millions of people worldwide and carries a high economic burden due to its chronic nature.

  4. Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is a tropical disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is transmitted to humans through contact with infected insects, the most common being kissing bugs. The first signs and symptoms typically don't appear until weeks or years after the initial infection, which can make diagnosis of the disease difficult. Over time, the parasitic infection can lead to potentially life-threatening heart failure and digestive problems.

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