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Duodenum : structure of the duodenum - role of the duodenum


 What Is Duodenum?

The small intestine begins at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach and ends at the ileocecal valve, where it meets the large intestine. It is divided into three regions: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum, the shortest and widest region of the small intestine, is where most of the chemical digestion of food takes place. The jejunum and ileum make up the remaining two-fifths of the small intestine.

The duodenum is the first segment of the small intestine in humans and other vertebrates. Duodenum is from the Latin word for ten, referring to the ten-finger breadth of its length. The duodenum is considered to be part of the digestive system, as it is responsible for the breakdown of food before it enters the jejunum, the second portion of the small intestine. The breakdown of food in the duodenum is aided by enzymes secreted by the pancreas and bile from the liver.

Duodenum, the first part of the small gut, which receives partially digested meals from the stomach and starts off, evolved the absorption of vitamins. The duodenum is the shortest segment of the intestine and is about 23 to twenty-eight cm (9 to eleven inches) long. It is more or less horseshoe-fashioned, with the open turn out to be and to the left, and it lies in the back of the liver. On anatomic and useful grounds, the duodenum may be divided into 4 segments: the advanced (duodenal bulb), descending, horizontal, and ascending duodenum.

What Is Duodenum

A liquid mixture of meals and gastric secretions enters the superior duodenum from the pylorus of the belly, triggering the release of pancreas-stimulating hormones (e.G., secretin) from glands (crypts of Lieberkühn) in the duodenal wall. So-known as Brunner glands inside the superior segment provide additional secretions that help to lubricate and shield the mucosal layer of the small intestine. Ducts from the pancreas and gallbladder input on the essential duodenal papilla (papilla of Vater) inside the descending duodenum, bringing bicarbonate to neutralize the acid in the gastric secretions, pancreatic enzymes to further digestion, and bile salts to emulsify fat. A separate minor duodenal papilla, additionally within the descending phase, might also acquire pancreatic secretions in small quantities. The mucous lining of the ultimate  segments of the duodenum starts the absorption of nutrients, in particular iron and calcium, before the food contents enter the subsequent part of the small intestine, the jejunum.

Inflammation of the duodenum is known as duodenitis, which has various causes, outstanding amongst them contamination via the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. H. Pylori increases the susceptibility of the duodenal mucosa to harm from unneutralized digestive acids and is a primary purpose of peptic ulcers, the most commonplace health hassle affecting the duodenum. Other conditions that can be associated with duodenitis consist of celiac disorder, Crohn ailment, and Whipple disease. The horizontal duodenum, due to its area between the liver, pancreas, and main blood vessels, can become compressed by using the ones structures in folks that are severely skinny, requiring surgical release to do away with painful duodenal dilatation, nausea, and vomiting.

Digestive system

What is the structure of the duodenum in the small intestine?

The structure of the duodenum in the small intestine is important to understand because it affects how food is absorbed into the body. This is because the duodenum helps to mix food with the intestine's fluid and secretions, which helps to promote absorption.

The duodenum is a small intestine-like structure located in the stomach. It is responsible for breaking down food for absorption into the small intestine.

The duodenum’s “C” form surrounds the pancreas, where it gets pancreatic enzymes for digestion. The duodenum also connects to the liver through a structure called the hepatoduodenal ligament. This junction is wherein the duodenum gets bile to mix with chyme, an crucial part of the chemical digestive method.

The 4 segments of the duodenum are:

  • The duodenal bulb connects to the liver through the hepatoduodenal ligament. This connection permits nutrients to move from the small gut to the liver. It also permits the duodenum to receive bile from the liver.

  • The descending duodenum is positioned above the right kidney and extends down. It connects to the pancreas thru a small tube known as the pancreatic duct, which feeds enzymes into the duodenum to help ruin down food. The not unusual bile duct wearing bile from the liver also enters this second part of the duodenum.

  • The transverse duodenum extends horizontally across the stomach. It is placed in front of the aorta and travels from right to left, behind a network of blood vessels.

  • The ascending part of the duodenum extends up, passing atop or barely to the left of the aorta. This very last segment ends in the jejunum, the center portion of the small intestine.

What is the role of the duodenum in the small intestine?

The duodenum is a small intestine segment that begins at the beginning of the stomach and ends in the first part of the small intestine. The duodenum is important because it helps with the digestion of food that has been eaten earlier in the small intestine.

Duodenum is an important part of the small intestine. It helps to absorb food and water from the intestine.

The duodenum's primary function is to start the digestive method of breaking down and soaking up vitamins needed with the aid of the body. The duodenum starts off evolving this procedure via making ready the chyme so that nutrients can then be absorbed without problems. 

While chemical digestion starts within the mouth with saliva, meals that are swallowed and travel down the esophagus into the belly will then mix with gastric (stomach) acid. It then enters the duodenum, to start the frame's procedure of soaking up nutrients, minerals, and different vitamins.

The duodenum is taken into consideration in the integration pot of the small gut because of the churning procedure that takes place there. It mixes the chyme with enzymes to interrupt down food, adds bicarbonate to neutralize acids, and prepares the chyme for the breakdown of fat and proteins within the jejunum, wherein most of the body's nutrient absorption takes place.

Specific functions of the duodenum consist of:


  • Receiving the mixed, churned small pieces of meals from the belly

  • Neutralizing the acidity (pH stage) in chyme

  • Advancing the digestive technique with bile from the liver, digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and intestinal juices secreted via the duodenum partitions and other digestive organs

  • Preparing the chyme for similarly digestion with the aid of mixing in bile to assist break down fats

  • Absorbing sure vitamins, inclusive of folate, iron, and diet D3

  • Duodenum's Other Functions

The duodenum contributes to other vital digestive tactics within the frame. This includes the release of two key hormones:

  • Secretin, which is launched while the pH of the duodenum desires adjusting (unique pH stages are wished for correct digestion of fat and proteins)

  • Cholecystokinin, that's launched to useful resource inside the digestion and absorption of nutrients such as fat and proteins

  • Another vital characteristic of the duodenum is immune support. The duodenum acts as a barrier to save dangerous microbes from entering the body.

  • The pleasant bacteria inside the duodenum and other elements of the small intestine take in area and compete for meals within the duodenum. As a result, pathogens (disorder-inflicting germs) have a hard time multiplying there.

Maintaining the duodenum in the small intestine

  1. Diet is assumed to be critical in the improvement of higher abdominal signs and symptoms but there may be little clinical evidence to incriminate man or woman ingredients or nutritional components in causing precise signs. There isn't any unique food regimen which is thought either to predispose to (or protect towards) the development of peptic ulcers. In trendy fashion, a practical, balanced and healthy weight loss plan is usually recommended however human beings ought to avoid meals which they experience, certainly upset their stomachs or provoke signs and symptoms. Regular, unhurried food also is critical.

  2. Smoking is an important issue in inflicting problems of the belly and duodenum. Tobacco contains compounds which will increase acid production, impair manufacturing of shielding mucus and damage the liner of the belly, thereby predisposing to erosion and ulcers.

  3. Excess alcohol consumption, especially spirits or difficult liquor, irritates the gastric lining and might additionally play a role in causing gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancer.

  4. A variety of medicinal drugs may also cause issues within the belly and duodenum. Aspirin and different anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal anti inflammatory tablets, NSAIDs) used to treat muscular and arthritic pain, normally damage the stomach lining and cause erosions, ulcers and bleeding from the belly and duodenum. Other medicines intervene with gastric emptying and motive nausea, bloating or vomiting. If you are afflicted by troubles together with your stomach, you need to usually consult your physician before taking any new medicines.

  5. The function of psychological strain in the improvement of signs and symptoms of indigestion and peptic ulcer disorder is not clear. Periods of stress can make maximum medical conditions worse but whether or not strain specially predisposes human beings to the improvement of peptic ulcers isn't clear at present.

Intestine transplantation

Intestine transplantation (intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation) is the surgical alternative of the small gut for continual and acute instances of intestinal failure. While intestinal failure can usually be handled with opportunity healing procedures consisting of parenteral vitamins (PN), headaches together with PN-associated liver ailment and brief bowel syndrome may also make transplantation the best feasible choice. One of the rarest sorts of organ transplantation performed, intestine transplantation is becoming increasingly everyday as a healing choice because of upgrades in immunosuppressive regimens, surgical technique, PN, and the scientific management of pre and publish-transplant sufferers.

Intestine transplantation can be done in isolation, with liver transplant, or as part of a multivisceral transplant inclusive of any combination of liver, stomach, pancreas, and/or colon. There are excellent differences in affected person and transplant outcomes for gut transplants with and without liver.

  1.  Medical And Anatomical Concept Of The Human Body
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Duodenum : structure of the duodenum - role of the duodenum

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