Giant cell arteritis (GCA): Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


 What is Giant cell arteritis (GCA)?

Giant cell redness is Associate in Nursing inflammation of the liner of your arteries. Most often, it affects the arteries in your head, particularly those in your temples. For this reason, large cell redness is typically known as arteritis.

Giant cell redness often causes headaches, scalp tenderness, jaw pain and vision issues. Untreated, it will cause sightlessness.

Prompt treatment with corticoid medications sometimes relieves symptoms of large cell redness and may stop loss of vision. you will probably begin to feel higher among days of beginning treatment. However, even with treatment, relapses are common.

What is Giant cell arteritis (GCA)?
Giant cell arteritis (GCA)

You'll need to go to your doctor often for checkups and treatment of any facet effects from taking corticosteroids.

  1. Circulatory system
  2. Brain
  3. Blood

      Medical terms

      • Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects medium to large arteries, most commonly those in the head and neck region. GCA is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the body. It is found in people over the age of 50, and it is more common in women than men. GCA can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, scalp tenderness, jaw pain, and vision loss.

      • Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory vasculitis of unknown origin that primarily targets the extracranial branches of the aortic arch. It is an autoimmune disorder that affects mainly individuals over the age of 50, and is marked by inflammation of the medium and large arteries, most commonly in the temporal arteries and other cranial vessels. GCA has a wide range of presenting symptoms, most notably jaw claudication, headache, scalp tenderness, visual disturbances, and polymyalgia rheumatica. It is important to note that the diagnosis of GCA is made through biopsy, as there is no definitive blood test available for its diagnosis.

      • Giant cell arteritis (GCA) also known as temporal arteritis is a condition affecting the arteries that supply blood to the head and neck It can cause a range of problems from mild inflammation of the lining around the arteries (the "intima") to significantly narrowed arteries - which can lead to vision loss and stroke due to lack of oxygenated blood reaching the retina and brain As such it is considered an important cause of secondary stroke

      • Giant cell arteritis is a condition that can cause pain and swelling in blood vessels.

      • Blood vessels are tubes that carry blood throughout the body. GCA affects arteries, which are the largest of the three types of blood vessels. Arteries take blood with oxygen from the heart to different parts of the body.

      • GCA (glyceryl trinitrate) is a medication that commonly affects arteries in the head and neck.

      • Temporal arteritis is a condition that can cause pain and tenderness in the soft part of the head near your temples. When this occurs, it's called temporal arteritis.

      • GCA can also affect other large arteries and their branches, which distribute blood elsewhere in the body.

      • This condition is usually treatable with steroid tablets. If left untreated, it can become very serious and lead to strokes or blindness.

      • GCA is a type of vasculitis. Vasculitis means inflammation of blood vessels. There are different types of vasculitis because different blood vessels can be affected.

      When to peer a medical doctor

      What is the life expectancy of someone with giant cell arteritis?

      The life expectancy of someone with giant cell arteritis is not known precisely According to the average age of people diagnosed with GCA (giant cell arteritis) is between 60 and 70 years Patients who survive their first attacks may have several recurrences during their lifetime It is not uncommon for those affected by GCA to have five or more reoccurrences throughout adulthood.

      Can giant cell arteritis be cured?

      No Giant cell arteritis is a condition that does not go away by itself and can only be treated with medication The symptoms will most likely become less severe over time but the disease can re-emerge unexpectedly at any point.

      Is giant cell arteritis terminal?

      No giant cell arteritis or GCA is not terminal However it can leave you with life-long and debilitating symptoms if left untreated As of 2012 there was no cure for GCA however advancements in drug therapy have significantly improved the prognosis for those affected by this disease Before effective medication existed many patients were left blind from the inflammation that occurs in the head and neck region.

      Does giant cell arteritis shorten your life?

      Giant cell arteritis (also known as temporal arteritis) is a disorder that causes inflammation and enlargement of the artery walls in your head and neck A variety of symptoms may occur including fever headache neck pain jaw pain and sensitivity to light The disease sometimes starts with these symptoms but can also start without any warning signs at all As the condition progresses it can lead to blindness and other serious problems.

      Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory condition that mainly affects the lining of the arteries in your head and neck The disease which can affect people at any age causes inflammation inside the arteries and leads to slow or blocked blood flow If you have this condition you'll experience a gradual onset of symptoms such as pain behind your forehead accompanied by scalp tenderness jaw pain and headaches Otherwise known as temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis giant cell arteritis is often misdiagnosed for meningitis because symptoms are similar and both conditions involve the vessels in your brain and spinal cord Also like meningitis.

      Related information

      • Steroids
        Steroids can help to control inflammation (e.g. in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and polymyalgia rheumatica). However, there are risks and side effects associated with their use.

      • Vasculitis
        Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. It can cause fever, fatigue, weight loss, and sweats. You should know the symptoms, causes, and treatment for vasculitis.

      Who gets giant cell arteritis?

      GC is rare in people under the age of 50. It is more common in women than men and more common in people of north European descent than in people of other races.

      GCA is often associated with a condition called polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), which causes pain and stiffness in various muscles, especially in the shoulders, neck, hips, and thighs. Symptoms of PMR can be particularly bad in the morning. Often people have both PMR and GCA.

      Symptoms Giant cell arteritis

      People with GCA may experience a number of symptoms. Most people will experience some but not all of these. The most common symptoms of GCA are:

      • GCA headaches often cause severe pain and tenderness over the temples and the scalp. It may be difficult to brush your hair or shave. Headaches from GCA can also cause pain elsewhere in the head.

      • Temples feel thick or sticky when this happens.

      • Pain in the jaw or tongue when chewing can be a sign of a problem with your teeth.

      • Fatigue is a feeling of severe tiredness that affects your quality of life.

      • flu-like symptoms, such as a mild fever

      • sweats, during the day or night

      • weight loss

      • double vision

      • Rarely, people can lose their sight suddenly.This may be incomplete, but it can sometimes be complete. It's usually temporary in the early stages.

      If you experience changes or problems with your vision or jaw pain while eating, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.

      If you can't get an appointment with your doctor right away, you can go to an out-of-hours doctor or the accident and emergency department at the nearest hospital. If you don't get treatment for these symptoms, they can lead to permanent sight loss or a stroke.

      If there are any problems, you can usually avoid them by getting prompt steroid treatment.

      GCA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) can affect other large blood vessels, which can lead to pain when using the arm muscles or when walking.

      If someone has had GCA or PMR for a long time, they may develop aneurysms. This is when the artery walls enlarge and can bulge, becoming weak.

      Causes Giant cell arteritis

      We don't yet know the full reasons why people develop GCA.

      An autoimmune condition is when your body's defense system gets confused and starts attacking healthy tissues.

      In people with GCA, the immune system attacks healthy arteries.

      You may be more likely to develop GCA if you have genes that cause it. However, not everyone with those genes will develop the condition.

      Diagnosis Giant cell arteritis

      A diagnosis of GCA will be based on:

      • A doctor or specialist will examine you and discuss your symptoms.

      • blood test results

      • x-rays and scans

      • A biopsy is used to see if there is inflammation in the walls of the temporal artery.

      Should I see a specialist?

      If you think you have GCA, it is very important to see a doctor right away. A GP can start the treatment.

      You should also be referred to a specialist to confirm the diagnosis and receive a treatment plan. However, you should be contacted promptly in case of an emergency.

      If you have symptoms, your specialist might be: Some specialists are more likely to be able to help you than others. This specialist might be able to help you if you have certain symptoms.

      • A rheumatologist is a doctor who specializes in problems with the immune system.

      • An ophthalmologist is an eye specialist.

      • A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in dealing with brain and spinal cord health.

      • A doctor who is highly skilled and experienced in treating medical emergencies, such as people who have come to an accident and emergency department.

      You may need to go for a test as soon as possible so you’ll be given an urgent referral.

      What tests will I have?

      Blood tests

      Inflammation can be checked with blood tests. These tests can help determine if GCA is present.

      Doctors will check your symptoms multiple times to make sure the inflammation is under control. They may also do blood tests to look for other causes of your symptoms.


      A chest x-ray may be necessary to rule out other conditions.

      A CT scan could be an option for diagnosing GCA. This would allow for a better understanding of the condition and any possible complications.

      Your doctor may request an ultrasound scan of the arteries near your temples and in your armpit to help confirm a diagnosis.

      Ultrasound scans use sound waves to view the inside of the body. They can show what is happening in joints, veins, and other organs. In the case of GCA, these scans can help identify swelling in blood vessels.

      Temporal artery biopsy

      A temporal artery biopsy can sometimes be performed.

      A biopsy is when a small piece of skin or tissue is taken from a part of the body and examined under a microscope. This can be done from the side of the head near the temporal artery, or elsewhere in the body.

      An anesthetic will be used to numb the area first.

      A biopsy is a test that is carried out by a surgical doctor. You will be informed of the risks and benefits before the procedure. You will be asked to sign a form authorizing the biopsy.

      A biopsy can confirm a diagnosis even if someone has started treatment. This is important because it will tell you how serious the person's condition is.

      These types of investigations are not yet available in all hospitals.

      After the biopsy is done, you'll have a small wound about 3-4 cm from your hairline. The wound will be covered with a dressing until your follow-up appointment a few days later. You can wash your hair carefully during this time, but you may need to take painkillers afterward. Take painkillers such as paracetamol for a while.

      Before having surgery, be aware of the signs of bleeding and infection. These could include redness that spreads, or a continuous discharge.

      There is a very small chance that the procedure could lead to temporary or permanent damage to the nerves, causing numbness or a drooping brow in some patients. In patients who have narrowing of the arteries in the neck due to carotid artery disease there is a small risk of a stroke.

      If you have any questions or concerns about the risks, you should discuss them with your doctor first.

      Treatment Giant cell arteritis

      The main treatment for large cell redness consists of high doses of a steroid hormone drug like Deltasone. As a result of immediate treatment is important to stop vision loss, your doctor is probably going to begin medication even before confirming the identification with a diagnostic test.

      You'll likely begin to feel higher at intervals some days after starting treatment. If you've got visual loss before beginning treatment with corticosteroids, it's unlikely that your vision can improve. However, your unaffected eye can be ready to make amends for a number of the visual changes.

      You may ought to continue taking medication for one to 2 years or longer. During the primary month, your doctor may, bit by bit, begin to lower the dose till you reach the very cheap dose of corticosteroids required to manage inflammation.

      Some symptoms, notably headaches, could come back throughout this tapering amount. This can be the reason that many folks additionally develop symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica. Such flares will sometimes be treated with slight increases within the steroid hormone dose. Your doctor may additionally recommend an associated immune-suppressing drug referred to as antimetabolite (Trexall).

      Corticosteroids will result in serious facet effects, like pathology, high vital signs and muscle weakness. To counter potential facet effects, your doctor is probably going to observe your bone density and may order metal and fat-soluble vitamin supplements or alternative medications to assist forestall bone loss.

      The Food and Drug Administration recently approved tocilizumab (Actemra) to treat large cell redness. It's given as an injection below your skin. facet effects embrace creating you a lot liable to infections. a lot of analysis is required.

      Steroid tablets

      There is currently no cure for GCA, but treatment with steroid tablets is very effective. Prednisolone is the most commonly used steroid tablet.

      Steroid tablets slow down the activity of the immune system, which reduces inflammation in blood vessels.

      If GCA (giant cell arteritis) is not treated, there is a risk of vision loss or a stroke. So it’s important to start steroid treatment as soon as your doctor suspects you may have GCA. If your doctor determines that you do in fact have GCA, they may prescribe a high dose of steroids before the condition is fully diagnosed.

      To treat GCA, you will usually start by taking between 40 and 60 mg of steroid tablets every day. This dose is usually continued for about three to four weeks.

      If your condition has improved, your doctor will gradually decrease the dose. During this phase, a specialist will see you on a regular basis to check how you are doing.

      If you experience symptoms such as visual problems or pain when eating, you may need to go to the hospital for treatment with steroids through a drip.

      It can take one to three years for steroids to completely leave the body. For a majority of this time, you will be taking a low dose. It is not always possible to stop taking steroids completely, and some people will need to take low doses for a long time or for the rest of their life.

      Don't stop taking your steroid tablets abruptly or change the dose unless advised by your doctor. Your body will not produce its own steroids while you're taking steroid tablets, so it needs some time to adjust. When the medicine is reduced or stopped, the body will resume producing natural steroids.

      If the inflammation in the blood vessels returns, this is called a relapse and your steroid dose may have to be increased to deal with it.People often relapse within the first 18 months of treatment.

      What are the side effects of steroid treatment?

      There are some possible side effects from steroid treatment. However, GCA is a serious condition, and taking steroids can be very successful in treating it. The benefits of taking steroids for someone with GCA far outweigh the risks.

      Taking an initial high dose of steroid tablets to control the condition and then continuing to take a low dose can sometimes cause the following side effects:

      • changes in facial and body appearance

      • facial flushing

      • lack of sleep

      • indigestion or stomach pain

      • some weight gain

      • dizziness or faintness

      • difficulty concentrating

      • mood changes.

      Proton pump inhibitors can reduce the risk of indigestion by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach.

      If you're taking steroids for a long time, other side effects may include:

      • Osteoporosis is a condition that causes bones to become thin and brittle.

      • Decoupage might cause bruising, since the leaves will stretch while being glued to the paper. The skin may also thin out a bit as a result.

      • muscle weakness

      • Cataracts are a condition that causes the lens of one or both eyes to have cloudy patches.

      • Glaucoma is a condition that damages the optic nerve.

      • Diabetes is a medical condition that makes your blood sugar levels too high.

      • high blood pressure.

      Regular check-ups will help to identify any side effects so that they can be treated as soon as possible.

      If you take steroids for a longer period of time than three months, you may need to have treatments to prevent bone thinning. These treatments may include:

      • calcium and vitamin D supplements

      • Bisphosphonates are drugs that slow down the loss of bone mass.

      Steroids can reduce the activity of the immune system, which can increase the risk of infections. For example, chickenpox and shingles can be more severe in people taking steroids.

      If you haven't had chickenpox and come in contact with someone who has chickenpox or shingles, you may need to take antiviral medication.

      Steroid cards

      If you are taking steroids, always carry a card that states the dose you are taking.

      If you need to see another doctor, for any reason such as if you need surgery or hospitalization; or if you need to see a healthcare professional, such as a dentist, you should let them know what dose of steroids you are on or show them your steroid card.

      If you have to go to the hospital in an emergency, it's important for doctors to know you're taking steroids. Steroids can affect how the body responds to an injury, and doctors need to know you're on steroids so they can treat you properly. The proper treatment will be determined by.

      Pharmacies usually have steroid cards available.

      What are other drugs used to treat giant cell arteritis?

      There is currently no alternative treatment available to get GCA under control and prevent any serious complications. Steroids are the first line of defense to prevent this.

      Sometimes your doctor may suggest an additional medication to help you reduce the dosage of steroids. This might happen if:

      • If your symptoms recur, this is known as a relapse.

      • Your symptoms have not improved even after receiving steroid treatment.

      • It will take some time for the steroid treatment to work.

      There are a variety of treatments that may include conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These include:

      • methotrexate

      • leflunomide

      • azathioprine

      • mycophenolate mofetil.

      These drugs slow down the body's immune system, which may be malfunctioning in people with autoimmune conditions.

      Some newer drugs are available that target key cells in the immune system to stop them from causing inflammation.

      Medications such as tocilizumab are used to treat people with relapsing large vessel vasculitis. Tocilizumab can also be prescribed if other treatments have not worked.

      Before participating in a clinical trial, you should speak with your doctor to make sure you understand what it involves. Clinical trials are sometimes used to test new treatments, and you may be offered one of these as part of a study. Before agreeing to take part, be sure to discuss the details with your doctor.

      Your doctor may suggest taking low-strength aspirin to help reduce the risk of loss of vision in GCA. You will need to speak with your doctor to ensure this is safe for you.

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      • Exercise
        There are many different types of exercises that are beneficial for people with arthritis. Find out which exercises are best for your specific condition.

      • Managing fatigue
        Fatigue is a common side-effect of arthritis. Learn what causes it and how to manage it.

      Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR)

      Polymyalgia rheumatica is a condition that can cause pain and stiffness in various muscle groups, especially in the shoulders, neck, hips, and thighs. Symptoms are usually worse in the morning.

      You may have severe muscle pain and stiffness that makes it difficult to dress or get out of bed. You may also feel ill, with a slight fever, and lose weight. Sometimes you may feel so tired that you can't function at all.

      Some people with GCA may also have PMR (premenstrual syndrome). People who have had PMS before may develop GCA some years later.

      Large vessel vasculitis (LVV)

      GCA can affect the most common blood vessels in the head and neck. However, GCA can also be associated with an inflammation of other blood vessels, including the main artery from the heart (aorta) and those supplying the head, neck, and arms.

      This is called large vessel vasculitis (LVV) and often results in symptoms such as:

      • weight loss

      • Anemia is a condition in which there is a lack of red blood cells. This can lead to symptoms such as tiredness, lack of energy, and shortness of breath.

      • night sweats

      • Pain in the arms, legs and spine.

      • continuous inflammation.

      There is not a lot of certainty about LVV, but your doctor may want to do further tests if you are having frequent flares even though you are taking steroid treatment.

      LVV is usually treated with additional drugs to suppress the immune system, such as methotrexate and leflunomide. Newer biological drugs such as tocilizumab are also being tried.

      Managing symptoms


      There are no foods that you should avoid. However, you should eat a healthy balanced and nutritious diet that is low in saturated fat, sugar, and salt, and contains plenty of calcium and vitamin D.

      It's important to keep a healthy diet if you're taking steroid tablets over the long term, as this can increase the risk of developing diabetes. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about your diet.

      Supplementing with calcium and vitamin D can reduce the greater risk of osteoporosis from steroid treatment.

      The richest sources of calcium are:

      • Milk, cheese, and yogurt are all types of dairy products.

      • calcium-enriched soya milk

      • Boneless fish, such as sardines, can be eaten.

      • Some leafy green vegetables, such as beans, chickpeas, and nuts, also contain calcium.

      You should have between 700 and 1200 milligrams of calcium a day.

      Some common foods contain the appropriate amount of calcium.


      Calcium content

      115 g (4 oz) whitebait (fried in flour)

      980 mg

      60 g (2 oz) sardines (including bones)

      260 mg

      0.2 liter (1/3 pint) semi-skimmed milk

      230 mg

      0.2 liter (1/3 pint) whole milk

      220 mg

      3 large slices brown or white bread

      215 mg

      125 g (4 1/2 oz) low-fat yogurt

      205 mg

      30 grams (1 ounce) of hard cheese.

      190 mg

      One third cup of calcium-enriched soy milk.

      180 mg

      4 1/2 oz calcium-enriched soy yogurt

      150 mg

      115 g (4 oz) cottage cheese

      145 mg

      115 g (4 oz) baked beans

      60 mg

      115 g (4 oz) boiled cabbage

      40 mg

      Note: The measurements shown in ounces or pints are approximations only.

      You can obtain vitamin D from some foods, like oily fish. Vitamin D is often added to soya milk and margarine that are made from vegetable oil. Many people get enough vitamin D by taking supplements.

      If you want to absorb calcium from food, you need to have vitamin D. Vitamin D is produced in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight during spring and summer months.

      Doctors recommend that everyone take daily vitamin D supplements in the fall and winter months to make sure they have enough of this important nutrient. People at high risk of not getting enough vitamin D include those who live in the UK during the wintertime when there is less sunlight. Take supplements all year round, even if you're not sick. This includes people who are not sick.

      • Some people don't get out of their houses or care homes often, and so they don't have enough sunlight exposure.

      • People who wear clothes that cover a lot of their skin don't get exposure to the sun.

      • People of African and South Asian heritage are more likely to have darker skin because it absorbs less sunlight in the UK than lighter skin.

      Rest and exercise

      You should stay as fit and active as possible. This helps prevent osteoporosis and may help avoid weight gain and muscle weakness caused by steroid use. Weight-bearing exercise, such as walking or jogging, can strengthen bones and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

      A lot of people find that they struggle with fatigue even when they are taking treatment. This can be a difficult symptom to manage, and resting is important, but some people find that gradual, well-paced exercise can help.

      Studying and preparing for activities can help you have more energy and be happier.

      If fatigue becomes a problem, it might help to see a specialist nurse or an occupational therapist. Occupational therapists can help people improve their ability to do everyday tasks, even if they have a medical condition.


      Smoking can seriously damage your bone health and increase your risk for having a stroke. People with GCA (gene carriers) are already at a slightly higher risk of having a stroke, so it's important to avoid smoking if you have this condition. GC. GCA stands for glyceryl caprylate, a type of emollient.

      Alcohol consumption can have a negative impact on bone health because it makes it harder for the body to use calcium to make bones strong.

      Maureen’s story

      I will always be incredibly grateful to the doctor I saw one night at an accident and emergency who spotted the symptoms of giant cell arteritis and possibly saved my sight.

      I had recently gone to a doctor's office because I was having really bad headaches. I was given a date for an ultrasound scan to see if there was something wrong with my head. But this appointment wasn't for another eight weeks.

      After three days at home recuperating from my symptoms, my condition worsened significantly. I started to experience bumps on the sides of my head and then intense pain in my jaws.

      My partner Brian said that we should go to the hospital's accident and emergency department. I'm glad he was firm and didn't take any chances. We went straight there after calling from Brian's phone.

      The doctor was lovely. She listened to my symptoms and gave me 60 mg of steroid tablets.She told me to take them right away."

      I asked her what the panic was and she said that I might have giant cell arteritis and it could affect my eyesight.

      A doctor saw me a few days later and confirmed that I had giant cell arteritis.

      After taking steroids for two months, I was told my infection had cleared up. However, I developed large vessel vasculitis later and had to take steroid tablets again. I haven't had any symptoms related to that.

      I am so grateful that the doctor at A&E recognized the symptoms of giant cell arteritis and knew what to do.

      1. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation
      2. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

      What you can do

      When you build the appointment, raise if there is something you wish to try to do ahead. For a few tests concerned in identification of large cell inflammation, you would possibly have to follow special directions before the appointment.

      Make an inventory of:

      • Your symptoms, including those who appear unrelated to the rationale that you regular the appointment, and after they began

      • Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes

      • All medications, vitamins and other supplements you take, including doses

      • Questions to ask your doctor

      Take a friend or family member with you to help you remember the information you're given.

      For giant cell arteritis, questions to ask your doctor include:

      • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

      • What are other possible causes?

      • What tests will I need?

      • What are my treatment options?

      • What side effects can I expect from the medication?

      • How long do I need to stay on medication, and what's my long-term prognosis?

      • Will giant cell arteritis come back?

      • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

      • Do I need to change my diet? Do I need to take supplements?

      • Do you have brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

      Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

      What to expect from your doctor

      Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

      • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

      • How severe are your symptoms?

      • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

      • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

      What you can do in the meantime

      Ask your doctor if taking a pain reliever like Tempra (Tylenol, others), isobutylphenyl propionic acid (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or Aflaxen (Aleve) may ease head pain or tenderness.

      General summary

      1. Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disease of the large arteries, commonly affecting those of the head and neck. It is caused by an increased number of activated T-cells attacking the walls of the arteries, resulting in inflammation and the formation of giant cells. Symptoms can include headache, jaw pain, fever, scalp tenderness, fatigue, and vision disturbances. If left untreated, GCA can lead to serious complications including blindness, stroke, and aneurysm formation.

      2. (GCA) states that giant cell arteritis is an inflammation of blood vessels in the head neck and arms It can cause pain in those three areas which intensifies with any activity Additionally affected people can experience headaches double vision and fatigue A diagnosis for giant cell arteritis is typically made after physical examination reveals inflamed arteries in the head and a positive temporal artery biopsy There are several medications available to treat this disorder depending on its severity.

      3. Giant cell arteritis is a condition that occurs when the arteries (blood vessels) in your brain and/or neck become inflamed It most often affects people older than 50 years with symptoms beginning to appear in 70-year-old women who have never been treated for hypertension or are overweight The condition can cause vision loss headaches jaw pain and trouble speaking.

      4. The researchers found that the antibodies might be responsible for a rare but degenerative eye disorder called giant cell arteritis and in some cases may even trigger blindness The study appears online in the journal Nature Medicine.

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