Heart arrhythmia : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment


What is Heart arrhythmia?

Heart arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat. Heart rhythm problems (coronary heart arrhythmias) occur whilst the electric indicators that coordinate the coronary heart's beats don't work properly. The defective signaling causes the heart to overcome too fast (tachycardia), too gradual (bradycardia) or irregularly.

What is Heart arrhythmia?
Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmias might also be experienced like a fluttering or racing coronary heart and may be harmless. However, some coronary heart arrhythmias may additionally reason bothersome — now and again even life-threatening — signs and signs.

  1. Circulatory system

    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

Medical terms

  • Heart arrhythmia is a condition in which the heart beats irregularly or too quickly. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, certain medications, alcohol, caffeine, and stress. Some arrhythmias are benign and do not require treatment, while others can be life-threatening. Treatment options for arrhythmias may include medication, lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, and in some cases, surgery or an implantable device.
  • Heart arrhythmia is a condition that affects the heart’s natural rhythm. It is caused by changes in the electrical activity of the heart and can lead to a variety of symptoms. In some cases, arrhythmias are harmless, but in others, it can be life-threatening. There are many different types of arrhythmias, all of which can be diagnosed through the use of medical tests like electrocardiograms and echocardiograms.

Types Heart arrhythmia

In fashion, heart arrhythmias are grouped by way of the speed of the heart charge. For instance:

  • Tachycardia is a quick coronary heart. The resting heart charge is extra than 100 beats a minute.

  • Bradycardia is a gradual heartbeat. The resting heart fee is much less than 60 beats a minute.

Types of tachycardias encompass:

  1. Ventricular fibrillation
  2. Atrial flutter
  3. Ventricular tachycardia
  4. Supraventricular tachycardia
  5. Atrial fibrillation

Slow heartbeat (bradycardia)

Although a coronary heart charge underneath 60 beats a minute even at rest is considered bradycardia, a low resting heart rate does not constantly signal a problem. If you're physically fit, your coronary heart might also still be capable of pumping sufficient blood to the body with fewer than 60 beats a minute at relaxation.

If you've got a slow heart rate and your heart isn't always pumping sufficient blood, you may have a kind of bradycardia. Types of bradycardias consist of:

  • Sick sinus syndrome. The sinus node is responsible for setting the pace of the heart. If it doesn't work properly, the heart fee may additionally trade between too sluggish (bradycardia) and too fast (tachycardia). Sick sinus syndrome may be as a result of scarring near the sinus node that is slowing, disrupting or blocking the tour of impulses. Sick sinus syndrome is not unusual amongst older adults.

  • Conduction block. A block of the coronary heart's electric pathways can cause the indicators that cause the heartbeats to gradual down or stop. Some blocks may cause no symptoms or signs, and others might also cause skipped beats or bradycardia.

Premature heartbeats

Premature heartbeats are more beats that occur one by one, every so often in styles that exchange with the normal heart beat. The extra beats may also come from the top chamber of the coronary heart (untimely atrial contractions) or the lowest chamber (premature ventricular contractions).

An untimely heartbeat might also be experienced like your heart skipped a beat. These more beats are typically no longer concerning, and that they seldom mean you have a more critical circumstance. Still, an untimely beat can trigger an extended-lasting arrhythmia, especially in human beings with coronary heart ailment. Occasionally, very common untimely beats that last for numerous years may additionally result in a susceptible coronary heart.

Premature heartbeats may additionally arise whilst resting. Sometimes untimely heartbeats are as a result of stress, strenuous exercise or stimulants, inclusive of caffeine or nicotine.

Symptoms Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmias may not motivate any signs and symptoms or signs. A health practitioner may also note the irregular heartbeat when analyzing you for any other health motive.

In widespread, symptoms and signs of arrhythmias might also encompass:

  • A fluttering in the chest

  • A racing heartbeat (tachycardia)

  • A sluggish heartbeat (bradycardia)

  • Chest pain

  • Shortness of breath

Other signs may also include:

  • Anxiety

  • Fatigue

  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

  • Sweating

  • Fainting (syncope) or near fainting

When to see a doctor

If you experience something like your coronary heart beating too rapidly or too slowly, or it's skipping a beat, make an appointment to see a health practitioner. Seek instant medical help if you have shortness of breath, weak point, dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting or near fainting, and chest ache or discomfort.

A form of arrhythmia referred to as ventricular traumatic inflammation can motivate a dramatic drop in blood pressure. Collapse can occur inside seconds and shortly the individual's respiratory and pulse will forestall. If this happens, comply with those steps:

  • Call 911 or the emergency quantity in your location.

  • If there may be no one close by skilled in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), offer hands-only CPR. Push hard and rapid on the middle of the chest at a fee of a hundred to 120 compressions a minute until paramedics arrive. You do not want to do rescue respiration.

  • If you or someone nearby is aware of CPR, start CPR. CPR can help maintain blood drift to the organs until an electrical shock (defibrillation) can be given.

  • If an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available nearby, have someone get the tool and follow the instructions. An AED is a portable defibrillator device that could supply a surprise which can restart heartbeats. No schooling is required to operate an AED. The AED will let you know what to do. It's programmed to permit a shock most effective when suitable.

Causes Heart arrhythmia

To apprehend the cause of heart arrhythmias, it can be beneficial to understand how the coronary heart typically works.

How does the heart beat?

The coronary heart is made of 4 chambers — two top chambers (atria) and  decreased chambers (ventricles).

The heart's rhythm is generally controlled with the aid of a herbal pacemaker (the sinus node) in the proper upper chamber (atrium). The sinus node sends electrical indicators that usually start every heartbeat. These electrical signals move throughout the atria, inflicting the coronary heart muscle mass to squeeze (settlement) and pump blood into the ventricles.

Next, the signals arrive at a cluster of cells called the AV node, in which they slow down. This mild delay lets the ventricles fill with blood. When the electrical indicators reach the ventricles, the chambers settle and pump blood to the lungs or to the rest of the frame.

In a healthy coronary heart, this coronary heart signaling method normally goes smoothly, ensuing in an ordinary resting coronary heart charge of 60 to a hundred beats a minute.

Things that can propose an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) encompass:

  • Current heart assault or scarring from a previous heart assault

  • Blocked arteries within the heart (coronary artery disorder)

  • Changes to the heart's structure, together with from cardiomyopathy

  • Diabetes

  • High blood pressure

  • Infection with COVID-19

  • Overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism)

  • Sleep apnea

  • Underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)

  • Certain medications, which include cold and allergic reaction pills bought without a prescription

  • Drinking too much alcohol or caffeine

  • Drug abuse

  • Genetics

  • Smoking

  • Stress or anxiety

Risk Heart arrhythmia

Things which can increase the chance of coronary heart arrhythmias include:

  • Coronary artery sickness, other heart troubles and previous coronary heart surgical procedure. Narrowed heart arteries, a heart assault, unusual heart valves, previous coronary heart surgical operation, heart failure, cardiomyopathy and different coronary heart damage are threat factors for nearly any form of arrhythmia.

  • High blood stress. This situation will increase the risk of growing coronary artery disease. It may additionally motivate the walls of the left lower heart chamber (left ventricle) to come to be stiff and thick, that can trade how electrical indicators travel through the coronary heart.

  • Congenital heart sickness. Being born with a coronary heart situation can also have an effect on the heart's rhythm.

  • Thyroid ailment. Having an overactive or underactive thyroid gland can enhance the risk of irregular heartbeats.

  • Obstructive sleep apnea. This condition causes pauses in respiration throughout sleep. It can result in a sluggish heartbeat (bradycardia) and abnormal heartbeats, together with atrial traumatic inflammation.

  • Electrolyte imbalance. Substances inside the blood known as electrolytes — inclusive of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium — assist cause and ship electrical impulses inside the heart. An imbalance in electrolytes — as an instance, if they are too low or too excessive — can interfere with heart signaling and lead to abnormal heartbeats.

  • Certain drugs and supplements. Some prescription drugs and sure cough and cold medications offered without a prescription can motivate arrhythmias.

  • Excessive alcohol. Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol can affect the electric impulses in your heart and might increase the threat of growing atrial traumatic inflammation.

  • Caffeine, nicotine or unlawful drug use. Caffeine, nicotine and different stimulants can cause your coronary heart to conquer faster and might lead to the improvement of extra-severe arrhythmias. Illegal tablets, together with amphetamines and cocaine, can also significantly have an effect on the heart and cause many styles of arrhythmias or surprising dying because of ventricular traumatic inflammation.

Complications Heart arrhythmia

Complications rely upon the kind of arrhythmia. In general, headaches of coronary heart arrhythmias may also consist of stroke, unexpected loss of life and coronary heart failure.

Heart arrhythmias are associated with an increased threat of blood clots. If a clot breaks loose, it is able to journey from the coronary heart to the mind, causing a stroke. Blood thinners can decrease the danger of stroke related to atrial traumatic inflammation and other arrhythmias. Your medical doctor will determine if a blood-thinning medicine is right for you.

If an arrhythmia is causing coronary heart failure signs, strategies to control the coronary heart price might also improve heart function.

Prevention Heart arrhythmia

Lifestyle changes to lessen the chance of heart disease may additionally help save you coronary heart arrhythmias. A heart-healthful life-style consists of:

  • Eating a coronary heart-healthful eating regimen

  • Staying physically energetic

  • Maintaining a healthy weight

  • Not smoking

  • Limiting or avoiding caffeine and alcohol

  • Reducing pressure, as extreme stress and anger can purpose heart rhythm problems

  • Using medicinal drugs as directed and telling your health practitioner approximately all of the drug treatments you are taking, which includes the ones bought without a prescription

Diagnosis Heart arrhythmia

To diagnose a heart arrhythmia, the medical doctor will generally do a bodily examination and ask questions on your clinical history and signs and symptoms. Tests can be carried out to verify an abnormal heartbeat and search for conditions which could cause arrhythmias, including heart sickness or thyroid ailment.

Tests to diagnose coronary heart arrhythmias might also include:

  1. X-ray

  2. (computed tomography) scans(CT)

  3. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). During an ECG, sensors (electrodes) that can come across the electric pastime of the coronary heart are connected to the chest and every so often to the hands or legs. An ECG measures the timing and length of each electrical phase in the heartbeat.

  • Holter display. This portable ECG tool may be worn for an afternoon or more to record your coronary heart's hobby as you cross approximately your routine.

  • Event recorder. This wearable ECG tool is used to hit upon sporadic arrhythmias. You press a button while symptoms occur. An occasion recorder may be worn for an extended period of time (up to 30 days or until you've got an arrhythmia or traditional signs and symptoms).

  • Echocardiogram. In this noninvasive check, a hand held tool (transducer) positioned at the chest makes use of sound waves to supply pix of the coronary heart's length, structure and movement.

  • Implantable loop recorder. If symptoms are very infrequent, an event recorder may be implanted under the skin in the chest region to always record the heart's electrical activity and discover irregular coronary heart rhythms.

  • Stress take a look at. Some arrhythmias are triggered or worsened through workout. During a pressure check, the coronary heart's activity is monitored while you experience it on a stationary bicycle or stroll on a treadmill. If you've got an issue with workout, a drug can be given to stimulate the coronary heart in a manner similar to exercising.

  • Tilt table take a look at. A medical doctor may suggest taking a look at if you've had fainting spells. Your coronary heart charge and blood stress are monitored as you lie flat on a table. The table is then tilted as if you had been status up. The doctor observes how your coronary heart and the worried gadget that controls it respond to the trade in perspective.

  • Electrophysiological testing and mapping. In this check, additionally known as an EP observe, a physician threads skinny, bendy tubes (catheters) tipped with electrodes via the blood vessels to unique areas in the coronary heart. Once in an area, the electrodes can map the spread of electrical impulses through the heart.

  • Sometimes, a coronary heart doctor (heart specialist) uses the electrodes to stimulate the coronary heart to conquer at charges that may cause — or prevent — an arrhythmia. Doing this enables the medical doctor determine the vicinity of the arrhythmia, it's possible causes and the exceptional treatment alternatives. This take a look at may also be executed to decide if a person with sure fitness situations is liable to growing coronary heart arrhythmias.

Treatment Heart arrhythmia

Treatment for heart arrhythmias depends on whether you have got a fast heartbeat (tachycardia) or gradual heartbeat (bradycardia). Some heart arrhythmias now do not want remedy. Your physician may endorse regular checkups to reveal your circumstance.

Heart arrhythmia treatment is generally simplest if the irregular heartbeat is causing widespread signs, or if the situation is placing you prone to greater-critical heart issues. Treatment for heart arrhythmias may additionally include medicinal drugs, cures which include vagal maneuvers, cardioversion, catheter tactics or heart surgical operation.


Medications used to deal with coronary heart arrhythmias rely upon the kind of arrhythmia and capacity headaches.

For example, drugs to govern the heart fee and restore an ordinary heart rhythm are often prescribed for the majority with tachycardia.

If you've got atrial traumatic inflammation, blood thinners may be prescribed to save you blood clots. It's very crucial to take the medicinal drugs exactly as directed by using your medical doctor with the intention to lessen the hazard of complications.


Therapies to treat coronary heart arrhythmias encompass vagal maneuvers and cardioversion to forestall the irregular heartbeat.

  • Vagal maneuvers. If you have got a totally speedy heartbeat because of supraventricular tachycardia, your health practitioner may also endorse this therapy. Vagal maneuvers affect the apprehensive machine that controls your heartbeat (vagus nerves), regularly inflicting your coronary heart fee to gradual. For instance, you may be able to stop an arrhythmia by maintaining your breath and straining, dunking your face in ice water, or coughing. Vagal maneuvers do not work for all varieties of arrhythmias.

  • Cardioversion. This technique to reset the heart rhythm can be accomplished with medicines or as a technique. Your doctor might also propose this treatment when you have a positive form of arrhythmia, which includes atrial fibrillation.

  • During the cardioversion procedure, a surprise is delivered for your heart through paddles or patches in your chest. The modern affects the electrical impulses for your coronary heart and can repair a normal rhythm.

Surgery or different techniques

Treatment for coronary heart arrhythmias may additionally contain catheter techniques or surgical operation to implant a coronary heart (cardiac) device. Certain arrhythmias may additionally require open-coronary heart surgical treatment.

Types of techniques and surgical procedures used to deal with heart arrhythmias encompass:

  • Catheter ablation. In this manner, the physician threads one or greater catheters through the blood vessels to the coronary heart. Electrodes at the catheter suggest using heat or bloodless electricity to create tiny scars on your coronary heart to dam atypical electrical alerts and repair an ordinary heartbeat.

  • Pacemaker. If gradual heartbeats (bradycardias) don't have a cause that can be corrected, medical doctors often treat them with a pacemaker due to the fact there aren't any medicinal drugs that could reliably accelerate the heart.

  • A pacemaker is a small tool that is really generally implanted close to the collarbone. One or more electrode-tipped wires run from the pacemaker through the blood vessels to the inner heart. If the coronary heart fee is too gradual or if it stops, the pacemaker sends out electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to overcome at a steady fee.

  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Your medical doctor may additionally advise this device in case you're at excessive danger of growing a dangerously speedy or irregular heartbeat inside the decreased coronary heart chambers (ventricular tachycardia or ventricular traumatic inflammation). If you have had sudden cardiac arrest or have certain heart situations that increase your risk of unexpected cardiac arrest, your physician may additionally advise an ICD.

  • An ICD is a battery-powered unit implanted beneath the pores and skin close to the collarbone — just like a pacemaker. One or more electrode-tipped wires from the ICD run via veins to the heart. The ICD constantly video displays your coronary heart rhythm.

  • If the ICD detects an odd coronary heart rhythm, it sends out low- or excessive-power shocks to reset the coronary heart to a regular rhythm. An ICD doesn't prevent an abnormal heart rhythm from taking place, however it treats it if it happens.

  • Maze procedure. In the maze process, a surgeon makes a sequence of incisions inside the heart tissue within the higher half of your coronary heart (atria) to create a sample (or maze) of scar tissue. Because scar tissue does not conduct power, it interferes with stray electric impulses that motivate a few forms of arrhythmia.

  • The maze technique is typically reserved for individuals who do not get better with other treatments or who are having open-coronary heart surgical procedures for different motives.

  • Coronary pass surgical treatment. If you have got an extreme coronary artery ailment similar to a coronary heart arrhythmia, your health practitioner may carry out coronary bypass surgery. This system may improve the blood float to your coronary heart.

Lifestyle and domestic remedies

If you have coronary heart sickness or a coronary heart situation, your health practitioner will likely recommend making life-style adjustments to hold your coronary heart as healthy as viable.

Examples of coronary heart-healthy way of life adjustments are:

  • Eat heart-wholesome ingredients. Eat a healthful weight loss plan that is low in salt and stable fat and rich in culmination, greens and whole grains.

  • Exercise often. Aim to exercise for at the least half-hour on most days.

  • Quit smoking. If you smoke and cannot stop on your personal, communicate to your health practitioner approximately strategies or programs to help you wreck a smoking habit.

  • Maintain a healthful weight. Being obese will increase the danger of growing heart sickness.

  • Keep blood stress and cholesterol levels below manipulation. Make life-style modifications and take medications as prescribed to manipulate high blood strain or high cholesterol.

  • Drink alcohol sparsely. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so sparsely. For wholesome adults, which means up to 1 drink an afternoon for women of all ages and guys older than age 65, and up to two liquids an afternoon for men age 65 and younger.

  • Maintain compliance with-up care. Take your medications as prescribed and have normal follow-up appointments with a doctor. Tell your physician in case your signs worsen.

Alternative medicine

Managing pressure is an essential step in maintaining the coronary heart healthy. Stress-relief techniques might also help prevent or reduce heart arrhythmias. Some ways to reduce strain include:

  • Yoga

  • Meditation or mindfulness

  • Relaxation strategies

Some research suggests that acupuncture might also assist lessen abnormal heartbeats in human beings with chronic arrhythmias, but similarly studies are needed.

Preparing in your appointment

If you suspect you can have a coronary heart arrhythmia, make an appointment with your doctor. If a coronary heart arrhythmia is determined early, remedy may be simpler and extra effective. You may be stated as a doctor trained in coronary heart situations (cardiologist).

If a coronary heart arrhythmia persists for extra than a few minutes or is accompanied through fainting, shortness of breath or chest pain, name 911 or your nearby emergency range or have a person drive you to the closest emergency room.

Because appointments may be quick, and due to the fact there's often lots to speak about, it's an excellent concept to be organized for your appointment. Here's a few statistics that will help you get prepared for your appointment, and what to anticipate from your medical doctor.

What you could do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you're making the appointment, make sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your food regimen. You may additionally need to do that if your health practitioner orders any blood exams.

  • Write down any signs you are having, together with any that could appear unrelated to heart arrhythmia.

  • Write down key non-public information, which include a family history of heart disorder, stroke, high blood strain or diabetes, and any essential stresses or current life modifications.

  • Make a listing of all medications, including nutrients or dietary supplements that you're taking.

  • Take a family member or friend alongside, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all of the data supplied to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may not forget something that you neglected or forgot.

  • Write down questions to ask your physician.

Your time along with your doctor is limited, so getting ready a list of questions will help you make the most of it. List your questions from maximum vital to least vital in case time runs out. For heart arrhythmias, a few primary inquiries to ask your health practitioner encompass:

  • What's the maximum likely cause of my signs?

  • Are there different possible reasons for my signs and symptoms?

  • What types of exams will I want? Do I want to do whatever to put together for those exams?

  • What's the most appropriate treatment?

  • Are there any meals or liquids which you advise I avoid? Is there something you suggest that I upload to my weight loss plan?

  • What's an appropriate stage of bodily interest?

  • How often ought to I be screened for heart disorder or different complications of an arrhythmia?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I high-quality control those conditions together?

  • Is there a typical opportunity for the drugs you are prescribing?

  • Are there any brochures or different printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you propose journeying?

What to assume out of your physician

Your medical doctor is probably inviting you to ask a number of questions. Being prepared to answer them may reserve time to move over any factors you need to spend greater time on. Your health practitioner may additionally ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing signs?

  • Have your signs been continuous, or do they arrive and pass?

  • How severe are your signs and symptoms?

  • Does something seem to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if something, appears to get worse your signs and symptoms?

  • Is there a circle of relatives with a history of arrhythmia?

General summary

  1. Heart arrhythmia is a term used to describe an irregular heartbeat, which can be caused by several conditions, including heart defects, coronary artery disease, electrolyte imbalances, thyroid disease and certain medications. This condition can occur both in adults and children, and may be life threatening if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the symptoms of heart arrhythmia to ensure that the condition is promptly diagnosed and effectively managed. Early recognition of symptoms can improve outcomes and potentially save lives.

  2. Heart arrhythmia is a condition where the heart beats irregularly or in an abnormal rhythm, making it difficult for the heart to properly pump blood around the body. Arrhythmia can range in severity, and some cases can be very serious, even life-threatening. In some cases, an arrhythmia can cause the heart to beat too quickly, too slowly, or erratically. It can also cause the heart to skip beats or pause for longer than normal.

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