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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is Juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a form of arthritis that affects children, typically those under the age of 16. It is an autoimmune disorder, meaning it is caused by the body attacking itself. Symptoms can vary greatly, with some children affected more severely than others, and can include joint pain, stiffness and swelling. In some cases, it can also cause eye inflammation and other systemic issues.

What is Juvenile idiopathic arthritis?
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

  1. Musculoskeletal system
    1. Human skeleton

    2. Joints

    3. Ligaments

    4. Muscular system

    5. Tendons

Medical terms

  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of musculoskeletal disorder which is primarily characterized by chronic arthritis that begins before the age of 16. It is an autoimmune disorder, meaning that it occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy tissue due to an unknown cause. JIA can affect one or many joints, causing inflammation and pain, as well as swelling and stiffness of the joint and tissue surrounding it. JIA is a debilitating condition that can lead to long-term disability in severe cases and often requires lifelong medical management.
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the joints. It is the most common form of arthritis among children, and it is characterized by inflammation of the joint lining and nearby tissues, resulting in pain and stiffness. JIA affects more than 300,000 children in the United States, and can often be difficult to diagnose due to its varying symptoms. With early diagnosis and proper management, however, children with JIA can lead a normal life and enjoy a full range of physical activities.

Types Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

There are numerous types of JIA, depending on the signs and symptoms and the wide variety of joints involved:

  • Oligoarthritis: This form of JIA affects fewer than 5 joints, most customarily within the knee, ankle and elbow. It can also cause uveitis, an irritation of the middle layer of the eye (the uvea). Uveitis can be undetectable without a devoted eye exam. About half of all youngsters with JIA have oligoarthritis; it's miles more not unusual in girls than in boys. Many kids will outgrow oligoarthritis via adulthood. In some kids, it is able to spread to subsequently contain greater joints.

  • Polyarthritis: This sort of JIA influences 5 or more joints, regularly the same joints on every aspect of the frame. Polyarthritis also can have an effect on the neck and jaw joints and the smaller joints, such as those in the palms and feet. It is greater commonplace in girls than in boys and money owed for 20 percentage of JIA sufferers

  • Psoriatic arthritis: This sort of arthritis influences kids who have arthritis and psoriasis, a rash that causes raised purple patches or pores and skin lesions included with a silvery white buildup of lifeless skin cells. Psoriatic arthritis also can motivate nail modifications that look like dimpling or pitting.

  • Enthesitis-associated arthritis: Also known as spondyloarthropathy. This sort of arthritis regularly affects the backbone, hips and entheses (the factors in which tendons and ligaments connect to bones), and takes place in particular in boys older than seven years. The eyes are regularly affected by this kind of arthritis, and might become painful or crimson.

  • Systemic arthritis: Also called Still's disorder, this type takes place in approximately 10 to twenty percent of youngsters with JIA. A systemic illness is one that can affect the entire frame or many body systems. Besides arthritis, systemic JIA generally causes continual high fever and rash, which most often appears at the trunk, legs and arms when fever spikes. It can also affect internal organs, which includes the heart, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. This form of JIA impacts boys and ladies similarly and rarely impacts the eyes.

Symptoms Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

The most common signs and symptoms of minor idiopathic arthritis are:

  • Pain, swelling and tenderness within the joints. The joints may additionally experience heat.

  • Morning joint stiffness

  • Limping gait (younger kids may not be able to perform motor activities that they recently learned)

  • Fever

  • Rash

  • Weight loss

  • Swollen lymph nodes

  • Fatigue or irritability

  • Eye redness, eye ache, and blurred vision

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis can affect one joint or many. There are numerous one of a kind subtypes of minor idiopathic arthritis, but the predominant ones are systemic, oligoarticular and polyarticular. Which type your baby has depends on signs, the wide variety of joints affected, and if a fever and rashes are distinguished capabilities.

When to peer a health practitioner

Take your toddler to the health practitioner if she or he has joint pain, swelling or stiffness for extra than per week — in particular if he or she additionally has a fever.

Causes Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis takes place while the frame's immune machine attacks its very own cells and tissues. It's not acknowledged why this happens, but both heredity and surroundings seem to play a position.

Risk Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Some styles of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are not unusual in ladies.

Complications Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Several serious headaches can result from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. But maintaining a cautious watch for your toddler's condition and looking for suitable medical attention can greatly lessen the risk of these complications:

  • Eye problems. Some paperwork can cause eye infection. If this condition is left untreated, it can result in cataracts, glaucoma and even blindness.

  • Eye inflammation often takes place without symptoms, so it is vital for kids with this condition to be examined regularly with the aid of an ophthalmologist.

  • Growth issues. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis can intervene with your infant's increase and bone improvement. Some medicinal drugs used for remedy, particularly corticosteroids, can also inhibit growth.

Diagnosis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis can be difficult because joint pain may be caused by many one of a kind forms of issues. No single take a look can confirm an analysis, however assessments can help rule out some other situations that produce similar signs and symptoms.

Blood tests

Some of the maximum commonplace blood tests for suspected instances include:

  • Erythrocyte sedimentation charge (ESR). The sedimentation charge is the rate at which your purple blood cells settle to the lowest of a tube of blood. An extended price can imply infection. Measuring the ESR is generally used to determine the diploma of inflammation.

  • C-reactive protein. This blood check also measures ranges of preferred infection inside the body however on a distinctive scale than the ESR.

  • Antinuclear antibody. Antinuclear antibodies are proteins normally produced by way of the immune systems of humans with certain autoimmune illnesses, together with arthritis. They are a marker for an expanded danger of eye inflammation.

  • Rheumatoid thing. This antibody is from time to time discovered inside the blood of kids who've juvenile idiopathic arthritis and might imply there is a better chance of damage from arthritis.

  • Cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP). Like the rheumatoid element, the CCP is some other antibody that can be discovered within the blood of kids with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and may suggest a better threat of damage.

  • In many youngsters with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, no enormous abnormality may be located in those blood exams.

Imaging scans

X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging can be taken to exclude different situations, which include fractures, tumors, infection or congenital defects.

Imaging will also be used every so often after the analysis to display bone improvement and to hit upon joint damage.

Treatment Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis specializes in helping your infant preserve an ordinary degree of physical and social hobbies. To accomplish this, doctors may additionally use an aggregate of strategies to relieve ache and swelling, preserve complete movement and strength, and save you complications.


The medicines used to help kids with juvenile idiopathic arthritis are selected to lower pain, enhance features and minimize potential joint damage.

Typical medications encompass:

  • Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory pills (NSAIDs). These medicinal drugs, which include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve), reduce pain and swelling. Side outcomes consist of belly dissatisfied and, a good deal much less regularly, kidney and liver issues.

  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic capsules (DMARDs). Doctors use these medications while NSAIDs alone fail to relieve signs of joint ache and swelling or if there is a high hazard of harm in the future.

  • DMARDs can be taken in aggregate with NSAIDs and are used to sluggish the development of teen idiopathic arthritis. The maximum typically used DMARD for kids is methotrexate (Trexall, Xatmep, others). Side results of methotrexate can also encompass nausea, low blood counts, liver issues and a mild elevated chance of infection.

  • Biologic dealers. Also referred to as biologic response modifiers, this newer class of medication consists of tumor necrosis thing (TNF) blockers, which includes etanercept (Enbrel, Erelzi, Eticovo), adalimumab (Humira), golimumab (Simponi) and infliximab (Remicade, Inflectra, others). These medications can assist reduce systemic inflammation and save you joint harm. They can be used with DMARDs and different medications.

  • Other biologic sellers work to suppress the immune device in slightly specific approaches, including abatacept (Orencia), rituximab (Rituxan, Truxima, Ruxience), anakinra (Kineret) and tocilizumab (Actemra). All biologics can increase the risk of contamination.

  • Corticosteroids. Medications consisting of prednisone can be used to govern symptoms till another medicine takes effect. They are also used to treat inflammation while it isn't always in the joints, inclusive of inflammation of the sac around the coronary heart.

These pills can intrude with everyday growth and growth susceptibility to contamination, so they commonly have to be used for the shortest possible duration.


Your medical doctor might also propose that your child work with a bodily therapist to help hold joints bendy and keep a variety of motion and muscle tone.

A physical therapist or an occupational therapist might also make extra hints concerning the pleasant exercising and shielding gadget to your toddler.

A bodily or occupational therapist may additionally advocate that your infant make use of joint helps or splints to assist protect joints and preserve them in a great practical position.


In very severe instances, surgery can be had to improve joint features.

  1. Bone transplant

Lifestyle and home remedies

Caregivers can assist children learn self-care techniques that assist restrict the consequences of minor idiopathic arthritis. Techniques encompass:

  • Getting normal exercise. Exercise is vital as it promotes both muscle strength and joint flexibility. Swimming is a superb preference because it places minimum strain on joints.

  • Applying cold or warmth. Stiffness impacts many youngsters with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, specifically inside the morning. Some children respond properly to cold packs, in particular after activity. However, most kids decide on a warm temperature, along with a warm percentage or a warm bathtub or shower, especially in the morning.

  • Eating nicely. Some children with arthritis have bad appetites. Others might also gain extra weight because of medicinal drugs or bodily states of no activity. A healthy food plan can assist keep the correct frame weight.

  • Adequate calcium within the weight-reduction plan is crucial due to the fact youngsters with juvenile idiopathic arthritis are susceptible to developing susceptible bones because of the ailment, using corticosteroids, and reduced bodily activity and weight bearing.

Coping and support

Family contributors can play vital roles in assisting youngsters deal with their circumstances. As a parent, you could need to attempt the following:

  • Treat your child like other youngsters in your family as much as feasible.

  • Allow your child to specific anger approximately having juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Explain that the ailment isn't because of whatever she or he did.

  • Encourage your child to participate in bodily activities, retaining in mind the pointers of your baby's health practitioner and bodily therapist.

  • Discuss your child's condition and the troubles surrounding it with instructors and administrators at his or her school.

Preparing to your appointment

If your pediatrician or circle of relatives physician suspects that your baby has juvenile idiopathic arthritis, he or she may also refer you to a physician who specializes in arthritis (rheumatologist) to verify the prognosis and discover a remedy.

What you may do

Before the appointment, you would possibly want to jot down a listing that consists of:

  • Detailed descriptions of your toddler's symptoms

  • Information approximately scientific troubles your infant has had inside the past

  • Information about the scientific issues that tend to run for your circle of relatives

  • All the medicinal drugs and nutritional supplements your infant takes

  • Your child's immunization repute

  • Questions you need to invite the health practitioner

What to anticipate out of your doctor

Your health practitioner may ask a number of the subsequent questions:

  • Which joints look affected?

  • When did the signs and symptoms start? Do they seem to come back and cross?

  • Does anything make the symptoms better or worse?

  • Is the joint stiffness worse after a length of rest?

General summary

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition that affects children under the age of 16. It is the most common type of arthritis in children and is characterized by chronic joint pain and swelling, as well as other systemic symptoms such as fever and fatigue. The cause of JIA is unknown, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. JIA can cause long-term complications such as joint damage and growth abnormality, so early diagnosis and treatment are important to manage the condition and reduce the risks of long-term complications.

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects around 300,000 children in the United States alone. The exact cause is not known, but it is known to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy cells and tissues. Symptoms include joint pain and swelling, as well as deformity of the affected joints. Treatment options are available to help manage symptoms and prevent long-term joint damage.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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