Kidney : Detailed Explanation


 What Is a Kidney?

Kidney is the common name for a bean-shaped excretory organ in vertebrates. The kidneys are a pair of organs that filter your blood and remove excess fluid from your body in the form of urine. The main function of the kidneys is to regulate the composition of bodily fluids by selectively removing wastes, salts, and excess water while conserving useful substances. Kidney also helps to maintain the volume and composition of your blood. Kidney also helps to control blood pressure by secreting the hormone erythropoietin, which promotes the formation of red blood cells. When the kidneys are not functioning properly, wastes can build up in the blood, causing serious health problems.

Kidney is a bean-shaped excretory organ of the vertebrate animal that eliminates metabolic waste products from the blood and regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior abdomen and are partially protected by the ribcage. Each kidney is about 12 cm (4.7 in) long, 6 cm (2.4 in) wide, and 3 cm (1.2 in) thick, roughly the size of an adult fist. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries and drain blood into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is surrounded by a layer of tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perirenal fat, renal fascia, and par.

The kidneys are important organs that are located in the back of the abdomen. They are about the size of a fist and filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood per day, making about 1 to 2 quarts of urine per day. The left kidney is usually slightly larger than the right one. The kidneys’ main job is to take waste out of the blood and make urine. Urine contains wastes and extra fluid that the body does not need. The kidneys also help control blood pressure, make red blood cells, and keep bones healthy. Kidney disease means your kidneys are damaged and they don’t work as well as they should. Kidney disease can get worse over time and eventually lead to kidney failure. Kidney failure-

Parts of the kidneys

The kidneys are vital organs responsible for filtering waste and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine. They play a crucial role in maintaining electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and overall fluid balance in the body. The main parts of the kidneys include:

  • Renal Cortex: The outermost region of the kidney is called the renal cortex. It contains the glomeruli, which are clusters of tiny blood vessels involved in the initial filtration of blood.

  • Renal Medulla: The renal medulla is located deeper within the kidney, beneath the renal cortex. It contains renal pyramids, which are triangular structures that help transport urine from the cortex to the renal pelvis.

  • Renal Pelvis: The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped structure that collects urine from the renal pyramids and funnels it into the ureter, which carries the urine to the bladder for storage.

  • Renal Pyramids: These are cone-shaped structures within the renal medulla. Each pyramid consists of nephrons, the functional units of the kidneys. Nephrons are responsible for filtering blood and producing urine.

  • Nephrons: Nephrons are the microscopic filtering units of the kidney. Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle (containing the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule) and a renal tubule. The nephron filters blood to remove waste products and excess substances, eventually producing urine.

  • Glomerulus: The glomerulus is a small network of capillaries located within the renal corpuscle. It is where the initial filtration of blood occurs, allowing water and small molecules to pass into Bowman's capsule while retaining larger molecules like proteins.

  • Bowman's Capsule: This is a cup-shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus. It collects the filtrate from the blood and begins the process of forming urine.

  • Renal Tubules: After the filtrate enters Bowman's capsule, it moves through a series of renal tubules. These tubules consist of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting duct. Different parts of the tubules are responsible for reabsorbing necessary substances and concentrating the filtrate to form urine.

  • Collecting Duct: The collecting ducts receive urine from multiple nephrons and transport it through the renal medulla to the renal pelvis, where it is collected and funneled into the ureter.

  • Renal Artery and Vein: These blood vessels supply and drain the kidneys, respectively. The renal artery carries oxygenated blood to the kidneys for filtration, while the renal vein carries filtered, deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys.

  • Perirenal Fat: Surrounding the kidneys is a layer of adipose (fat) tissue called perirenal fat. It acts as a cushion and helps protect the kidneys from mechanical damage.

These parts work together to maintain the body's fluid and electrolyte balance while eliminating waste products through the production and excretion of urine.

Structure of the kidneys

The kidneys are located in the middle of the human body, just below the ribcage. Each kidney contains about 120,000 nephrons, which are tiny blood filtering organs. The kidneys are responsible for removing waste products and toxins from the blood.

In people, the kidneys are placed excessively inside the abdominal hollow space, one on each aspect of the backbone, and lie in a retroperitoneal role at a slightly oblique angle. The asymmetry in the belly hollow space, due to the placement of the liver, generally results in the proper kidney being slightly decreased and smaller than the left, and being located slightly extra to the middle than the left kidney. The left kidney is approximately on the vertebral degree T12 to L3, and the right is barely lower. The proper kidney sits simply beneath the diaphragm and posterior to the liver. The left kidney sits under the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. On the pinnacle of every kidney is an adrenal gland. The higher parts of the kidneys are in part blanketed by the 11th and 12th ribs. Each kidney, with its adrenal gland is surrounded by using two layers of fats: the perirenal fats given among renal fascia and renal tablet and pararenal fats advanced to the renal fascia.

The human kidney is a bean-fashioned shape with a convex and a concave border. A recessed region at the concave border is the renal hilum, where the renal artery enters the kidney and the renal vein and ureter depart. The kidney is surrounded through hard fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, that is itself surrounded by perirenal fats, renal fascia, and pararenal fat. The anterior (front) floor of those tissues is the peritoneum, whilst the posterior (rear) surface is the transversalis fascia.

Kidney function

Kidney function refers to the vital role that the kidneys play in maintaining the balance of various bodily functions. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine, just below the ribcage. They are responsible for several essential functions in the body, including:

  • Filtration of Blood: The primary function of the kidneys is to filter waste products, excess fluids, and electrolytes from the bloodstream. This filtration process helps remove toxins and maintain a healthy balance of electrolytes and fluids in the body.

  • Regulation of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance: The kidneys help regulate the balance of fluids, electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium), and acid-base levels in the body. This balance is crucial for maintaining proper cell function and overall health.

  • Blood Pressure Regulation: The kidneys play a key role in regulating blood pressure. They release hormones that control the dilation and constriction of blood vessels and help manage the volume of blood in circulation.

  • Red Blood Cell Production: The kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Red blood cells are essential for oxygen transport in the body.

  • Vitamin D Activation: The kidneys activate vitamin D, which is important for calcium absorption in the intestines. Adequate vitamin D levels are crucial for maintaining strong bones and overall health.

  • Waste Excretion: The kidneys filter out waste products, such as urea and creatinine, from the bloodstream. These waste products are then excreted in the form of urine.

  • pH Regulation: The kidneys help regulate the body's pH by excreting excess acids or bases, thus maintaining the body's acid-base balance.

Kidney function can be assessed through various tests, including blood tests that measure levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), as well as tests to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A decline in kidney function can lead to various health issues, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), which may progress to kidney failure if not managed properly. In cases of severe kidney dysfunction, treatments such as dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to maintain proper bodily functions.

To keep your kidneys functioning well, it's important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including staying hydrated, eating a balanced diet, managing blood pressure, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and not smoking. Regular medical check-ups can help monitor kidney function and detect any issues early on. If you have concerns about your kidney function, it's recommended to consult a healthcare professional.

Kidney and blood filtration in the human body

  1. Our bodies are amazing machines. They can do many things including digest food, pump blood, and even breathe for us. Out of all these functions, filtration is one of the most important. Filtration is the process of removing particles from a liquid. In the human body, there are two types of filtration that occur: blood filtration and kidney filtration.  Blood filtration occurs mainly in the capillaries. The walls of the capillaries are very thin, so small particles can pass through them. These small particles include things like carbon dioxide and water. The larger particles, like red blood cells, cannot pass through the walls of the capillaries. Kidney filtration is a little

  2. The human body is a well-oiled machine, with many different organs and systems working together to maintain function and health. The kidneys play an important role in human health, acting as a filtration system for the blood. Kidneys remove waste from the blood and help to regulate blood pressure. They also produce hormones that help to regulate the body’s fluid levels and red blood cell production. without proper function, a person can become very ill.

Each kidney incorporates extra than a million filtering devices referred to as nephrons. Each nephron includes:

  • Glomeruli: Glomeruli are groups of tiny blood vessels that perform the first level of filtering your blood. They then bypass filtered substances to the renal tubules. The name for this technique is glomerular filtration.

  • Renal tubules: These tiny tubes reabsorb and return water, vitamins and minerals your body desires (which include sodium and potassium). The tubules cast off waste, along with extra acid and fluids through a procedure known as diffusion. Your frame sends the last waste through your kidneys’ amassing chambers. Eventually, it leaves your frame as pee.

Symptoms Kidney

Symptoms of renal dysfunction can be discovered in many ways. Often, patients are asymptomatic and renal dysfunction is discovered through routine laboratory testing. However, patients may also present with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, or weakness. More specific symptoms may be seen depending on the etiology of the renal dysfunction. For example, patients with acute renal failure may present with oliguria, edema, or hypertension. Patients with chronic renal failure may present with anorexia, weight loss, or pruritus. Finally, patients with uremia may present with anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, or coma. The following is a case study of a patient presenting with renal dysfunction.

Most kidney troubles don’t have signs of their early stages. As kidney harm progresses, you could notice:

  • Cramping muscle mass: Electrolyte imbalances cause your muscle mass to stiffen.

  • Dark urine or urine with blood in it: Damage to your kidneys’ filters shall we blood cells leak into your urine.

  • Foamy urine: Bubbles in your pee can signal extra protein.

  • Itchy, dry pores and skin: An imbalance of minerals and nutrients for your blood results in itchy pores and skin.

  • More frequent urination: Problems filtering waste purpose you to pee greater regularly.

  • Puffy eyes or swollen ankles and feet: Reduced kidney function can motivate your frame to maintain protein and sodium, ensuing in swelling.

  • Sleep issues, fatigue and lack of appetite: If pollution increases your blood, your sleep, urge for food and energy ranges may be off.

If you’ve ever had the pleasure of doing a kidney stone, then you know how painful they are. They form when there is an imbalance in urine production and they get stuck in your urinary tract. This can be incredibly painful – even more so if it happens to be your first time experiencing this condition. To make matters worse, kidney stones may come back over and over again! It’s no wonder why many people want to find out what the most common kidney diseases are.

Kidney Problems

Human kidneys are essential for human health. They are responsible for filtering the blood and removing toxins. If the kidneys are not functioning properly, it can have serious consequences for the health of the individual.

In order to properly understand the effects that can have on the health of the kidneys in the human body, it is important to first understand the organ itself. The kidneys are located in the lower right side of the body and are responsible for filtering out impurities from the blood. If the kidneys are not functioning properly, the individual may experience a number of health problems, some of which are listed below.     The most common problems associated with the kidneys are hypertension, diabetes, and renal failure.

Your kidneys carry out numerous crucial features inside your body. Many extraordinary problems can affect them. Common conditions that affect your kidneys encompass:

  • Chronic kidney disorder: Chronic kidney ailment (CKD) may additionally lessen your kidney characteristic. Diabetes or excessive blood strain normally causes CKD.

  • Kidney most cancers: Renal cell carcinoma is the most commonplace kind of kidney cancer.

  • Kidney failure (renal failure): Kidney failure can be acute (get worse unexpectedly) or continual (a permanent lessening of how nicely your kidneys work). End-level renal sickness is a whole lack of kidney function. It requires dialysis (a remedy to clear out your blood in the location of your kidneys).

  • Kidney contamination (pyelonephritis): A kidney contamination can arise if microorganisms input your kidneys by traveling up your ureters. These infections motivate unexpected signs. Healthcare carriers deal with them with antibiotics.

  • Kidney stones: Kidney stones purpose crystals to form in your urine and can block urine float. Sometimes these stones bypass them. In other cases, healthcare companies can offer remedies to interrupt them or get rid of them.

  • Kidney (renal) cysts: Fluid-crammed sacs called kidney cysts grow on your kidneys. These cysts can cause kidney damage. Healthcare companies can do away with them.

  • Polycystic kidney disease: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) reasons cysts to form on your kidneys. PKD is a genetic circumstance. It can also cause high blood stress and kidney failure. People with PKD want everyday scientific tracking.

  • Acidosis: Excess acid accumulates for your kidneys, which might also motive many health troubles. It can be life-threatening.

  • Acute or interstitial nephritis: Your kidneys become inflamed, from time to time after publicity to sure antibiotics, which may additionally cause kidney failure.

  • Azotemia: Nitrogen waste builds up on your kidneys. Without remedy, azotemia can be deadly.

  • Caliectasis: Excess fluid causes your calyces (wherein urine series begins) to swell. Without remedy, caliectasis may additionally bring about kidney failure.

  • Diabetes-related nephropathy or hypertensive nephropathy: Uncontrolled diabetes or chronically excessive blood pressure reasons kidney harm.

  • Glomerular sicknesses: Glomerular diseases cause irritation or harm to your glomeruli. Glomerular illnesses might also cause kidney failure.

  • Minimal alternate disease and nephrotic syndrome: Minimal alternate sickness and nephrotic syndrome cause your kidneys to release the excess protein in your pee.

  • Papillary necrosis: Chunks of kidney tissue die in the medulla and papilla. The tissue can ruin off and clog your kidneys, leading to kidney failure.

  • Proteinuria: Proteinuria approach you have got excessive ranges of protein on your kidneys. It can be a sign of kidney damage.

  • Pyelonephritis: This sudden kidney contamination causes edema (swelling) on your kidneys. It can be existence-threatening.

  • Uremia: Toxins that typically leave your body via your pee come to be on your bloodstream. Without treatment, uremia can be fatal.

How is it diagnosed in the Kidney?

The diagnosis of kidney conditions typically involves a combination of medical history assessment, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Here's a general overview of the diagnostic process for kidney-related issues:

  • Medical History and Physical Examination: The doctor will begin by taking a detailed medical history, including any symptoms you're experiencing, your medical conditions, medications, and family history of kidney problems. A physical examination may also be conducted to assess your overall health and to look for any signs of kidney disease, such as swelling or changes in blood pressure.

  • Laboratory Tests: Various laboratory tests can provide valuable information about kidney function and potential issues. Some of the key tests include:

    • Blood Tests:

      • Serum Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): These tests measure waste products in the blood that are normally filtered out by the kidneys. Elevated levels can indicate kidney dysfunction.

      • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR): This test estimates how well your kidneys are filtering waste from your blood. It's calculated using serum creatinine, age, gender, and other factors.

      • Electrolyte Levels: Tests such as sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate can reveal imbalances caused by kidney dysfunction.

    • Urine Tests:

      • Urinalysis: This test examines the physical and chemical properties of urine, including the presence of protein, blood, and other abnormalities.

      • Urine Protein-to-Creatinine Ratio: It helps assess the amount of protein leakage into the urine, which can indicate kidney damage.

  • Imaging Studies: Imaging techniques can provide visual information about the kidneys' structure and function. Common imaging methods include:

    • Ultrasound: This non-invasive imaging method uses sound waves to create images of the kidneys. It's often used to assess kidney size, shape, and any abnormalities.

    • CT Scan (Computed Tomography): CT scans provide detailed cross-sectional images of the kidneys and surrounding structures. They can help identify kidney stones, tumors, and other issues.

    • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images. It's useful for assessing kidney blood flow and detecting tumors.

  • Kidney Biopsy: In certain cases where the diagnosis is unclear or when a more precise assessment of kidney tissue is needed, a kidney biopsy may be performed. A small sample of kidney tissue is taken and examined under a microscope to diagnose conditions like glomerulonephritis, kidney inflammation, and other complex kidney diseases.

  • Specialized Tests: Depending on the suspected condition, additional specialized tests may be necessary. For example, autoimmune-related kidney diseases may require tests to check for specific antibodies.

It's important to note that the diagnostic process can vary based on the specific kidney condition being investigated. If you're concerned about your kidney health, it's recommended to consult a medical professional who can provide personalized guidance and order appropriate tests based on your symptoms and medical history.

Maintaining the health of the kidneys

The most important thing you can do if you have kidney disease is avoid dehydration by drinking lots of water, especially when you exercise.Your doctor or dietitian may recommend certain foods and fluids to help prevent dehydration and control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels.If you’re on dialysis, talk with your doctor about foods that are safe for you to eat while maintaining a healthy diet.

This is an interesting topic and people should read this article to know more about it.Here are some important kidney disease diet tips:

As it is well known, kidney disease diet requires people to be aware of the kinds of food that they eat.This is because certain foods may cause harm to their kidneys and can even lead to kidney failure.Foods that are rich in salt or sodium need to be avoided altogether as people with kidney disease are highly advised not to consume too much sodium.

You can reduce your risk of developing a kidney trouble by means of:

  • Avoiding or quitting smoking and using tobacco products. Your company can help you find ways to end.

  • Cutting out excess salt, that can affect the balance of minerals to your blood.

  • Drinking water.

  • Increasing day by day exercising, that may reduce excessive blood strain.

  • Limiting your use of NSAIDs. NSAIDs can cause kidney harm in case you take them too much.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight.

  • Monitoring your blood strain levels.

  • Watching your blood sugar stages when you have diabetes.

Kidney transplantation

A kidney transplant is a surgical operation in which one person’s healthy kidney is put into the body of someone who has kidney failure. This procedure can be done to treat end-stage renal disease, when the patient has lost most of his or her kidney function and no longer has enough healthy tissue to keep going. When that happens, dialysis or a transplant may be needed as there are no treatments available that can restore the kidneys back to full health.

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