Large Intestine : Detailed Explanation

 What Is a Large Intestine?

Large intestine is a series of tubes that lead from the small intestine to the rectum and anus. The lining of the large intestine is made of different types of cells that help break down food.

Big gut, posterior phase of the gut, consisting generally of 4 areas: the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. The time period colon is sometimes used to refer to the complete big intestine.

The big gut is wider and shorter than the small intestine (approximately 1.5 meters, or five feet, in period compared with 6.7 to 7.6 meters, or 22 to twenty-five ft, in duration for the small intestine) and has a smooth inner wall. In the proximal, or top, half of the huge gut, enzymes from the small gut entire the digestive method, and micro organisms produce B nutrients (B12, thiamin, and riboflavin) as well as vitamin K. The number one feature of the large gut, however, is absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive residues (a manner that typically takes 24 to 30 hours) and storage of fecal rely till it is able to be expelled. Churning actions of the massive gut regularly expose digestive residue to the absorbing partitions. An innovative and greater full of life kind of movement called the gastrocolic reflex, which takes place most effectively  for three instances every day, propels the fabric towards the anus.

Structure of the large intestine

The large intestine is a long, coiled tunnel that begins at the stomach and ends at the rectum. It is the final step in the digestion process. The large intestine breaks down food into simple molecules that the body can use. The large intestine also helps to clean the gut..

The colon of the massive gut is the final part of the digestive machine. It has a segmented appearance due to a sequence of saccules called haustra. It extracts water and salt from stable wastes earlier than they're removed from the frame and is the website in which the fermentation of unabsorbed cloth by using the gut microbiota occurs. Unlike the small gut, the colon does not play a chief position in absorption of ingredients and nutrients. About 1.5 liters or 45 ounces of water arrives within the colon every day.

The colon is the longest part of the large gut and its average length inside the human body is 65 inches or 166 cm (range of 80 to 313 cm) for men, and 61 inches or 155 cm (variety of eighty to 214 cm) for ladies.

Large Intestine function

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a crucial part of the digestive system in humans and many other animals. Its primary functions include:

  • Water and Electrolyte Absorption: The large intestine plays a key role in absorbing water and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium) from the remaining indigestible food material that enters it from the small intestine. This absorption process helps in consolidating the waste material into a more solid form.

  • Formation of Feces: As water is absorbed, the content that enters the large intestine becomes more concentrated and forms feces. Feces are the indigestible and waste materials that are eliminated from the body.

  • Fermentation and Bacterial Activity: The large intestine is home to a diverse community of beneficial bacteria known as the gut microbiota. These bacteria assist in breaking down certain complex carbohydrates, fiber, and other substances that were not fully digested in the small intestine. Through fermentation, they produce gases (such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane) and short-chain fatty acids, which can provide additional energy sources for the body and help maintain a healthy gut environment.

  • Vitamin Synthesis: Some bacteria in the large intestine have the ability to synthesize certain vitamins, such as vitamin K and some B vitamins. These vitamins are then absorbed into the bloodstream and play important roles in various bodily functions.

  • Storage and Elimination: The large intestine stores the feces until they are ready to be eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus. This elimination process is known as defecation.

  • Immune System Support: The large intestine houses a significant portion of the immune system. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) located in the intestinal walls helps protect against harmful pathogens and supports the immune response.

Overall, the large intestine's functions are essential for completing the digestive process, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, supporting gut health, and facilitating the elimination of waste materials from the body.

Parts of the large intestine

The large intestine is the section of the digestive tract that receives the residual matter from the small intestine. It is also known as the large bowel or colon. The main function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes, and concentrate and store solid wastes until they are eliminated through defecation. The large intestine consists of four parts: the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon.

Diseases that can affect the large intestine

There are many diseases that can affect the large intestine. One of the most common is Crohn’s disease.

Diseases that can affect the large intestine can be very serious and can lead to a lot of complications.

Diseases that can affect the large intestine can affect many different systems in the body, including the gastrointestinal system. These diseases can lead to a variety of symptoms, and can be difficult to diagnose.

Functional problems, structural disorders, infections and irritations can have an effect on the massive gut, along with the colon, rectum and anus. Some of those conditions include:

  • Diverticulitis.

  • Ulcerative colitis.

  • Microscopic colitis.

  • Pseudomembranous colitis.

  • Proctitis.

  • Appendicitis.

  • Necrotizing enterocolitis.

  • Malrotation.

  • Crohn’s disease.

  • Rectal ulcers.

  • Hemorrhoids.

  • Colorectal polyps.

  • Colorectal most cancers.

  • Hirschsprung ailment.

  • Large bowel obstruction.

  • Intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  • Intestinal ischemic syndrome.

  • Rectal bleeding.

  • Rectal prolapse.

  • Rectocele.

  • Pelvic ground dysfunction.

  • Anal fistula.

  • Anal fissures.

  • Gas and gasoline ache.

  • Constipation.

  • Fecal incontinence.

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  • Obstructed defecation.

  • Anismus.

  • Paralytic ileus.

How is it diagnosed in the Large Intestine?

There are several conditions that can affect the large intestine (also known as the colon), such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer, diverticulitis, and more. The diagnostic process can vary depending on the specific condition.

For example, if you're referring to inflammatory bowel disease (which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), diagnosis often involves a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies (such as CT scans or MRIs), endoscopic procedures (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), and biopsy of the affected tissue. Doctors use these methods to assess the extent and severity of inflammation in the large intestine.

On the other hand, for colorectal cancer, diagnosis may involve a combination of screenings, such as fecal occult blood tests, colonoscopies, and imaging scans. Biopsies of suspicious tissue are typically taken during a colonoscopy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

If you can provide more specific information about the condition you're asking about, I'd be happy to provide more detailed information about its diagnosis in the large intestine.

Maintaining the health of the large intestine

The large intestine is a very important part of the body. It helps to keep us healthy by absorbing food and water. If the large intestine is not functioning properly, it can lead to many problems. Problems with the large intestine can include: constipation, diarrhea, and colon cancer.

These preferred fitness guidelines will help you keep a healthy gut:


  • Eat extra fiber. Fiber triggers the muscle contractions that move meals via your colon and allows clean out residue there that might gradually matter. The satisfactory manner to get its miles by ingesting plants.

  • Eat better fat. Saturated fats, together with the ones discovered in beef, are related to higher quotes of colon diseases. On the other hand, healthy fat — the Omega-3s found specifically in oily fish — promote pleasant bacteria inside the intestine.

  • Drink extra water. The intestine uses a variety of water — for cleansing, for lubrication and absorption of vitamins — and most of us don’t drink enough of it.

  • Get your colonoscopy. Colon cancer is both not unusual and preventable. Anyone with a colon can get it, and by the time you have got signs and symptoms, it might be too late to deal with it. Regular screening is a nice way to prevent it and treat it in time.

Healthy foods

The purpose of this document is to provide readers with a basic understanding of what healthy foods for the large intestine can do for them. By aiding in the proper absorption of nutrients, these foods can help improve overall health.

The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the different types of healthy foods that can be eaten for the large intestine. There are many different types of foods that can be eaten, and the reader is encouraged to experiment and find what works best for them.


  • Fresh fish excessive in omega-three fatty acids can help lessen infection in the frame. In truth, a research group from Vanderbilt University found out that women who devour 3 servings of fish in line within a week decreased their chance of growing colon polyps at around 33 percent.

  • Your fine selections might be baked or smoked salmon, tuna and sardines as they may be additionally rich in vitamin D and calcium.


  • Fruits are usually rich in antioxidants, fiber and species-particular phytochemicals which could assist in shielding you from digestive troubles.

  • Apples, blackberries, bananas, blueberries, oranges, pear and raspberries are a number of the first-rate resources of fiber.

Non-starchy vegetables

  • For common fitness, the rule of thumb of thumb is to fill -thirds of your plate with plant-primarily based food as they may be wealthy in fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. However, to decrease your chance of getting type 2 diabetes, any other factor that may result in colon most cancers, the American Diabetes Association shows that you emphasize non-starchy vegetables.

  • Try to consume at least three-five servings of non-starchy vegetables consistent with day, which includes lettuce, kale, cucumbers, artichokes, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, okra and spinach.

White Meat

  • Protein is essential for muscle improvement, tissue boom and extra. And since you need to limit your pork consumption, your more healthy options would be skinless chicken or turkey.. Eggs are a terrific alternative, too.

Whole grains

  • Whole grains are any other fiber-packed meals organization that you could flawlessly match with fish, eggs and chicken. Your healthiest alternatives might be brown rice, barley, oatmeal and quinoa.


  • Eating at least , one-ounce servings of nuts a week can help keep your blood sugar and insulin levels low, reducing your hazard of getting kind 2 diabetes. Since they're additionally full of healthful fatty acids, fiber and flavonoids, nuts also can help lower your probabilities of getting colon cancer.

  • Your satisfactory choices might be tree nuts which include almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, pecans, pistachios and macadamia nuts.

Beans and Legumes

  • Soybeans, lentils, peas, pinto beans, black beans and kidney beans are a terrific source of protein, fiber, nutrition B and diet E. Aside from the benefits and protection they offer to your colon, beans and legumes also can assist lessen ldl cholesterol and blood sugar ranges.

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