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Middle Ear : The structure of the middle ear in the human body


What is Middle Ear?

The middle ear is the cavity behind the eardrum that contains the hearing bones. The middle ear is connected to the throat by the eustachian tube, which helps to keep the pressure in the middle ear the same as the outside pressure. The air in the middle ear is kept at a constant pressure by the eustachian tube, which is a small passageway that leads from the back of the nose to the middle ear. The eustachian tube is normally closed, but it opens when you yawn or swallow, allowing air to enter the middle ear and equalize the pressure.

The middle ear is a small, air-filled cavity located behind the eardrum. It is separated from the outer ear by the eardrum and from the inner ear by a thin bone called the oval window. The middle ear contains three tiny bones — the hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), and stirrup (stapes) — that conduct sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear.

What is Middle Ear
Middle Ear

The parts of the Ear of:

  1. Ear

  2. Outer ear

  3. Earlobe

  4. Eardrum

  5. Middle ear

  6. Ossicles

  7. Inner ear

  8. Cochlea

  9. Vestibule of the ear

  10. Semicircular canals

The structure of the middle ear in the human body

The middle ear is located in the temporal bone and is separated from the outer ear by the tympanic membrane. The middle ear consists of an air-filled cavity that contains the three smallest bones in the human body: the malleus, incus, and stapes. These bones are connected to each other and form a chain that transmits sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. The middle ear also contains two muscles that attach to the malleus: the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle.

The center ear may be divided into two elements:

  • Tympanic cavity: positioned medially to the tympanic membrane. It incorporates three small bones referred to as the auditory ossicles: the malleus, incus and stapes. They transmit sound vibrations via the center ear.

  • Epitympanic recess : an area superior to the tympanic hollow space, which lies next to the mastoid air cells. The malleus and incus partially enlarge upwards into the epitympanic recess.


The center ear can be visualized as a rectangular field, with a roof and floor, medial and lateral walls and anterior and posterior partitions.

  • Roof – fashioned via a skinny bone from the petrous part of the temporal bone. It separates the center ear from the center cranial fossa.

  • Floor – called the jugular wall, it consists of a thin layer of bone, which separates the middle ear from the internal jugular vein

  • Lateral wall – made of the tympanic membrane and the lateral wall of the epitympanic recess.

  • Medial wall – fashioned by using the lateral wall of the internal ear. It consists of an outstanding bulge, produced by the facial nerve because it travels nearby.

  • Anterior wall – a skinny bony plate with  openings; for the auditory tube and the tensor tympani muscle. It separates the center ear from the inner carotid artery.

  • Posterior wall (mastoid wall) – it consists of a bony partition among the tympanic hollow space and the mastoid air cells.

  • Superiorly, there is a hollow on this partition, allowing the 2 areas to talk. This hollow is called the aditus to the mastoid antrum.

  1. The bones of the middle ear are the auditory ossicles – the malleus, incus and stapes. They are linked in a sequence-like way, linking the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the internal ear.

  2. Sound vibrations cause a motion inside the tympanic membrane which then creates movement, or oscillation, inside the auditory ossicles. This motion helps to transmit the sound waves from the tympanic membrane of the external ear to the oval window of the inner ear.

  3. The malleus is the most important and maximum lateral of the ear bones, attaching to the tympanic membrane, through the deal with the malleus. The head of the malleus lies in the epitympanic recess, in which it articulates with the following auditory ossicle, the incus.

  4. The subsequent bone – the incus – includes a frame and two limbs. The frame articulates with the malleus, the fast limb attaches to the posterior wall of the middle, and the long limb joins the last of the ossicles; the stapes.

  5. The stapes is the smallest bone inside the human body. It joins the incus to the oval window of the internal ear. It is stirrup-formed, with a head,  limbs, and a base. The head articulates with the incus, and the base joins the oval window.

What is the role of the middle ear in the human body?

  • The middle ear is responsible for converting sound waves in the air into vibrations that can be detected by the inner ear. These vibrations are then converted into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound. The middle ear is a small, air-filled cavity that is located behind the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin, membranous structure that separates the middle ear from the outer ear.

  • Ordinarily, when sound waves in air strike liquid, maximum of the strength is pondered off the floor of the liquid. The center ear lets in the impedance matching of sound journeying in air to acoustic waves journeying in a machine of fluids and membranes within the inner ear. This system needs to not be stressed, but, with the propagation of sound as compression waves in liquid.

  • The middle ear couples sound from air to the fluid through the oval window, using the principle of "mechanical advantage" within the form of the "hydraulic principle" and the "lever principle". The vibratory portion of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) is generally the floor area of the footplate of the stapes (the third ossicular bone which attaches to the oval window); moreover, the shape of the articulated ossicular chain is a complicated lever, the long arm being the long method of the malleus, the fulcrum being the body of the incus, and the short arm being the lenticular procedure of the incus. The accrued pressure of sound vibration that moves the tympanic membrane is consequently focused all the way down to this plenty smaller region of the footplate, increasing the force however reducing the velocity and displacement, and thereby coupling the acoustic energy

What affects the health of the middle ear in the human body?

  1. One of the most important functions of the human ear is to protect the inner ear from damage. The ear is made up of three main parts: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The outer ear is made up of the auricle, which is the fleshy, visible part of the ear, and the ear canal, which is the passageway that leads from the auricle to the eardrum. The middle ear is made up of the eardrum, the three tiny bones that transmit sound from the eardrum to the inner ear, and the Eustachian tube, which equalizes pressure in the middle ear.

  2. Ear infections are a common childhood illness, but can affect people of all ages. There are three main types of ear infections: outer ear infections (otitis externa), middle ear infections (otitis media), and inner ear infections (labyrinthitis or vestibular neuritis). All types of ear infections can cause pain, but middle ear infections are the most common cause of earache.

What affects the health of the ear in the human body?

  • There are a variety of things that can affect the health of the ear in the human body. Some of these things are exposure to loud noise, infection, and injury. The ear is a very delicate organ, and it is important to take care of it to prevent problems. There are a few things that you can do to keep your ears healthy and prevent problems.

  • Ear health refers to the well-being of the ear and the structures that are associated with hearing and balance. There are many things that can affect the health of the ear in the human body. These can include infection, trauma, congenital abnormalities, and other conditions. Treatment for these conditions can vary depending on the cause.

  1. Ear infections most commonly arise to your middle ear. Otitis media develops while bacteria and viruses turn out to be trapped in your middle ear. This form of infection is more likely to have an effect on children than adults. Ear contamination remedy usually involves antibiotics. In excessive cases, ear tubes can be necessary.

  2. Your eustachian tubes join your middle ears to your throat. When you yawn, sneeze or swallow, your eustachian tubes open to equalize the pressure inside of your ears. If those tubes emerge as clogged, it’s known as eustachian tube disorder. Symptoms include tinnitus, muffled listening to, sensation of fullness and possible ear ache.

  3. Swimmer’s ear is an ear canal infection resulting from microorganism or fungi. Getting water to your ear can motivate this circumstance. Swimmer’s ear also can occur in case you get hair spray or different irritants inner of your ear canal. Additionally, it’s not unusual for humans to injure their ear canal with cotton swabs. (Note: When ear cleansing, you need to by no means place cotton swabs inside of your ear canal.)

  4. If you get a hollow for your tympanic membrane, it’s known as a ruptured eardrum. (Your eardrum separates your outer ear from your middle ear.) Infection, trauma, loud sounds or overseas items to your ears can motivate a ruptured eardrum. In maximum cases, a ruptured eardrum will heal on its own in a few weeks. But once in a while, it calls for surgical restore, including tympanoplasty.

  5. Otosclerosis is while ordinary bone reworking occurs to your middle ear. Bone transforming is a regular lifelong process wherein current bone tissue replaces itself with new bone tissue. When this method doesn’t cross as anticipated, but, it can cause health problems. With otosclerosis, the tiny bones inside of your center ear (the malleus, incus and stapes) turn out to be hardened and forestall vibrating. As a result, the sound doesn’t travel properly. Surgery is typically necessary to treat otosclerosis.

  6. Perichondritis happens when the pores and skin of your outer ear turns infected. This circumstance is usually the end result of injury or trauma, inclusive of piercings, contact sports or ear surgical treatment. Antibiotics are important to deal with perichondritis. In uncommon cases, you could need surgical operation to empty any pus from the region.

  7. Vestibular neuritis takes place while the vestibular nerve on your inner ear turns inflamed. People with this circumstance experience an unexpected vertigo assault, which is frequently observed through nausea and vomiting. Your healthcare company will treat vestibular neuritis with a remedy and feasible bodily remedy.

  8. This persistent situation affects your internal ear. Common symptoms consist of dizziness, vertigo and a sense of fullness within the ear. Most of the time, Meniere’s sickness improves on its own through the years. However, in excessive cases, surgical treatment is probably essential.

  9. Cuts, fractures and blunt force trauma can reason ear harm. If harm is extreme, surgery may be vital to address the problem. This may additionally encompass surgical procedure to hold hearing or cosmetic surgical procedure to enhance the arrival of your ear.

  10. Ear tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Types of noncancerous ear tumors encompass keloids, sebaceous cysts, osteomas and exostoses (bone growths). Noncancerous ear tumors commonly require surgical removal.

  11. Cancers that may have an effect on your ears encompass cancer, basal mobile carcinoma and squamous cellular carcinoma. Treatment for these conditions relies upon numerous elements, along with the sort and degree of cancer, and whether or not it has to unfold to different parts of your frame.

Maintaining the health of the ear in the human body

Ear health is extremely important for human beings. The ear is responsible for hearing, balance, and maintaining health in other parts of the body. Therefore, it is essential to keep the ear clean and free of infection. Earwax is one of the most common causes of ear problems.

Maintaining the health of the ear is essential to the human body. The ear is responsible for hearing and balance. There are three main parts to the ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The outer ear is made up of the earlobe and the ear canal.

Here are a few hints to preserve your ears as wholesome as viable:

  • Keep your ears dry by means of carrying ear plugs when swimming.

  • Don’t use cotton swabs to smooth your ear canal.

  • Wear protective devices whilst gambling contact sports.

  • Turn the volume down whilst taking note of the song through headphones.

  • Wear ear plugs if you’re around loud noises.

  • Visit your healthcare company for routine ear examinations.

Middle Ear Transplantation 

Middle Ear Transplantation 

A middle ear implant is a small device that is inserted into the center ear and connected to the components of the ossicle or oval window with the intention to improve hearing. Unlike different hearing aids, a middle ear implant does not now require a speaker. Simply put, the center ear implants paintings by means of transmitting sounds to the internal ear through a small microphone worn in the back of the ear. These sounds are converted into vibrations which are sent to the implant inside the center ear.

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Middle Ear : The structure of the middle ear in the human body

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