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Nervous System : Nervous system structure


What is the Nervous System?

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

What is the Nervous System
Nervous System

The nervous system is responsible for the control of the body. It consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves. The nervous system is responsible for the control of the body. It consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves.

Nervous system

  1. Nervous system
  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

List of nerves of the human body

The human nervous system is an amazingly complex network of nerve cells (neurons) that carry messages back and forth between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord.  The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a part of the PNS that controls the body's involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.


  • Structure of the nervous system

  • Development of the nervous system

  • The spinal cord or medulla spinalis

  • The brain or encephalon

  • The hindbrain or rhombencephalon

  • The midbrain or mesencephalon

  • The forebrain or prosencephalon

  • Composition and central connections of the spinal nerves

  • Pathways from the brain to the spinal cord

  • The meninges of the brain and medulla spinalis

  • The cerebrospinal fluid

  • The cranial nerves

  • The olfactory nerves

  • The optic nerve

  • The oculomotor nerve

  • The trochlear nerve

  • The trigeminal nerve

  • The abducens nerve

  • The facial nerve

  • The vestibulocochlear nerve

  • The glossopharyngeal nerve

  • The vagus nerve

  • The accessory nerve

  • The hypoglossal nerve

  • The spinal nerves

  • The posterior divisions

  • The anterior divisions

  • The thoracic nerves

  • The lumbosacral plexus

  • The sacral and coccygeal nerves

  • The sympathetic nerves

  • The cephalic portion of the sympathetic system

  • The cervical portion of the sympathetic system

  • The thoracic portion of the sympathetic system

  • The abdominal portion of the sympathetic system

  • The pelvic portion of the sympathetic system

  • The great plexuses of the sympathetic system

Nervous system structure

The human nervous system comprises the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord. The PNS consists of all of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord. Together, the CNS and PNS control all voluntary and involuntary actions of the body.

The anxious device has two fundamental parts. Each element includes billions of cells called neurons, or nerve cells. These unique cells send and get hold of electric indicators through your frame to tell it what to do.

The fundamental components of the anxious gadget are:


  • Central nervous system (CNS): Your mind and spinal twine make up your CNS. Your brain uses your nerves to send messages to the relaxation of your body. Each nerve has a protective outer layer known as myelin. Myelin insulates the nerve and facilitates the messages getting through.

  • Peripheral fearful system: Your peripheral anxious machine consists of many nerves that department out from your CNS all over your frame. This machine relays facts from your brain and spinal wire for your organs, arms, legs, palms and feet. Your peripheral worried machine includes your:

  • Somatic frightened gadget, which courses your voluntary actions.

  • Autonomic anxious gadget, which controls the sports you do without considering them.

What is the role of the nervous system?

The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. All the information processing in the nervous system occurs in the brain, which is the control center for the nervous system. It processes all the incoming sensory information from the body and from the environment and is responsible for our thoughts, emotions and movement. The brain is the most complex organ in the human body, and is made up of billions of nerve cells (neurons) and supportive cells (neuroglia).

  • Your fearful device makes use of specialized cells known as neurons to ship alerts, or messages, throughout your body. These electric signals tour between your mind, pores and skin, organs, glands and muscular tissues.

  • The messages help you circulate your limbs and experience sensations, consisting of ache. Your eyes, ears, tongue, nose and the nerves all over your frame soak up facts approximately your environment. Then nerves bring that statistics to and from your mind.

  • Different sorts of neurons send one of a kind indicators. Motor neurons tell your muscular tissues to transport. Sensory neurons take information out of your senses and ship signals on your brain. Other kinds of neurons manipulate the things your frame does automatically, like breathing, shivering, having an everyday heartbeat and digesting meals.

What affects the health of the nervous system?

  • The nervous system is a complex network of cells that communicate with one another to coordinate the body’s response to internal and external stimuli. The health of the nervous system is affected by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, lifestyle choices, and exposure to toxins.
  • The nervous system is a very important part of the human body. It is responsible for many things, including the ability to feel pain, to think, and to move. The nervous system can be damaged by many things, including injury, disease, and toxins. This can lead to a number of problems, including pain, paralysis, and even death.
  • The nervous system requires the correct amounts of vitamins and minerals to function properly. A deficiency in any one of these essential nutrients can result in serious health problems.

Nerve damage can occur in several approaches. Some of the maximum not unusual causes of nerve harm consist of:


  • Disease: Many infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases like diabetes, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can motivate apprehensive machine issues. Diabetes can result in diabetes-related neuropathy, causing tingling and ache inside the legs and feet. A condition called more than one sclerosis assaults the myelin around nerves in the CNS.

  • Stroke: A stroke happens while one of the brain’s blood vessels becomes blocked or all at once bursts. Without enough blood, a part of the brain dies. Then it is able to send messages through nerves. A stroke can cause nerve harm starting from slight to excessive.

  • Accidental harm: Nerves can be overwhelmed, stretched, or reduced in an accident. Car crashes and falls are common injuries which could damage nerves anywhere for your frame.

  • Pressure: If a nerve is pinched or compressed, it may not get sufficient blood to do its job. Nerves may be pinched or trapped for lots of reasons, together with overuse (as in carpal tunnel syndrome), a tumor, or structural troubles like sciatica.

  • Toxic substances: Chemotherapy drugs, unlawful drugs, immoderate alcohol and toxic materials can cause peripheral neuropathy or nerve harm. People with kidney sickness are much more likely to expand nerve damage because their kidneys have a tough time filtering out pollutants.

  • Aging manner: As you grow old, your neurons’ indicators might not journey as fast as they used to. You may feel weaker, and your reflexes may slow down. Some people lose sensation in their hands, feet or different elements of their frame.

Some causes of nerve harm occur more frequently than others. They include:

  • Diabetes: This disorder of the endocrine device causes nerve harm called diabetes-associated neuropathy. Around 30 million Americans have diabetes and almost 50% of them have a few nerve damage. Neuropathy of diabetes typically impacts the hands, legs, arms, feet, arms and toes.

  • Lupus: About 1.Five million Americans live with lupus, and 15% of them have experienced nerve harm.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis: People with rheumatoid arthritis also can expand neuropathy. Rheumatoid arthritis influences more than 1.3 million human beings in the U.S. It’s one of the most common types of arthritis.

  • Stroke: Around 800,000 Americans have a stroke each 12 months. Strokes occur greater often in humans over age 65.

Maintaining a healthy nervous system

  • The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, feeling, and action is generated by the nervous system. Maintaining a healthy nervous system is essential for optimal health and functioning. This paper will explore the role of the nervous system in maintaining health and homeostasis.
  • Though vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients, they each play different roles in your body. One of the jobs of vitamin B-12 is to keep your nervous system functioning properly. A lack of B-12 can cause neurological problems, such as memory loss and problems with balancing and walking. Vitamin B-12 is found naturally in animal foods, such as meat, poultry, shellfish, eggs and milk.

Call your doctor properly away when you have any surprising adjustments in your fitness, such as losing coordination or noticing excessive muscle weak spots. You must also see your medical doctor when you have:

  • Vision troubles or headaches.

  • Slurred speech.

  • Numbness, tingling, or lack of sensation for your fingers or legs.

  • Tremors or tics (random muscle movements).

  • Changes in behavior or reminiscence.

  • Problems with coordination or transferring your muscle groups.

Outline of the human nervous system

  • The human nervous system is an incredibly complex network of cells that communicate with one another to control everything from basic body functions to complex thought processes. The nervous system is composed of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, while the PNS consists of all the nerves that branch off from the CNS. The nervous system is responsible for transmitting signals between the different parts of the body, and it does this by sending electrical impulses called nerve impulses.

  • Human fearful device – the part of the human frame that coordinates a person's voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits indicators between exceptional elements of the frame. The human worried system includes  main components: the significant nervous gadget (CNS) and the peripheral nervous gadget (PNS). The CNS incorporates the mind and spinal twine. The PNS is composed specifically of nerves, that are long fibers that connect the CNS to each other part of the body. The PNS consists of motor neurons, mediating voluntary movement; the autonomic apprehensive device, comprising the sympathetic apprehensive machine and the parasympathetic worried gadget and regulating involuntary capabilities; and the enteric worried system, a semi-impartial a part of the worried system whose characteristic is to manipulate the gastrointestinal machine.

Central nervous system

The central nervous system is responsible for the control and coordination of the body. It consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves. The brain is the control center for the central nervous system. It receives input from the senses and sends output to the muscles.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the control center of the body. It consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the command center of the CNS. It is made up of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.

Sensory system

The sensory apprehensive system is a part of the fearful device liable for processing sensory statistics. A sensory gadget includes sensory neurons (together with the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the mind involved in sensory perception. Commonly identified sensory systems are those for imaginative and prescient, listening to, touch, taste, smell, and balance. Senses are transducers from the bodily international to the realm of the thoughts wherein human beings interpret the facts, growing their belief of the world around them.

The receptive subject is the vicinity of the frame or environment to which a receptor organ and receptor cells respond. For example, the part of the sector a watch can see is its receptive area; the light that each rod or cone can see is its receptive field. Receptive fields have been diagnosed for the visible device, auditory machine and somatosensory machine.

  • Sensory neuron

  • Perception

  • Visual system

  • Auditory system

  • Somatosensory system

  • Vestibular system

  • Olfactory system

  • Taste

  • Pain

Components of the nervous system

  • Neuron

  • Interneuron

  • Ganglion (PNS) vs Nucleus (neuroanatomy) (CNS) except basal ganglia (CNS)

  • Nerve(PNS) vs Tract (neuroanatomy) (CNS)

  • White matter (more myelinated) vs Grey matter

Glial cells

  • Microglia

  • Astrocyte

  • Oligodendrocyte (CNS) vs Schwann cell (PNS)


A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrochemical signaling. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Basic types of neurons include sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. Sensory neurons send signals from the body's periphery to the central nervous system.

  • Soma

  • Axon

  • Myelin

  • Dendrite

  • Dendritic spine

Biological neural network

A neural network is a system of simple elements called neurons, which receive input, change their internal state (activation) according to that input, and produce output depending on the input and activation.
A biological neural network is a network of interconnected neurons that process information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks, allowing information to be passed between neurons. Biological neural networks have been found in a variety of species, including mollusks, insects, fish, and mammals.
  • Central pattern generator

  • Reflex arc

  • Neural oscillations

  • Neural network

Biological neural networks have been studied extensively and the brain has proven to be the inspiration for many artificial neural networks. Brain-inspired artificial neural networks have the ability to learn and generalize like the brain, making them powerful learning machines. Neural networks are composed of a large number of interconnected processing nodes, or neurons, that can communicate with each other via synapses. Neural networks are very good at learning from data and have been used for a variety of tasks, including pattern recognition, classification, prediction, and control.

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Nervous System : Nervous system structure

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