Rectum : Detailed Explanation

  What Is Rectum?

Rectum is a Latin word meaning the “lower end” of the anal canal. It is the first part of the digestive system. The rectum starts at the top of the fundament, or lower abdomen, and descends to the anus.

Rectum is a large muscular organ located at the end of your digestive system. It’s responsible for moving food from your stomach and small intestine through your anus and into your rectum.

Rectum, terminal section of the digestive system in which feces accumulate just prior to discharge. The rectum is continuous with the sigmoid colon and extends 13 to 15 cm (5 to 6 inches) to the anus. A muscular sheet known as the pelvic diaphragm runs perpendicular to the juncture of the rectum and anal canal and maintains a constriction among those two segments of the large gut. The internal hollow space of the rectum is split into three or 4 chambers; every chamber is in part segmented from the others with the aid of permanent transverse folds (valves of Houston) that help to assist the rectal contents. A sheath of longitudinal muscle surrounds the outside wall of the rectum, making it viable for the rectum to shorten in duration.

Food wastes continue to be in the sigmoid colon till they're equipped to be excreted from the body. As the fecal fabric enters the rectum, the partitions distend to deal with the fabric. When enough stress builds up in the distended rectal cavity, the urge to eliminate wastes happens. When receptors of the fearful device inside the rectal wall are inspired by way of its stretching, they send impulses to the anal canal, chest and abdominal-wall muscular tissues, and the medulla oblongata of the mind, which makes the person conscious of the want to defecate. See additional defecation.

Structure of the rectum

  • The rectum is a muscular tube that forms the last section of the large intestine, which connects the colon to the anus. The rectum is about 12 centimeters long and is separated from the sigmoid colon by the rectosigmoid junction, which is where the rectum bends. The rectum is held in place by ligaments and muscles that attach it to the pelvic floor. The rectum has three main functions: storing feces, preparing feces for elimination, and acting as a passageway for feces to be eliminated from the body.

  • The rectum is a part of the decreased gastrointestinal tract. The rectum is a continuation of the sigmoid colon, and connects to the anus. The rectum follows the form of the sacrum and results in an accelerated phase known as an ampulla wherein feces is stored earlier than its release thru the anal canal. An ampulla (from Latin bottle) is a hollow space, or the dilated give up of a duct, formed like a Roman ampulla.The rectum joins with the sigmoid colon at the level of S3, and joins with the anal canal because it passes via the pelvic floor muscle tissues.

  • Unlike other portions of the colon, the rectum does now not have awesome taeniae coli.The taeniae mixture with each other within the sigmoid colon five centimeters above the rectum, turning into a singular longitudinal muscle that surrounds the rectum on all aspects for its whole duration.

Rectum function

The rectum is the final segment of the large intestine, located just above the anal canal. Its primary function is to store feces until they can be expelled from the body through the anus during the process of defecation. Here are the key functions of the rectum:

  • Fecal Storage: The rectum acts as a temporary storage area for fecal matter that has passed through the colon. As the colon absorbs water and electrolytes from the digested material, the remaining waste becomes more solid and is collected in the rectum.

  • Stretch and Sensory Receptors: The rectal walls are lined with stretch receptors and sensory nerves that help to detect the presence of fecal material. As the rectum fills with feces, these receptors send signals to the brain, indicating the need for defecation.

  • Coordination of Defecation: The rectum plays a crucial role in coordinating the process of defecation. When the rectal walls are stretched due to the accumulation of feces, nerve signals are sent to the brain to initiate the urge to defecate. In response, the internal anal sphincter (a muscular ring at the junction of the rectum and anal canal) relaxes, allowing the feces to enter the anal canal.

  • Voluntary Control: The external anal sphincter, another muscular ring surrounding the anus, is under voluntary control. When it's appropriate to defecate, the external anal sphincter can be consciously relaxed to allow the expulsion of feces. However, incontinence (the loss of voluntary control) can occur if the external sphincter's function is compromised.

  • Mucus Secretion: The rectal lining secretes mucus, which provides lubrication and helps facilitate the passage of feces through the rectum and anal canal.

It's important to maintain a healthy diet, stay hydrated, and establish regular bowel habits to ensure the proper functioning of the rectum and the overall digestive system. If you have concerns about your digestive health, it's recommended to consult a medical professional for advice and guidance.

Rectum Problems

The rectum is a part of the human body that is often neglected. It is not as popular as other body parts such as the stomach or the vagina, but it definitely has an impact on the human body. The rectum affects the human body in a number of ways, some of which are listed below. The first way the rectum affects the human body is by affecting digestion.


Hemorrhoids are swollen veins that bulge inside the rectum and anus. They do not continually reason signs, but when they do, people may additionally experience:

  • bleeding during defecation

  • protrusion of skin throughout bowel actions

  • discomfort, inflammation, or itching inside the anal vicinity

  • ache inside the anal area

  • touchy lumps


Different kinds of contamination can have an effect on the rectum and often result in uncomfortable signs and symptoms, including itching, ache, and proctitis.

For example, someone may additionally gather a sexually transmitted infection (STI) after conducting anal intercourse. This can encompass:

Sometimes, using antibiotics can cause bacterial contamination of the rectum. This is because antibiotics can kill the useful bacteria that keep harmful types, such as Clostridium difficileTrusted Source, away. The dangerous bacteria can then overgrow and infect the rectum.

Parasites can enter the body and cause damage, particularly whilst there may be bad sanitation. The two mainTrusted Source causes of parasitic infection within the intestine are protozoaTrusted Source, which might be single-celled organisms, and helminthsTrusted Source, which might be worms. Parasites can motivate a rangeTrusted Source of situations that have an effect on unique additives of the intestine, which includes the rectum.

Anal abscess

An anal abscess is a group of pus inside the tissue surrounding the anus or rectum. One normally happens following contamination or blockage. A perirectal abscess takes place within the rectal place, and evidence suggests it may affect around 68,000–96,000Trusted Source human beings in the United States every 12 months. Treatment typically includes a doctor cutting and draining the pus-stuffed hollow space.


Rectal prolapse is a conditionTrusted Source where part or all the rectal wall falls via the anal sphincter, that is the seal that includes the rectal contents. This condition is typically due to a weakening of the muscle groups that support the rectum.

There are three styles of rectal prolapse:

External: Also known as complete-thickness or entire prolapse, the whole wall of the rectum protrudes out of the anus.

Mucosal: Only the mucosa, or lining of the anus, sticks out via the anus.

Internal: Also referred to as an incomplete prolapse, the rectum folds in on itself however does now not protrude out via the anus.


As the rectum stores feces, it performs an critical roleTrusted Source in controlling defecation in addition to retaining continence. So if a person studies muscle damage, nerve damage, prolapse, or scarring of the rectum, it may suggest the rectum is unable to characteristic effectively, that may causeTrusted Source stool to leak via the anus.

  1. Urinary incontinence 

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer is a circumstance where most cancer cells form within the tissues of the rectum. There are not continually signs and symptoms, but rectal cancer can causeTrusted Source:

  • ache

  • adjustments in bowel conduct

  • shiny purple blood in stool

  • leaks of diarrhea

  • Constipation

How is it diagnosed in the Rectum?

Diagnosed in the rectum" is a vague statement and could refer to various medical conditions. The rectum is the last portion of the large intestine, and issues in this area can include both benign and serious conditions. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with a rectal condition, it's essential to consult with a medical professional for accurate information and guidance tailored to the specific situation.

Some potential rectal conditions include:

  • Hemorrhoids: Swollen blood vessels in the rectal area that can cause discomfort, itching, and bleeding.

  • Anal Fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anal canal, often caused by straining during bowel movements.

  • Rectal Prolapse: The rectal tissue protrudes from the anus, sometimes needing surgical intervention.

  • Rectal Polyps: Abnormal growths on the lining of the rectum, which can be benign or potentially precancerous.

  • Rectal Cancer: Malignant growth in the rectal tissue. Treatment options depend on the stage of the cancer.

  • Proctitis: Inflammation of the rectal lining, which can be caused by infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, or radiation therapy.

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Conditions like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can affect the rectum, causing inflammation and other symptoms.

  • Anal Abscesses and Fistulas: These are infected pockets of pus near the anus that can lead to tunnels (fistulas) between the anal canal and the skin.

Please remember that getting an accurate diagnosis and appropriate medical advice is crucial in any medical situation. If you or someone you know is experiencing rectal symptoms, it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance.

For the health of the rectum

  • The rectum serves an important purpose in the human body. It is a passageway for feces to travel from the digestive system to the anus. The rectum is also responsible for storing feces until they are ready to be eliminated from the body. When the rectum is healthy, it is able to do its job properly.

To assist keep rectal fitness and prevent rectal conditions, humans can try and exercise desirable anal hygiene. This can encompass everyday bowel movements and practicing safer intercourse. Additionally, life-style changes can help enhance rectal fitness and reduce the chance of rectal cancer. These can includeTrusted Source:

  • retaining a nutritious, balanced food regimen

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