Sigmoid Colon : Detailed Explanation


 What Is Sigmoid Colon?

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It gets its name from its shape – the Greek letter sigma (σ) resembles a question mark, and this is how the sigmoid colon looks when viewed from the front. The sigmoid colon is about two feet long. It connects the descending colon to the rectum.

The sigmoid colon is the last portion of the large intestine. It begins at the junction of the descending colon and extends to the rectum, where it joins with the anal canal. The sigmoid colon has a variable relationship to the pelvic floor. Occasionally, it can herniate, or protrude, through the pelvic floor into the pelvis.

Sigmoid colon, a terminal section of the large intestine that connects the descending colon to the rectum; its characteristic is to keep fecal wastes until they're geared up to go away the body. The sigmoid colon derives its call from the reality that its miles are curved in the form of an S (Greek sigma: σ). Its length relies upon the quantity of waste material in it, but while reduced in size its diameter is handiest approximately one inch (2.Five centimeters).

The internal surface of the sigmoid colon is much like that of the rest of the huge intestine. The smooth mucous membrane lining secretes mucus and enzymes, and the lining’s floor cells can take in fluids. Most of these activities arise, however, better up in the intestinal tract. The deeper muscle layer of the sigmoid colon is composed of round muscle mass and a sheath of longitudinal muscle mass. Both assist move waste fabric within the colon, but the longitudinal muscle tissues are mainly accountable for evacuating wastes from this section. A circular muscle shape (sphincter) on the junction among the sigmoid colon and the rectum keeps cloth in the colon until it is ready to be handed. Strong longitudinal muscle contractions then expel waste material thru the sphincter and into the rectum. Fecal material can be stored in the sigmoid colon for seven hours or extra and is typically expelled when new waste material calls for access into this location.

Structure of the sigmoid colon

The sigmoid colon begins at the advanced aperture of the lesser pelvis, wherein it is non-stop with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right facet of the pelvis.


It then curves on itself and turns in the direction of the left to attain the center line at the level of the third piece of the sacrum, where it bends downward and ends within the rectum.


Its feature is to expel stable and gaseous waste from the gastrointestinal tract. The curving direction it takes closer to the anus permits it to store gasoline in the advanced arched portion, permitting the colon to expel fuel without excreting feces simultaneously.

Sigmoid Colon function

  • The colon (large intestine) is the last part of the digestive system. It absorbs water, salt and some vitamins produced by the gut bacteria. The colon's main function is to store and eliminate stool. The colon's other functions are to: absorb water and some vitamins produced by the gut bacteria, lubricate and soften the stool as it passes through the colon, and provide a temporary storage space for stool.

  • The fundamental feature of the sigmoid colon is to transport fecal matter from the descending colon to the rectum and anus. This function is done with peristaltic waves that move the content material of the sigmoid colon. Feces shape inside the descending and sigmoid colon and gather in the rectum before defecation. In addition, some other feature of the sigmoid colon is to take in water, nutrients and different nutrients from the feces, earlier than they're moved to the rectum.

Diseases that can affect the large intestine

There are many diseases that can affect the large intestine. One of the most common is Crohn’s disease.

Diseases that can affect the large intestine can be very serious and can lead to a lot of complications.

Diseases that can affect the large intestine can affect many different systems in the body, including the gastrointestinal system. These diseases can lead to a variety of symptoms, and can be difficult to diagnose.

Functional problems, structural disorders, infections and irritations can have an effect on the massive gut, along with the colon, rectum and anus. Some of those conditions include:

  • Diverticulitis.

  • Ulcerative colitis.

  • Microscopic colitis.

  • Pseudomembranous colitis.

  • Proctitis.

  • Appendicitis.

  • Necrotizing enterocolitis.

  • Malrotation.

  • Crohn’s disease.

  • Rectal ulcers.

  • Hemorrhoids.

  • Colorectal polyps.

  • Colorectal most cancers.

  • Hirschsprung ailment.

  • Large bowel obstruction.

  • Intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  • Intestinal ischemic syndrome.

  • Rectal bleeding.

  • Rectal prolapse.

  • Rectocele.

  • Pelvic ground dysfunction.

  • Anal fistula.

  • Anal fissures.

  • Gas and gasoline ache.

  • Constipation.

  • Fecal incontinence.

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  • Obstructed defecation.

  • Anismus.

  • Paralytic ileus.

How is it diagnosed in the Large Intestine?

There are several conditions that can affect the large intestine (also known as the colon), such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer, diverticulitis, and more. The diagnostic process can vary depending on the specific condition.

For example, if you're referring to inflammatory bowel disease (which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), diagnosis often involves a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies (such as CT scans or MRIs), endoscopic procedures (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), and biopsy of the affected tissue. Doctors use these methods to assess the extent and severity of inflammation in the large intestine.

On the other hand, for colorectal cancer, diagnosis may involve a combination of screenings, such as fecal occult blood tests, colonoscopies, and imaging scans. Biopsies of suspicious tissue are typically taken during a colonoscopy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

If you can provide more specific information about the condition you're asking about, I'd be happy to provide more detailed information about its diagnosis in the large intestine.

Maintaining the health of the large intestine

The large intestine is a very important part of the body. It helps to keep us healthy by absorbing food and water. If the large intestine is not functioning properly, it can lead to many problems. Problems with the large intestine can include: constipation, diarrhea, and colon cancer.

These preferred fitness guidelines will help you keep a healthy gut:


  • Eat extra fiber. Fiber triggers the muscle contractions that move meals via your colon and allows clean out residue there that might gradually matter. The satisfactory manner to get its miles by ingesting plants.

  • Eat better fat. Saturated fats, together with the ones discovered in beef, are related to higher quotes of colon diseases. On the other hand, healthy fat — the Omega-3s found specifically in oily fish — promote pleasant bacteria inside the intestine.

  • Drink extra water. The intestine uses a variety of water — for cleansing, for lubrication and absorption of vitamins — and most of us don’t drink enough of it.

  • Get your colonoscopy. Colon cancer is both not unusual and preventable. Anyone with a colon can get it, and by the time you have got signs and symptoms, it might be too late to deal with it. Regular screening is a nice way to prevent it and treat it in time.

Healthy foods

The purpose of this document is to provide readers with a basic understanding of what healthy foods for the large intestine can do for them. By aiding in the proper absorption of nutrients, these foods can help improve overall health.

The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the different types of healthy foods that can be eaten for the large intestine. There are many different types of foods that can be eaten, and the reader is encouraged to experiment and find what works best for them.


  • Fresh fish excessive in omega-three fatty acids can help lessen infection in the frame. In truth, a research group from Vanderbilt University found out that women who devour 3 servings of fish in line within a week decreased their chance of growing colon polyps at around 33 percent.

  • Your fine selections might be baked or smoked salmon, tuna and sardines as they may be additionally rich in vitamin D and calcium.


  • Fruits are usually rich in antioxidants, fiber and species-particular phytochemicals which could assist in shielding you from digestive troubles.

  • Apples, blackberries, bananas, blueberries, oranges, pear and raspberries are a number of the first-rate resources of fiber.

Non-starchy vegetables

  • For common fitness, the rule of thumb of thumb is to fill -thirds of your plate with plant-primarily based food as they may be wealthy in fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. However, to decrease your chance of getting type 2 diabetes, any other factor that may result in colon most cancers, the American Diabetes Association shows that you emphasize non-starchy vegetables.

  • Try to consume at least three-five servings of non-starchy vegetables consistent with day, which includes lettuce, kale, cucumbers, artichokes, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, okra and spinach.

White Meat

  • Protein is essential for muscle improvement, tissue boom and extra. And since you need to limit your pork consumption, your more healthy options would be skinless chicken or turkey.. Eggs are a terrific alternative, too.

Whole grains

  • Whole grains are any other fiber-packed meals organization that you could flawlessly match with fish, eggs and chicken. Your healthiest alternatives might be brown rice, barley, oatmeal and quinoa.


  • Eating at least , one-ounce servings of nuts a week can help keep your blood sugar and insulin levels low, reducing your hazard of getting kind 2 diabetes. Since they're additionally full of healthful fatty acids, fiber and flavonoids, nuts also can help lower your probabilities of getting colon cancer.

  • Your satisfactory choices might be tree nuts which include almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, pecans, pistachios and macadamia nuts.

Beans and Legumes

  • Soybeans, lentils, peas, pinto beans, black beans and kidney beans are a terrific source of protein, fiber, nutrition B and diet E. Aside from the benefits and protection they offer to your colon, beans and legumes also can assist lessen ldl cholesterol and blood sugar ranges.

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