Submandibular Gland : Detailed Explanation

 What Is a Submandibular Gland?

Submandibular gland is one of the biggest and most important salivary glands in the human body. They are also known as submaxillary glands. Anatomically, they are located in a submandibular triangle of face, underneath the body of the mandible. Submandibular glands secrete saliva into the oral cavity via Wharton’s duct.

The submandibular gland is a salivary gland located under the floor of the mouth, just below and in front of the mandible. It produces about 70% of the saliva (by weight) in the mouth and is the largest of the three salivary glands. The others are the parotid gland and the sublingual gland. Each of these glands has an excretory duct which opens into the mouth.

Structure of the submandibular gland

  • The submandibular gland is a salivary gland located in the floor of the mouth beneath the tongue. It is a compound tubuloacinar gland and is divided into two parts, the superficial and deep lobes, by the mylohyoid muscle. The deep lobe is posterior to the mylohyoid muscle and the superficial lobe is anterior. Each part of the gland has a series of ducts which empty saliva into the floor of the mouth.

  • The submandibular gland is a mixed seromucous salivary gland. It is one of the largest of the salivary glands and is triangular in shape. The submandibular gland is located just below and in front of the angle of the mandible. The two lobes of the submandibular gland are separated by the mylohyoid muscle.

Submandibular Gland function

The submandibular gland is a major salivary gland located beneath the mandible (lower jaw) on either side of the mouth. Its primary function is to produce and secrete saliva, which plays several important roles in the digestive and oral health processes. Here are the key functions of the submandibular gland:

  • Saliva Production: The main function of the submandibular gland is to produce saliva. Saliva is a watery fluid that contains various enzymes, electrolytes, mucus, and antibacterial agents. Saliva is crucial for the initial stages of digestion and for maintaining oral health.

  • Digestive Enzymes: Saliva secreted by the submandibular gland contains enzymes like amylase, which starts breaking down complex carbohydrates in the food you eat into simpler sugars. This process begins the digestion of starches even before food enters the stomach.

  • Lubrication and Moistening: Saliva helps moisten and lubricate food, making it easier to swallow and facilitating its movement through the digestive tract. It also helps in forming a slippery bolus (mass of chewed food) that can be easily swallowed.

  • Taste Perception: Saliva plays a role in dissolving food particles and facilitating their interaction with taste receptors on the tongue, which helps in the perception of flavors.

  • Oral Health: Saliva contains antibacterial components that help maintain oral hygiene by reducing the growth of harmful bacteria in the mouth. It also helps in neutralizing acids produced by bacteria, which can contribute to tooth decay and cavities.

  • pH Regulation: Saliva helps regulate the pH balance in the mouth, preventing excessive acidity that could harm tooth enamel and oral tissues.

  • Wound Healing: Saliva contains growth factors that can aid in the healing of minor oral wounds, such as small cuts or abrasions.

The submandibular gland is just one of the salivary glands in the body, and each contributes to the overall production of saliva. Together, these glands play a vital role in maintaining the health of the digestive system and oral cavity.

Maintaining the submandibular gland

The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the submandibular gland and to discuss the different diseases that can affect it. The submandibular gland is located just below the lower lip and is responsible for producing saliva. Saliva is essential for cleaning the teeth and mouth and also helps to maintain a healthy oral microbiome. Dysfunction of the submandibular gland can cause a number of diseases, including xerostomia, a decrease in saliva production, and chemotherapy-induced salivary duct stenosis.

The submandibular gland is responsible for producing saliva, and its function is essential in the maintenance of oral health. The gland is located under the tongue, in front of the palatine bone. It is made up of several lobes, each of which has its own function. The lobes that produce saliva are the upper and lower lobes.

You won't be able to save your sialadenitis absolutely. But there are some things you could do to lessen your risk:

  • Drink masses of water.

  • Practice proper oral hygiene.

  • Eat a weight loss plan that’s healthy for you.

  • Avoid smoking and the usage of other tobacco merchandise.

Key facts about the submandibular gland

Parts :

  • Two parts: superficial and deep

  • One duct: submandibular duct (Wharton’s duct)


  • Seromucous gland


  • Submandibular ganglion – parasympathetic secretomotor supply

  • Superior cervical ganglion – vasomotor supply

Blood supply:

  • External carotid artery via facial and lingual arteries


  • Production and secretion of saliva

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