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Thalamus : structure of the thalamus in the brai


 What is Thalamus?

Thalamus is responsible for the relay and processing of all information going to the cortex. It is a small egg-shaped structure located deep within the brain. The thalamus acts as a way station for all incoming sensory information, except olfactory information. This structure is important for the consciousness and regulates the sleep-wake cycle.

What is Thalamus

Thalamus is a deep brain structure that serves as a relaying station for all incoming and outgoing information to the cerebral cortex. It is a complex structure that receives and processes a multitude of sensory modalities from the body, as well as signals originating from the cortex. The thalamus has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. In this review, we will focus on the role of the thalamus in Alzheimer’s disease.

Nervous system

  1. Nervous system
  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

List of nerves of the human body

The human nervous system is an amazingly complex network of nerve cells (neurons) that carry messages back and forth between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord.  The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a part of the PNS that controls the body's involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.


  • Structure of the nervous system

  • Development of the nervous system

  • The spinal cord or medulla spinalis

  • The brain or encephalon

  • The hindbrain or rhombencephalon

  • The midbrain or mesencephalon

  • The forebrain or prosencephalon

  • Composition and central connections of the spinal nerves

  • Pathways from the brain to the spinal cord

  • The meninges of the brain and medulla spinalis

  • The cerebrospinal fluid

  • The cranial nerves

  • The olfactory nerves

  • The optic nerve

  • The oculomotor nerve

  • The trochlear nerve

  • The trigeminal nerve

  • The abducens nerve

  • The facial nerve

  • The vestibulocochlear nerve

  • The glossopharyngeal nerve

  • The vagus nerve

  • The accessory nerve

  • The hypoglossal nerve

  • The spinal nerves

  • The posterior divisions

  • The anterior divisions

  • The thoracic nerves

  • The lumbosacral plexus

  • The sacral and coccygeal nerves

  • The sympathetic nerves

  • The cephalic portion of the sympathetic system

  • The cervical portion of the sympathetic system

  • The thoracic portion of the sympathetic system

  • The abdominal portion of the sympathetic system

  • The pelvic portion of the sympathetic system

  • The great plexuses of the sympathetic system

The structure of the thalamus in the brain

The thalamus is a structure of the brain that serves as a relay station for information coming in from the body's sensory organs. It is located in the middle of the brain, just above the brainstem. The thalamus is made up of two round, egg-shaped structures called nuclei. Each nucleus is divided into two parts, the medial and lateral geniculate bodies.

 What is the role of thalamus in the brain?

  • Thalamos are a part of the subcortex and are important in relaying motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex. They also play a role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle.
  • Thalamos are important in the brain for a variety of reasons. They help to regulate consciousness, sleep, and attention. They also play a role in motor control and some cognitive functions. Thalamos are made up of many different types of cells, including neurons and glial cells.

Nucleus Suspected function/role Communicates with what section of your cerebral cortex

  • Anterior nucleus Memory, emotions, behavior regulation Connected to the hypothalamus; projects to the cingulate gyrus

  • Dorsomedial nucleus Emotional behavior and memory; attention, organization, planning and higher cognitive thinking Projects to the prefrontal cortex and limbic system

  • Ventral posterolateral nucleus Relay sensory information (pain, temperature and touch) Projects to the somatosensory cortex

  • Ventral posteromedial nucleus Relay sensory information from the face Projects to the somatosensory cortex

  • Ventral anterior nucleus Relay motor information about movement/tremor Project to the substantia nigra, premotor cortex, reticular formulation and corpus striatum

  • Ventrolateral nucleus Relay motor information Project to the substantia nigra, premotor cortex, reticular formulation and corpus striatum

  • Lateral posterior nucleus Cognitive, determine prominent visual stimuli Projects to the visual cortex

  • Pulvinar nucleus Process visual information Projects to the visual cortex

  • Medial geniculate nucleus Process auditory information Primary auditory cortex

  • Lateral geniculate nucleus Process visual information Visual cortex

  • Reticular nucleus Makes up the outer covering of the thalamus; influences the activity of other nuclei within the thalamus Doesn’t project to the cerebral cortex

Symptoms of hypothalamus damage

Brain damage can be extremely debilitating, affecting every aspect of a person's life. The hypothalamus is a small, but vital, region of the brain that controls many important functions, such as body temperature, hunger, and thirst. When the hypothalamus is damaged, it can cause a variety of serious problems. Symptoms of hypothalamus damage include: changes in body temperature, weight gain or loss, increased thirst and hunger, and problems with sexual function.

Symptoms of damage in your thalamus consist of:

  • Memory loss (amnesia).

  • Lack of hobby or enthusiasm (apathy).

  • Loss of capacity to recognize language or speak (aphasia).

  • Trouble with attention, lack of alertness.

  • Trouble processing sensory facts.

  • Impaired motion.

  • Sleepiness.

  • Chronic ache.

  • Unconsciousness and even coma.

  • Sleep problems, inclusive of insomnia and fatal familial insomnia (inability to sleep, leading to dying).

  • Thalamic aphasia (jumbled phrases, meaningless speech).

  • Movement problems, inclusive of tremors.

  • Pain syndromes.

  • Vision problems, together with vision loss or light sensitivity.

  • Thalamic pain syndrome (tingling or burning pain).

  • Stroke on your thalamus.

  • Tumors to your thalamus.

What affects the health of the hypothalamus?

The hypothalamus is responsible for the maintenance of many important body functions. The health of the hypothalamus can be affected by many different factors. These include: stress, infection, trauma, and inflammation. The hypothalamus is also susceptible to tumors and other growths.

Certain situations which might be stricken by or damage your thalamus encompass:

  • Fatal familial insomnia. Fatal familial insomnia is a hereditary prion (a type of protein) disorder that attacks a selected chromosome. People who're affected develop worsening insomnia that’s joined by panic attacks, paranoia, phobias, hallucinations and a complete lack of ability to sleep. This is followed through fast weight loss, dementia and incapacity to speak until demise.

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob sickness and Fabry ailment. These sicknesses share a function that enables diagnosing them known as the pulvinar signal. An exchange in density on the back (posterior) of your thalamus seems in the shape of hockey sticks on an MRI test.

  • Korsakoff syndrome. Caused by way of alcohol, this syndrome can harm a positive structure to your brain, the mammillothalamic fasciculus, which extends into your thalamus.

Maintain the health of the hypothalamus

  • The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, feeling, and action is generated by the nervous system. Maintaining a healthy nervous system is essential for optimal health and functioning. This paper will explore the role of the nervous system in maintaining health and homeostasis.

  • Though vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients, they each play different roles in your body. One of the jobs of vitamin B-12 is to keep your nervous system functioning properly. A lack of B-12 can cause neurological problems, such as memory loss and problems with balancing and walking. Vitamin B-12 is found naturally in animal foods, such as meat, poultry, shellfish, eggs and milk.

Call your doctor properly away when you have any surprising adjustments in your fitness, such as losing coordination or noticing excessive muscle weak spots. You must also see your medical doctor when you have:

  • Vision troubles or headaches.

  • Slurred speech.

  • Numbness, tingling, or lack of sensation for your fingers or legs.

  • Tremors or tics (random muscle movements).

  • Changes in behavior or reminiscence.

  • Problems with coordination or transferring your muscle groups.

Thalamus : structure of the thalamus in the brai

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