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Thyroid : Thyroid structure - role of the thyroid gland


 What Is Thyroid ?

The thyroid is a gland located in the lower front part of the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce two main hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones are released into the bloodstream and then carried to every tissue in the body where they help regulate metabolism. Metabolism is the process by which the body converts the food we eat into energy.

What Is Thyroid

Thyroid disease is a condition of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland that lies in front of your neck. It makes thyroid hormone, which helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should. There are four main types of thyroid disease: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease, and goiters.

Endocrine System

Thyroid structure

  • The thyroid gland is divided into  lobes that are related through the isthmus, which crosses the midline of the upper trachea at the second and 0.33 tracheal rings. In its anatomic function, the thyroid gland lies posterior to the sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscle groups, wrapping around the cricoid cartilage and tracheal rings. It is positioned inferior to the laryngeal thyroid cartilage, normally similar to the vertebral ranges C5-T1. The thyroid attaches to the trachea via a consolidation of connective tissue, called the lateral suspensory ligament or Berry’s ligament. This ligament connects each of the thyroid lobes to the trachea. The thyroid gland, at the side of the esophagus, pharynx, and trachea, is found in the visceral compartment of the neck that is certain by using pretracheal fascia.

  • The “regular” thyroid gland has lateral lobes which might be symmetrical with a nicely-marked centrally placed isthmus. The thyroid gland generally consists of a pyramidal extension at the posterior-maximum aspect of each lobe, known as the tubercle of Zuckerkandl. Despite these preferred characteristics, the thyroid gland is thought to have many morphologic variations. The role of the thyroid gland and its close relationship with numerous structures brings approximately numerous surgical considerations with scientific relevance.

The supply of blood, lymph and nerves to the thyroid gland

  • The thyroid gland has a very rich blood delivery and is envisioned to be six instances as vascular because of the kidney and comparatively three to 4 instances more vascular than the brain. It receives blood from the superior and inferior thyroid arteries. These paired vessels deliver the superior and inferior factor of the gland. The advanced thyroid artery is the first department of the outside carotid artery because it arises near the extent of the advanced horn of the thyroid cartilage. The superior thyroid artery then moves anterior, inferior, and in the direction of the midline at the back of the sternothyroid muscle to the superior pole of the lobe of the thyroid gland. From this factor, the advanced thyroid artery branches off. One branching factor runs down the dorsal thing of the thyroid gland. The different superficial branch runs along the sternothyroid muscle and thyrohyoid muscular tissues, presenting branches to these muscle masses as well as the sternohyoid. The superficial department keeps downward to similarly provide off the cricothyroid branch and to supply the isthmus, internal sides of the lateral lobes, and while present, the pyramidal lobe.

  • The thyrocervical trunk arises from the anterosuperior surface of the subclavian artery and gives rise to three branches, one being the inferior thyroid artery. The inferior thyroid artery branches from the thyrocervical trunk on the internal border of the anterior scalene muscle and advances medially to the thyroid gland. The artery reaches the posterior floor of the lateral lobe of the thyroid gland at the extent of the junction of the top two thirds and decreases 0.33 of the outer border. The biggest branch of the inferior thyroid artery is the ascending cervical branch, and it is critical no longer to mistake this branch for the inferior thyroid artery itself.

  • In 10% of the populace, there's an extra artery referred to as the thyroid ima artery. This artery has a variable foundation consisting of the brachiocephalic trunk, aortic arch, the right commonplace carotid, the subclavian, the pericardiacophrenic artery, the thyrocervical trunk, transverse scapular, or inner thoracic artery. The thyroid ima most typically originates from the brachiocephalic trunk and materials the isthmus and anterior thyroid gland.

  • The thyroid gland is drained thru the superior, center, and inferior thyroid veins. The middle and advanced thyroid veins follow a tortuous direction and sooner or later drain into the inner jugular vein on both facets of the neck. The drainage of the inferior thyroid vein may also enter either the subclavian or brachiocephalic veins, positioned just posterior to the manubrium.

  • Lymphatic drainage of the thyroid gland involves the lower deep cervical, prelaryngeal, pretracheal, and paratracheal nodes. The paratracheal and decreased deep cervical nodes, particularly, acquire lymphatic drainage from the isthmus and the inferior lateral lobes. The advanced quantities of the thyroid gland drain into the advanced pretracheal and cervical nodes.

  • The autonomic worried gadget typically innervates the thyroid gland. The vagus nerve affords the main parasympathetic fibers, while sympathetic fibers originate from the inferior, middle, and advanced ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. These nerves do not play a role within the manipulation of hormonal production or secretion but frequently impact vasculature.

Thyroid muscles

hyoid muscles are important for many reasons. First, they help control metabolic rate. Second, they help control the amount of energy that is used by the body. And lastly, they help regulate the body’s temperature.

Thyroid muscles are important for many different activities. They help to control your body’s temperature, and they help to produce hormones.

Several muscular tissues must be considered whilst discussing neck and thyroid surgical anatomy.

  • Platysma: The first muscle encountered throughout neck dissection, it's far enveloped by the superficial cervical fascia. It sits in the anterior neck and extends from the superficial fascia of the deltoid, over the clavicle, reaching the mandible and superficial fascia of the face superiorly.

  • Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle paperwork the anterior portion of the posterior triangle of the neck. The muscle runs obliquely from the mastoid to the clavicle and sternum. The sternocleidomastoid is found anterolaterally relative to the thyroid gland.

  • Digastric muscle: This muscle extends from the mandibular tubercle, passes deep and not as good as the hyoid, and loops return up to attach to the mastoid tip.

  • Infrahyoid muscles: These are also known as “strap muscle tissues.” They include four paired muscle groups determined on the anterolateral floor of the thyroid gland. The strap muscle groups result in gross movement of the larynx all through swallowing and additionally adjust the site of the larynx for the duration of vocalization.

  • Omohyoid muscle: The omohyoid muscle is determined deep in the sternocleidomastoid. It extends from the hyoid bone to the lateral component of the clavicle.

  • Sternohyoid muscle: This muscle sits anterior the last strap muscle tissues and the thyroid gland. The sternohyoid muscle extends from its superior attachment at the hyoid bone inferiorly to the sternum.

  • Sternothyroid muscle: This muscle extends from the indirect line of the thyroid cartilage to the sternum. This muscle contracts the anterior floor of the thyroid gland.

  • Thyrohyoid muscle: The thyrohyoid muscle extends from the indirect line of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone superiorly.

  •  Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: This muscle extends from its anterior attachment on the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage and lateral factor of the cricoid cartilage to the pharyngeal raphe. This muscle contracts the advanced pole of the lateral lobe of the thyroid gland medially.

What is the role of the thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck. The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should.  Hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid, is when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormone than your body needs.

Your thyroid allows modify the subsequent:

  • Your body weight

  • Your metabolism  (meaning how many energy you burn at rest)

  • Heat manufacturing for your body

  • Cosmetic features inclusive of nail growth, hair growth, and pores and skin texture

  • Intestinal Motility

  • Sex hormones which includes estrogen, progesterone , and testosterone

  • Cortisol and other hormones which have an impact on your subjective experience of energy

  • Promotes regular cognition and temper

  • Helps modify blood strain, ldl cholesterol , and coronary heart charge

Symptoms of the thyroid gland in the human body

Symptoms of the thyroid gland in the human body vary depending on the person and can range from mild to life-threatening.

Symptoms of the thyroid gland in the human body can include weight gain, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.

In many instances thyroid gland problems fall into two important camps:

  • Symptoms of a slow thyroid gland /that means you are not creating ENOUGH thyroid hormone or the gland isn't always functioning properly)

  • Symptoms of immoderate thyroid hormone manufacturing /which means your frame is producing TOO an awful lot thyroid hormone or your thyroid gland is pumping out too much thyroid hormone)

Hypothyroidism Symptoms (Insufficient Gland Function)

When your thyroid gland isn't always generating sufficient thyroid hormone or functioning well then you can enjoy any of the following symptoms: 

  • Fatigue or low power

  • Weight benefit (everywhere among 10 pounds and 50 kilos)

  • Menstrual irregularities

  • Depression

  • Cold intolerance

  • Hair breakage

  • Nail damage

  • Cold body temperature

  • Low resting heart price

  • Constipation

  • Cold extremities (cold palms and toes)

  • Chronic pain

Hyperthyroid Symptoms (Excessive Gland Function)

When your thyroid gland is generating TOO MUCH thyroid hormone then you can experience any of the following signs and symptoms: 

  • Weight loss

  • Rapid coronary heart rate

  • Heart palpitations

  • Anxiety

  • Insomnia

  • Diarrhea

  • Tremors

  • Hot flashes

  • Excessive sweating

  • Dry pores and skin

  • Hair breakage (happens in both situations!)

What affects the health of the thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is responsible for producing thyroid hormone, which helps to regulate the body's metabolism. Thyroid hormone levels can be affected by a number of factors, including diet, stress, and certain medications. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can lead to a number of health problems.

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Inflammation thyroid

  • Hyperthyroidism

  • Thyroid Cancer

  • Thyroid Nodules

Maintaining thyroid health

  1. Thyroid health is essential for overall health and well-being. Maintaining a healthy thyroid is important for overall energy levels, mood, concentration, and weight regulation. Many people are unaware of the many benefits of thyroid health, which is why it is important to educate yourself on the topic.

  2. Thyroid health is essential for overall health, and it is vital to keep your levels in check if you want to achieve optimal results. There are a few ways to achieve this, and each has its own set of pros and cons. Some of the most common methods include dietary changes, such as increasing your intake of iodine or omega-3 fatty acids, and taking supplements. It is important to speak with your doctor about which approach is right for you, as each individual’s situation is unique.

  3. Thyroid health is important for keeping your body functioning at its best. If your thyroid isn’t functioning properly, your body can’t produce the hormones it needs to function effectively. This can lead to a number of problems, such as weight gain, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. There are a number of things you can do to improve your thyroid health.

  4. Thyroid health is an important topic to discuss, as it is responsible for regulating many metabolic processes in the body. Dysfunction in this system can lead to a number of medical conditions, including obesity, heart disease, and cancer. There are a number of factors that can affect thyroid health, including genetics, environmental exposures, and lifestyle choices. It is important to be aware of these factors and to take steps to protect your health.

Thyroid : Thyroid structure - role of the thyroid gland

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