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Urography : Diagnosis-Benefits-Types-Symptoms


 What Is Urography?

Urography, X-ray examination of any part of the urinary tract after the advent of a radiopaque substance (often a natural iodine derivative) that casts an X-ray shadow. This assessment fluid, which passes quickly into the urine, may be taken orally or injected intravenously. It may also be injected immediately into the region being tested. Tumors, tuberculous abscesses, kidney stones, and obstruction by using prostatic expansion may be detected by means of this technique. Specific sorts of urography include pyelography (exam of the kidney and ureter) and cystography (exam of the bladder). Motion-photograph “voiding cystograms” offer evidence of gross reflux of urine into the ureters and pelvis of the kidney at some stage in voiding.

An automated tomography (CT) urogram is an imaging exam used to assess the urinary tract. The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, bladder and the tubes (ureters) that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

A CT urogram uses X-rays to generate more than one snapshot of a slice of the vicinity in your frame being studied, along with bones, gentle tissues and blood vessels. These pictures are then dispatched to a laptop and quickly reconstructed into exact 2D snap shots.

What Is Urography

During a CT urogram, an X-ray dye (iodine comparison material) is injected into a vein on your hand or arm. The dye flows into the kidneys, ureters and bladder, outlining every of those systems. X-ray pics are taken at specific instances throughout the exam, so your physician can really see your urinary tract and verify how well it is working.

Why is a urogram performed?

A CT urogram is used to have a look at the kidneys, ureters and bladder. It shall be your medical doctor to see the scale and form of those structures to decide if they're working properly and to search for any signs of sickness that could affect your urinary machine.

Your physician may suggest a CT urogram when you have symptoms and symptoms — consisting of pain in your side or again or blood for your urine (hematuria) — that may be associated with a urinary tract sickness.

A CT urogram may be useful in diagnosing urinary tract conditions such as:

  • Kidney stones

  • Bladder stones

  • Complicated infections

  • Tumors or cysts

  • Cancer

  • Structural problems

Risks Urography

With a CT urogram, there is a slight risk of an hypersensitive reaction to the evaluation material. Reactions are commonly slight and without difficulty managed through remedy. They consist of:

  • A feeling of warmth or flushing

  • Nausea

  • Itching

  • Hives

  • Pain near the injection web site

  1. There is constantly a mild threat of most cancers from excessive publicity to radiation. However, the advantage of an accurate prognosis a long way outweighs the chance involved with CT scanning.

  2. Because youngsters are extra touchy to radiation, they must have a CT examination handiest if it's far essential for creating a diagnosis. They should not have repeated CT assessments until essential. CT scans in kids have to constantly be finished with low-dose technique.

Exams regarding MR imaging:

  1. The MRI exam poses almost no threat to the common patient while suitable safety guidelines are observed.

  2. Although the strong magnetic area isn't always harmful in itself, implanted clinical devices that include steel may additionally malfunction or cause issues all through an MRI examination.

  3. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is presently a recognized, however extremely rare, hassle of MRI believed to be as a result of the injection of excessive doses of gadolinium contrast fabric in patients with very bad kidney features. However, more generally used types of gadolinium assessment material have negligible, if any, chance of NSF and can also be administered to patients with stop-level renal ailment on dialysis.

Exams involving assessment cloth:

  1. IV contrast manufacturers suggest mothers have to not breastfeed their toddlers for twenty-four-48 hours after assessment cloth is given. However, the maximum current American College of Radiology (ACR) Manual on Contrast Media reviews that research shows the amount of contrast absorbed by the infant at some point of breastfeeding is extraordinarily low. For in addition facts please seek advice from the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references.

  2. There is a very mild threat of an hypersensitive reaction if comparison fabric is injected. Such reactions generally are mild and effortlessly managed through remedy. If you experience allergic signs and symptoms, a radiologist or other health practitioner may be to be had for immediate assistance.

An unmarried CT urogram includes no hazard of growing most cancers after radiation exposure. But, a couple of tests or radiation exposures may additionally motivate a slightly improved chance for most cancers. Typically, the advantage of a correct prognosis always outweighs this threat. Work maintains methods to reduce radiation publicity in the course of a CT urogram check.

If you are pregnant or suppose that you will be pregnant, tell your physician earlier than having a CT urogram. Though the danger to an unborn child is small, your medical doctor may also remember whether or not it is better to attend or to use some other imaging test.

Benefits Urography

  1. Both CT and MR urography had been verified effective in detecting issues or abnormalities in parts of the urinary tract such as the kidneys, bladder and ureters, or as a comply with-up check to similarly observe for recurrent or new cancers of the urinary tract.

  2. Compared to different imaging tests, CT and MR urography both offer superior anatomic elements of the urinary tract and surrounding structures.

Exams related to CT imaging:

  1. CT scanning is painless, noninvasive, and correct.

  2. A foremost benefit of CT is its capacity to photo bone, smooth tissue, and blood vessels all at the identical time.

  3. Unlike traditional x-rays, CT scanning gives very specific pics of many types of tissue in addition to the lungs, bones, and blood vessels.

  4. CT exams are fast and easy. In emergency instances, they could display inner accidents and bleeding quick enough to help keep lives.

  5. CT has been shown to be a price-effective imaging device for an extensive variety of scientific troubles.

  6. CT is much less sensitive to affected person movement than MRI.

  7. Unlike MRI, an implanted medical device of any kind will not prevent you from having a CT scan.

  8. CT imaging presents actual-time imaging, making it an excellent tool for guiding needle biopsies and needle aspirations. This is particularly proper for procedures concerning the lungs, abdomen, pelvis, and bones.

  9. A prognosis through CT scan may take away the need for exploratory surgical treatment and surgical biopsy.

  10. No radiation stays in a patient's frame after a CT exam.

  11. The x-rays used for CT scanning need to haven't any immediate side effects.

Exams regarding MR imaging:

  1. MRI is a noninvasive imaging approach that does not contain exposure to radiation.

  2. MRI can come across abnormalities that might be obscured via bone with other imaging techniques.

  3. The MRI gadolinium assessment cloth is less likely to cause an allergic reaction than the iodine-primarily based evaluation substances used for x-rays and CT scanning.

How you prepare Urography

If your doctor has ordered a CT urography exam, you have to wear cozy, free-becoming clothing on your examination. You may be given a robe to wear at some stage in the manner.

Metal objects inclusive of jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins might also affect the CT pix and ought to be left at home or eliminated prior to your exam. You will also be requested to get rid of listening to aids and removable dental work. Women might be asked to take away bras containing steel underwire. In order to distend your urinary bladder, you may be asked to drink water prior to the examination, and also not to urinate until after the scan is whole. However, pointers approximately eating and drinking earlier than a CT examination vary with the specific exam and additionally with the ability.

You can be asked now not to eat or drink something for several hours earlier than the examination, in particular if an assessment fabric will be used. You have to inform your physician of any medicines you are taking and if you have any allergic reactions. If you've got a known allergic reaction to comparison cloth, tell your medical doctor. Based on your allergic history, your physician may additionally decide to offer medicines to reduce the hazard of hypersensitive reaction or to cancel your exam.

Also, tell your physician of any current illnesses or other scientific situations, and if you have a history of heart disease (particularly congestive heart failure or hypertension), allergies, diabetes, kidney disorder, earlier organ transplantation, use of continual NSAIDS (e.G., Motrin), anti-rejection medicinal drug or positive antibiotics. Any of these situations or medicinal drugs might also increase the chance of an unusual detrimental impact following the administration of assessment for CT urography.

Before a CT urogram, tell your fitness care crew if you:

  • Have any allergies, in particular to iodine

  • Are pregnant or assume you is probably pregnant

  • Have had a previous severe reaction to X-ray dyes

  • Are taking any medicines, including metformin (Fortamet, Glucophage, others), nonsteroidal anti inflammatory capsules (NSAIDs), anti-rejection capsules or antibiotics

  • Have had a latest illness

  • Have a clinical circumstance, together with coronary heart sickness, asthma, diabetes, kidney ailment or a previous organ transplantation

You may be requested to drink water before a CT urogram and not to urinate till after the method. This expands your bladder. But, depending on your condition, suggestions about what to eat and drink before your CT urogram may additionally range.

Expectations from a urography

Both CT and MR urography are generally accomplished on an outpatient foundation.

If CT urography is being accomplished, the technologist will start by positioning you on the CT examination desk, commonly mendacity flat in your return or possibly on your face or belly. You may be requested to change positions during quantities of the examination. Straps and pillows may be used to help you preserve the right position and to keep still for the duration of the exam.

Before your CT urogram, a member of your fitness care group can also:

  • Ask you questions on your medical records

  • Check your blood pressure, pulse and frame temperature

  • Ask you to trade into a medical institution robe and eliminate earrings, eyeglasses and any metal items which could obscure the X-ray pictures

During urography

For a typical CT urogram, you lie to your back on an examination desk, even though you will be requested to lie in your face or belly. Straps and pillows may be used that will help you preserve the correct role and hold nonetheless for the duration of the exam. You may be asked to trade positions at some point of the CT program.

An IV line is positioned right into a vein on your hand or arm through which the X-ray dye is injected. You may additionally experience a heat, flushed sensation when the dye is injected and note a metallic flavor on your mouth for a minute or two. The contrast fabric may in brief make you feel like you have to urinate.

Before the exam begins, the table moves fast via the scanner to determine the perfect starting role for your scans. For the real CT program, the table moves slowly through the machine even as the pictures are taken. If needed, the system might also make several passes.

The device makes mild humming and clicking sounds even as it takes pictures. To preserve the photographs from blurring, the technician may additionally ask you to preserve your breath for a few seconds throughout the scanning.

After the CT program is complete, the technician assesses the photos for pleasure even as you wait.

After urography

If MR urography is being carried out, the technologist will start by positioning you on the MRI examination table, typically lying flat in your return or in all likelihood to your aspect or belly. You can be requested to alternate positions for the duration of quantities of the examination. Straps and bolsters can be used to help you keep the suitable function and to maintain nonetheless in the course of imaging.

The technologist may additionally place devices that include coils able to send and receive radio waves round or subsequent to the location of the frame underneath the exam.

MRI tests typically consist of more than one run (sequences), some of which may additionally close numerous mins. Each run will create an extraordinary set of noises.

If an assessment material may be used within the MRI examination, a nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line into a vein on your hand or arm. You may be moved into the magnet of the MRI unit, and the radiologist and technologist will go away from the room whilst the MRI examination is carried out.

When the examination is complete, the technologist may additionally ask you to attend while the radiologist assesses the snapshots in case more are needed.

When the check is executed, the IV line is removed out of your arm and the IV entry point is included with a dressing. Most people go back to their common activities after the check.


A medical doctor who focuses on analyzing X-rays (radiologist) evaluations and interprets the X-ray photographs out of your CT urogram and sends a report on your medical doctor. Plan to speak about the effects with your doctor at a follow-up appointment.

List of diagnostic procedures


  1. Cellular and chemical analysis
  2. Diagnostic imaging
  3. Genetic testing
  4. Measurement
  5. Physical And Visual Examination
  6. Definition Of Diagnosing In Medicine
  7. Stages Of Diagnosis And Medical Examinations - Tests

Urography : Diagnosis-Benefits-Types-Symptoms

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