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Acute kidney failure : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is Acute kidney failure?

Acute kidney failure is a sudden and rapid decline in kidney function that can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. It is typically caused by an injury or severe illness, resulting in the kidney’s inability to filter out waste from the bloodstream. Symptoms of acute kidney failure include decreased urine output, swelling in the face and extremities, confusion and fatigue. Treatment for acute kidney failure usually involves dialysis and other supportive care, such as medication to control electrolyte levels and reduce fluid retention.

What is Acute kidney failure?
Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure, also known as acute renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys abruptly and suddenly stop working. This often results in a dramatic increase in the accumulation of nitrogenous waste products, electrolyte disturbances, and fluid imbalances. Acute kidney failure can be caused by a variety of conditions such as dehydration, infection, or a drug overdose. It is also a common complication of sepsis, trauma, or certain medical procedures.

  1. Urinary system

  1. Kidneys

  2. Ureter

  3. Bladder

  4. Urethra

Medical terms

  • Acute kidney failure is a sudden decrease in kidney function. It can happen over hours, days, or weeks. When the kidneys don't remove toxins and wastes from the blood, they don't function properly. This causes an imbalance of electrolytes and fluid in the body, which can lead to dangerous symptoms and even death.
  • Acute kidney failure is a sudden loss of kidney function. It occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter out waste and excess fluid from the blood. This can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as dehydration, infection, or a reaction to certain medications or toxins. Acute kidney failure can lead to serious complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, high blood pressure, and even death if left untreated.
  • Acute kidney failure is a sudden and abrupt loss of kidney function, usually within hours or days. It is marked by an abrupt drop in urine output, accompanied by a rise in serum creatinine levels and often with an increase in blood urea nitrogen. Acute renal failure can be caused by any factor that impairs the ability of the kidney to perform its normal functions, including dehydration, drugs, toxins, severe infections, and physical damage. In some cases, acute renal failure is reversible and can be treated with dialysis or other treatments.

How long can you live with kidney failure?

Kidney failure is a serious medical condition that can severely reduce life expectancy, but the exact amount of time a person can live with kidney failure depends on many individual factors. Age, overall health, lifestyle choices, and other medical conditions can all play a role in determining how long a person with kidney failure will live. Additionally, the severity of the failure and the availability of treatments such as dialysis can also be significant factors in prognosis. The best way to ensure longevity is to make healthy lifestyle choices and seek prompt medical attention if any symptoms of kidney failure arise.

Kidney failure can be a devastating diagnosis, but with some lifestyle changes and proper medical care, life expectancy can be greatly improved. In some cases, patients with kidney failure can live for decades, depending on their age and overall health. In general, younger patients with kidney failure have a longer life expectancy than their older counterparts. Additionally, medical treatments like dialysis and kidney transplantation can significantly extend life expectancy.

Symptoms Acute kidney failure

Many humans experience few or no signs inside the early ranges of kidney ailment. However, persistent kidney ailment (CKD) may additionally nonetheless motivate harm even though you experience quality.

CKD and kidney failure symptoms vary between humans.

Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure may additionally consist of:

  • Decreased urine output, even though from time to time urine output remains normal

  • Fluid retention, causing swelling for your legs, ankles or toes

  • Shortness of breath

  • Fatigue

  • Confusion

  • Nausea

  • Weakness

  • Irregular heartbeat

  • Chest pain or strain

  • Seizures or coma in intense instances

When to peer a medical doctor

See your health practitioner at once or are trying to find emergency care when you have symptoms or signs of acute kidney failure.

Causes Acute kidney failure

Diabetes and excessive blood stress are the maximum not unusual causes of continual kidney ailment and kidney failure.

Unmanaged diabetes can cause high blood sugar degrees (hyperglycemia). Consistently high blood sugar can harm your kidneys in addition to other organs.

High blood stress means blood travels forcefully through your frame’s blood vessels. Over time and without remedy, the more force can harm your kidneys’ tissue.

Acute kidney failure can occur whilst:

  • You have a circumstance that slows blood glide for your kidneys

  • You enjoy direct harm to your kidneys

  • Your kidneys' urine drainage tubes (ureters) emerge as blocked and wastes can't go away your body thru your urine

Impaired blood waft to the kidneys

Diseases and situations that can slow blood flow to the kidneys and result in kidney injury include:

  • Blood or fluid loss

  • Blood pressure medicinal drugs

  • Heart assault

  • Heart disorder

  • Infection

  • Liver failure

  • Use of aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve, others) or related capsules

  • Severe hypersensitivity reaction (anaphylaxis)

  • Severe burns

  • Severe dehydration

Damage to the kidneys

These illnesses, situations and agents can also harm the kidneys and cause acute kidney failure:

  • Blood clots in the veins and arteries in and around the kidneys

  • Cholesterol deposits that block blood flow in the kidneys

  • Glomerulonephritis (glove-mer-u-loe-nuh-FRY-tis), inflammation of the tiny filters inside the kidneys (glomeruli)

  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a circumstance that consequences from untimely destruction of red blood cells

  • Infection, consisting of with the virus that causes coronavirus sickness 2019 (COVID-19)

  • Lupus, an immune gadget sickness causing glomerulonephritis

  • Medications, inclusive of certain chemotherapy tablets, antibiotics and dyes used at some point of imaging exams

  • Scleroderma, a group of uncommon illnesses affecting the pores and skin and connective tissues

  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a unprecedented blood sickness

  • Toxins, along with alcohol, heavy metals and cocaine

  • Muscle tissue breakdown (rhabdomyolysis) that leads to kidney harm as a result of pollutants from muscle tissue destruction

  • Breakdown of tumor cells (tumor lysis syndrome), which leads to the release of pollutants that can motive kidney damage

Urine blockage in the kidneys

Diseases and situations that block the passage of urine out of the frame (urinary obstructions) and might lead to acute kidney damage consist of:

  • Bladder most cancers

  • Blood clots within the urinary tract

  • Cervical cancer

  • Colon cancer

  • Enlarged prostate

  • Kidney stones

  • Nerve harm involving the nerves that control the bladder

  • Prostate cancer

Risk factors Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure almost continually happens in reference to any other clinical situation or event. Conditions which could growth your threat of acute kidney failure include:

  • Being hospitalized, especially for a extreme condition that calls for extensive care

  • Advanced age

  • Blockages in the blood vessels in your hands or legs (peripheral artery disorder)

  • Diabetes

  • High blood strain

  • Heart failure

  • Kidney diseases

  • Liver diseases

  • Certain cancers and their treatments

Complications Acute kidney failure

Potential headaches of acute kidney failure encompass:

  • Fluid buildup. Acute kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid for your lungs, which could cause shortness of breath.

  • Chest ache. If the lining that covers your heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed, you may revel in chest ache.

  • Muscle weakness. When your frame's fluids and electrolytes — your frame's blood chemistry — are out of balance, muscle weak points can result.

  • Permanent kidney damage. Occasionally, acute kidney failure causes everlasting lack of kidney function, or give up-degree renal disorder. People with stop-level renal ailment require both everlasting dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove pollution and wastes from the body — or a kidney transplant to live to tell the tale.

  • Death. Acute kidney failure can result in loss of kidney characteristic and, ultimately, death.

Prevention Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure is often tough to predict or save you. But you can lessen your danger via taking care of your kidneys. Try to:

  • Pay attention to labels whilst taking on-the-counter (OTC) ache medicines. Follow the instructions for OTC acne medications, including aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others). Taking an excessive amount of these medicines may also increase your risk of kidney injury. This is specifically proper if you have pre-present kidney disorder, diabetes or high blood pressure.

  • Work together with your physician to control kidney and other chronic conditions. If you have got kidney disorder or any other condition that increases your chance of acute kidney failure, such as diabetes or excessive blood strain, stay on target with remedy desires and comply with your physician's recommendations to manipulate your circumstance.

  • Make a healthful way of life a priority. Be energetic; devour a sensible, balanced weight loss program; and drink alcohol best in moderation — if in any respect.

How can I prevent kidney failure?

Kidney failure is a condition that can be prevented if one understands the warning signs and takes the necessary steps to maintain their health. This condition is caused by a number of factors, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, that put unnecessary strain on the kidneys. It is important to be aware of any potential risk factors and to seek out medical advice for ways to reduce these risks. Regular checkups are important for detecting any changes in kidney function, as well as for monitoring other conditions that could lead to kidney failure.

Kidney failure is one of the most serious health conditions that can threaten a person's well-being. Fortunately, there are a number of ways to prevent it. Some of these include maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, monitoring any medications taken, getting regular check-ups and screenings, and avoiding cigarettes and alcohol. Additionally, people with a history of kidney problems should actively track their blood pressure, manage their diabetes, and stay hydrated.

If you've got CKD or kidney failure, it’s a terrific concept to:

  • Monitor your kidney features.

  • Keep your blood sugar in the everyday range if you have diabetes.

  • Keep your blood stress levels in a regular range.

  • Avoid the use of tobacco merchandise.

  • Avoid ingredients high in protein and sodium.

  • Go to every often scheduled appointment with your healthcare provider.

How do you fix acute kidney failure?

Acute kidney failure is an uncomfortable and serious medical condition that can be difficult to treat without prompt medical attention. It can be caused by a variety of reasons, such as dehydration, infections, toxins, or a reaction to certain medications. Treatment of acute kidney failure can involve dialysis or a kidney transplant. Dialysis is done to filter the excess waste products in the blood and to maintain adequate levels of electrolytes and fluids in the body.

Diagnosis Acute kidney failure

If your signs and symptoms and symptoms propose that you have acute kidney failure, your doctor might also endorse certain checks and techniques to confirm your analysis. These may additionally consist of:

  • Urine output measurements. Measuring how an awful lot you urinate in 24 hours may additionally help your physician determine the purpose of your kidney failure.

  • Urine assessments. Analyzing a sample of your urine (urinalysis) may additionally display abnormalities that suggest kidney failure.

  • Blood tests. A pattern of your blood may additionally screen rapidly rising degrees of urea and creatinine —  substances used to degree kidney features.

  • Imaging assessments. Imaging checks including ultrasound and automatic tomography can be used to help your doctor see your kidneys.

  • Removing a pattern of kidney tissue for trying out. In some situations, your doctor may additionally suggest a kidney biopsy to do away with a small pattern of kidney tissue for lab checking out. Your health practitioner inserts a needle through your pores and skin and into your kidney to eliminate the sample.

Treatment Acute kidney failure

Treatment for acute kidney failure normally calls for a medical institution stay. Most people with acute kidney failure are already hospitalized. How long you will stay within the sanatorium depends on the reason for your acute kidney failure and the way fast your kidneys get better.

In a few cases, you'll be able to recover at home.

Treating the underlying purpose of your kidney damage

Treatment for acute kidney failure involves figuring out the illness or injury that originally damaged your kidneys. Your remedy options depend on what is causing your kidney failure.

Treating complications till your kidneys get better

Your doctor may also work to save you headaches and allow your kidneys time to heal. Treatments that help save you complications encompass:

  • Treatments to stabilize the amount of fluids for your blood. If your acute kidney failure is resulting from a lack of fluids in your blood, your medical doctor might also advocate intravenous (IV) fluids. In other instances, acute kidney failure can also cause you to have an excessive amount of fluid, leading to swelling in your legs and arms. In these cases, your medical doctor might also advise medicines (diuretics) to reason your frame to expel more fluids.

  • Medications to manipulate blood potassium. If your kidneys are not nicely filtering potassium out of your blood, your doctor might also prescribe calcium, glucose or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kionex) to save you from the accumulation of high levels of potassium in your blood. Too much potassium in the blood can cause risky irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and muscle weak points.

  • Medications to restore blood calcium levels. If the stages of calcium to your blood drop too low, your doctor might also recommend an infusion of calcium.

  • Dialysis to put off toxins from your blood. If pollutants increase in your blood, you can want temporary hemodialysis — frequently noted clearly as dialysis — to assist eliminate toxins and excess fluids from your frame whilst your kidneys heal. Dialysis might also assist in casting off excess potassium from your frame. During dialysis, a gadget pumps blood from your frame via an artificial kidney (dialyzer) that filters out waste. The blood is then back in your frame.

Lifestyle and domestic remedies

During your recuperation from acute kidney failure, your medical doctor may additionally endorse a unique diet to assist your kidneys and limit the work they have to do. Your health practitioner may also refer you to a dietitian who can examine your modern food regimen and propose ways to make your food regimen less difficult in your kidneys.


Depending on your scenario, your dietitian may additionally propose that you:

  • Choose lower potassium ingredients. Your dietitian may advocate that you select lower potassium meals. High-potassium ingredients consist of bananas, oranges, potatoes, spinach and tomatoes. Examples of low-potassium foods consist of apples, cauliflower, peppers, grapes and strawberries.

  • Avoid merchandise with brought salt. Lower the amount of sodium you eat every day through heading off merchandise with introduced salt, such as many comfort meals, which includes frozen dinners, canned soups and rapid meals. Other meals with introduced salt consist of salty snack meals, canned greens, and processed meats and cheeses.

  • Limit phosphorus. Phosphorus is a mineral observed in foods, which includes complete-grain bread, oatmeal, bran cereals, darkish-colored colas, nuts and peanut butter. Too much phosphorus on your blood can weaken your bones and cause pores and skin itchiness. Your dietitian can come up with unique tips on phosphorus and how to restrict it in your specific state of affairs.

  • As your kidneys recover, you could now not want to eat a special food plan, even though wholesome ingesting stays essential.

Preparing on your appointment

Most people are already hospitalized when they increase acute kidney failure. If you or a cherished one develops signs and symptoms of kidney failure, convey your concerns along with your health practitioner or nurse.


If you aren't inside the hospital, but have signs and symptoms or signs and symptoms of kidney failure, make an appointment with your circle of relatives health practitioner or a widespread practitioner. If your physician suspects you have got kidney issues, you will be referred to a physician who specializes in kidney sickness (nephrologist).


Before your assembly with the doctor, write down your questions. Consider asking:

  • What's the maximum like purpose of my signs?

  • Have my kidneys stopped running? What could have precipitated my kidney failure?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What are my remedy alternatives and what are the dangers?

  • Do I want to go to the medical institution?

  • Will my kidneys recover or will I want dialysis?

  • I actually have other fitness conditions. How can I manage these conditions collectively?

  • Do I want to consume a unique weight loss plan, and if so, are you able to refer me to a dietitian to assist me plan what to eat?

  • Is there a customary alternative to the medication you're prescribing me?

  • Do you have any revealed substances that I can take with me? What websites do you suggest?

General summary

  1. Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease, is a long-term medical condition in which the kidneys do not function as well as they should. People with this condition may require dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain their health. While there is no single answer to how long a person can live with kidney failure, there are several factors that can contribute to an individual’s longevity. These include the stage of the disease, the type of treatment being used, and the overall health of the patient.

  2. Patients living with kidney failure can live a good quality of life with the right medical care and dialysis treatments. Dialysis is a process that cleans and filters the blood, and it can help people with kidney failure to avoid some of the more serious complications associated with this condition. What’s more, advances in medical technology have improved the outlook for people living with kidney failure. Research suggests that patients who stick to their treatment plans, eat a balanced diet, and stay active can live with kidney failure for an average of 10-20 years.

  3. Kidney failure can be a life-altering experience, but it is important to remember that there are options and treatments available. The prognosis for living with kidney failure varies greatly, depending on the individual's overall health, age, and the type of kidney failure. In general, those with end-stage renal disease have a life expectancy of around five to ten years without a kidney transplant. However, if someone is able to receive a kidney transplant, their life expectancy can be restored to nearly normal in many cases.

Acute kidney failure : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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