Benign adrenal tumors : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What are Benign adrenal tumors?

Tumors on the adrenal glands are called adrenal tumors. The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys and have two parts, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones like cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal medulla produces dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is a hormone. There are different types of adrenal tumors, some of which are cancerous and others which are benign.

What are Benign adrenal tumors?
Benign adrenal tumors

Most adrenal tumors are benign. They are not usually harmful and are discovered incidentally on CT or MRI scans. These tumors are called adrenal incidentalomas. Categorizing tumors as benign or malignant, they are classified as functioning or non functioning. Tumors that cause overproduction of one or more normal adrenal hormones are considered functioning tumors.

  1. Endocrine system

Medical terms

  • Adrenal tumors are abnormal lumps or growths that develop on or in the adrenal glands. These tumors can be either benign, or noncancerous, or malignant, or cancerous. Benign adrenal tumors, also known as adenomas, are the most common type of adrenal tumor and do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually discovered incidentally during imaging tests for other conditions.

  • Benign adrenal tumors, also known as adrenal adenomas, are a type of non-cancerous growth that develop in the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands, which are located just above the kidneys, produce hormones and are essential for regulating the body's metabolism, immune system, and cardiovascular functioning. Adrenal adenomas are generally considered slow-growing and harmless and may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. In some cases, however, these tumors may grow large enough to cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or hypertension, and surgical removal may be necessary.

Benign adrenal tumors are noncancerous plenty that type within the adrenal secretors. As a part of your endocrine system, the adrenal glands turn out hormones that provide directions to just about each organ and tissue in your body.

you have got 2 adrenal glands, one placed on top of every kidney. Every gland contains two tissue types: the cortex and therefore the medulla. Benign adrenal tumors that develop in the cortex also are referred to as adrenal adenomas. People who develop in the medulla are also called pheochromocytomas.

Most benign adrenal tumors cause no symptoms and don't like treatment. However typically these tumors secrete high levels of bound hormones that {may} cause complications.

  • The foremost common hormones that can be over-secreted are mineralocorticoid and corticoid from the cortex and Adrenal hormones from the medulla. In these cases, benign adrenal tumor treatment may embody surgery or medications.

Malignant Adrenal Tumors

Adrenocortical cancer:Adrenocortical cancer is rare It affects only about 300 to 500 people each year in the United States There are two main types of adrenocortical cancer:

  • Functioning The most common form of adrenal cancer is a tumor which makes hormones such as cortisol androgens or aldosterone

  • Non-functioning tumors do not produce hormones.

The malignant adrenal pheochromocytoma is a tumor that originates in the adrenal gland The malignant adrenal pheochromocytoma is rare but it can be found in men and women at any age It occurs less commonly in children than adultsWhen this cancer begins in the medulla it is rare with only about 800 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States

Malignant paragangliomas: These are tumors that begin in or near the adrenal gland

Benign Adrenal Tumors

Adenomas: A type of non-cancerous tumor.

Benign pheochromocytomas

Benign paragangliomas

Cushing’s Syndrome:  In patients with Cushing’s syndrome the adrenal gland produces an excess of cortisol a hormone that plays a part in regulating blood pressure heart function and stress response This condition is rare about two to four new cases occur per 1 million people on average The amount of food wasted in this country each year is about one-third of all the food cultivated for human consumption

Cortisol secretion can be caused by many factors including:

  • A benign tumor called an adenoma on the adrenal gland which is not cancerous

  • Abnormality of the pituitary gland usually a tumor (also called Cushing’s disease)

  • Long-term use of corticosteroid medications (such as prednisone) can lead to serious problems including osteoporosis

  • If adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is produced in other areas of the body it is called ectopic ACTH

Hyperaldosteronism:  This condition is caused by a tumor in the adrenal gland that causes too much of aldosterone or an enlargement (hyperplasia) of the adrenal glands High levels of aldosterone play a part in body’s salt and potassium balance and may cause high blood pressure In fact it is believed that high levels of aldosterone make you more resistant to stress and have some role in immunity 10% of people with high blood pressure have hyperaldosteronism

Causes Benign adrenal tumors

The cause of most adrenal tumors is unknown. Some conditions that are inherited may increase the risk of developing an adrenal tumor. These include:

  • Carney complex

  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2

  • Neurofibromatosis type 1

Symptoms Benign adrenal tumors

If surgery is done, trauma might occur. Also, additional stress hormones are also created by the body. aspect effects of therapy embody hair loss, risk for infection, fatigue, nausea, instinctive reflex and small appetite. Radiation will cause diarrhea, fatigue, nausea and skin reactions

Some signs and symptoms may be seen, such as:

  • Bruising

  • High blood pressure

  • Weakness

  • High blood sugar levels or diabetes

  • Low potassium levels

  • Excessive hair growth

  • Sweating

  • Increased weight or weight loss

  • Stretch marks on the abdomen

  • Depressed mood

  • Nervousness

  • Anxiety/panic attacks

  • Osteoporosis

  • Fat deposits on the neck

  • Heart palpitations

Benign adrenal tumors cause weight gain

Benign adrenal tumors commonly present as a painless slow-growing mass in the back These masses have been shown to secrete hormones and proteins that can cause hypercalcemia and symptoms related to Cushing's syndrome In children with functional adrenal cysts they produce estrogen progesterone and testosterone causing precocious puberty.

Can benign adrenal tumors become malignant

? Benign tumors are growths that often grow in areas of the body with little or no control from the immune system. They can be easily removed and cancerous tumors can become benign after treatment.

Do benign adrenal tumors have to be removed

? Benign adrenal tumors do not have to be removed but if they cause a problem or concern they can be surgically removed The surgery is laparoscopic meaning that it is performed using tiny cuts and an endoscope The endoscope has a camera attached to it so the physician can see what he is doing inside your body while working through the small incisions For example if you develop a benign adrenal tumor which causes blood pressure problems where you have to go on medication for the rest of your life and the medication isn't controlling blood pressure well enough anymore then the doctor may recommend removing the tumor and then.

Can benign adrenal tumors be large

? Benign adrenal tumors are noncancerous growths that form on the adrenal glands These small round nodules typically do not cause any symptoms and can be difficult for patients to detect Most benign adrenal tumors in adults grow less than 3 centimeters in diameter though they can sometimes grow larger without being detected or causing problems If these growths become large enough to press on surrounding organs—or if they are cancerous—the patient may develop additional symptoms as a result of compression of nearby tissues or invasion by tumor cells into other areas of the body.

How long can you live with an adrenal tumor?

Tumors of the adrenal gland which are also called adrenal cancers may develop and cause a range of signs and symptoms The most common symptom is enlargement or mass that is felt in the area on both sides below the rib cage where your adrenal glands are located Other symptoms include abdominal pain; nausea and vomiting; difficulty eating drinking and urination; loss of appetite fluid weight gain or weight loss; fatigue (tiredness); weakness; hair loss; skin changes such as thinned out skin pigmentation or dark patches on your skin (called chloasma); light-colored stools; an abnorm.

Diagnosis Benign adrenal tumors

A test to measure the cortisol levels will be done. A urine test may be done. A biopsy of the tumor may be performed to determine its malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans may be used. Tests may include sampling of the adrenal vein or a MIBG scan. If the tumor is cancerous, the tumor will be staged which includes its size and location as well as whether it has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  1. X-ray

  2. (computed tomography) scans(CT)

  3. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Treatment Benign adrenal tumors

The tumor can be removed through surgery. It is usually recommended that most tumors, regardless of their size, be removed. If a tumor does not seem to be causing any problems and remains the same size as when it was first detected, it may not need treatment. If a tumor grows more rapidly than expected, however, treatment may be necessary. If the tumor is larger than expected or if it grows larger than 5 cm, it will be removed quickly. If the tumor appears to be noncancerous (benign), a laparoscopic surgery may be ordered. If the tumor is larger or if it is suspected to be cancerous, a surgery with large incisions will be performed. If the adrenal gland is tumors, an incision in the back may be preferred. Sometimes all of the gland may need to be removed. Hormone therapy may be required before or after other options have been tried, such as surgery. If the tumor is cancerous, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be needed.

  1. Child medical and psychological care
  2. Psychological rehabilitation for cancer

What are some of the side effects of treating adrenal tumors?

If surgery is performed, there may be bleeding. Additionally, due to the stress hormones produced during chemotherapy, other side effects may occur such as hair loss, risk for infection, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Radiation can cause diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, and skin reactions.

Risk Benign adrenal tumors

Certain inherited disorders can increase your risk of having an adrenal disease These include:

  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome

  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2)

  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)

  • von Recklinghausen’s disease also known as Neurofibromatosis type 1.

  • Paraganglioma syndrome is a condition where tumors form in structures called paraganglia

  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a type of overgrowth syndrome

Some people with these syndromes develop adrenal gland tumors but others do not If you or a family member has one of these syndromes your doctor may recommend genetic testing to find out if you have an increased risk of developing an adrenal tumor

Prevention Benign adrenal tumors

Adrenal tumors cannot be prevented, but there are risk factors that are not under your control. These factors are often linked to your genetics (passed down from your parents).

 Prognosis Benign adrenal tumors

The long-term prognosis of the condition may depend on whether or not the tumors are cancerous. If the tumors are cancerous, their stage may determine the prognosis.

Adrenal tumors can cause several problems. Some of these problems include:

  • Cushing’s Syndrome Cushing’s Syndrome is a condition that occurs when the tumor in the pituitary gland causes the body to produce too much cortisol. Symptoms of this disorder can include diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and. . . Sexual dysfunction is a problem with sex.

  • Conn’s DiseaseAldosterone overproduction can lead to these symptoms: personality changes, excessive urination, high blood pressure, constipation and weakness.

  • PheochromocytomaThis condition causes an overproduction of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Symptoms may include sweating, high blood pressure, headache, anxiety, weakness, and weight loss.

General summary

  1. Adrenal gland tumors are very common especially in women A benign adrenal tumor is a noncancerous (benign) growth on an adrenal gland and it makes hormone but is not cancer Benign tumors grow slowly and may cause symptoms as they increase in size Symptoms depend on what type of adrenal tumor you have Most benign tumors produce excess hormones or other substances such as cortisol aldosterone estrogen or testosterone Over time this can lead to serious problems like high blood pressure or heart failure.

  2. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys They produce a wide variety of hormones including cortisol and adrenaline which helps you cope with stress If the adrenal glands produce too much or too little hormone or if they become irritated and swollen this is called an adrenal tumor Adrenal tumors are benign (not cancerous) and can be treated successfully in most cases The treatment depends on what type of adrenal tumor you have whether it's large and causing a problem or small and not affecting your health.

  3. Adrenal tumors are usually noncancerous although some rare types of adrenal cancer have been identified Benign adrenal tumors include the following: Functioning adenomas These make hormones and may put out high levels of aldosterone or catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) They often produce symptoms just like PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) Cushing's syndrome (excess cortisol) or hirsutism They sometimes can be removed without complications but need to be watched carefully long term because they can grow again in up to 50% of cases Symptoms.

  4. When the adrenal tumor is located the doctor inserts the needle She then injects a small amount of x-ray dye into the bundle of blood vessels that supply blood to the tumor and takes pictures of it to see if there are any tumors in addition to the one identified by imaging tests The process takes about 10 minutes A patient can expect mild discomfort during this procedure and may receive an injection of pain medication beforehand at the doctor's discretion.

Next Post Previous Post