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Bladder cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What is Bladder Cancer?

The bladder is an organ in the lower part of the abdomen that is shaped like a small balloon. It has a muscular wall that allows it to enlarge or reduce in size to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys--one on each side of the backbone above the waist. The tiny tubules in the kidneys The blood is filtered and cleaned to remove waste products. Urine is made from this cleaning, and it flows from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

The male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) show the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collected in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. Urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.

What is Bladder Cancer?
Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer can start in cells in the bladder lining. There are three types of bladder cancer that are named for the type of cells that become cancerous: 1) Squamous Cell Carcinoma, which starts with squamous cells; 2) Adenocarcinoma, which starts with adipocytes (cells that make up mucous); and 3) Papillary Adenocarcinoma, which starts with papillary cells.

  • Cancer that begins in cells in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder.These cells stretch and grow when the bladder is full, and they shrink when it is emptied. Most bladder cancers begin in transitional cells.Sometimes cancer can start out as transitional cell carcinoma.Good quality.

    • Transitional cell carcinoma rarely spreads to other parts of the body after treatment. However, it may recur (come back) after treatment and rarely spread into the muscle layer of the bladder.

    • High-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment and often spreads to other parts of the body. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer are due to high-grade disease.

  • bladder cancer: Cancer that begins in thin, flat cells lining the inside of the bladder. Cancer may form after long-term infection or irritation.

  • Bladder cancer: Cancer that begins in glandular cells located in the lining of the bladder. These cells make substances such as mucus. This type of cancer is very rare.

Bladder cancer that exists in the lining of the bladder is called superficial bladder cancer. Cancer that has spread through the lining of the bladder and invaded muscle tissue or other nearby organs is called invasive bladder cancer.

  1. Urinary system

Medical terms

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins within the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine.

Bladder cancer most frequently begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the within of your bladder. Urothelial cells also are found in your kidneys and therefore the tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys to the bladder. Urothelial cancer can happen in the kidneys and ureters, too, however it's far more common in the bladder.

Most bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, once the willcer is extremely treatable. However, even early-stage bladder cancers can return when treatment is booming. For this reason, folks with bladder cancer generally would like follow-up tests for years after treatment to appear for bladder cancer that recurs.

prevention People with a family history of bladder cancer can take steps to reduce their risk of developing it According to the National Cancer Institute one way is to avoid tobacco smoke Other measures that may lower the chance of developing bladder cancer include getting regular exercise and maintaining a healthy body weight Those who have been exposed to chemicals in the workplace should also see a doctor for regular checkups.

Bladder cancer is a painful and life-threatening disease It’s the 9th most common cancer in men and women and is usually found in people who are over 50 years old The problem with bladder cancer is that many of the symptoms take very little time to develop which means it can be hard to detect early enough for effective treatment The good news is that bladder cancer can be cured if caught before it spreads outside the lining of the bladder Early detection using regular screening tests greatly improves your chances of surviving this disease and getting your life back to normal.

Symptoms Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include:

  • Blood in excreta (hematuria), which can cause urine to seem bright red or cola colored, although generally the urine seems traditional and blood is detected on a research lab take a look at

  • Frequent urination

  • Painful urination

  • Back pain

Smoking can increase the risk of bladder cancer.

Having a risk factor means that there is a greater chance of getting a disease. This does not mean that you will definitely get cancer; not having risk factors does not mean that you will not get cancer.If you have any concerns about your bladder health, talk to your doctor.

The risks for bladder cancer include the following:

  • Smoking cigarettes is bad for your health.

  • Having a family history of bladder cancer increases your risk of developing the disease.

  • Some changes in your genes may lead to bladder cancer.

  • Working with paints, dyes, or petroleum products can make metals or oil products present in the workplace.

  • If you have had radiation therapy or anticancer drugs treatment in the past, it may affect the flowers you will get.

  • I am going to take a Chinese herb called Aristolochia fangchi.

  • Drinking water from a well that contains high levels of arsenic can be dangerous.

  • Chlorine-treated water is safe to drink.

  • Having a history of bladder infections, including infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium.

  • Using urinary catheters for a long time.

Aging is a risk factor for most cancers. The higher your age, the greater your risk of developing cancer.

Blood in the urine and pain during urination are signs of bladder cancer.

If you have any of the following signs or symptoms, it's best to check with your doctor: These and other symptoms may indicate bladder cancer or another condition.If you have any of these symptoms, talk to your doctor.

  • If you see blood in your urine, it means there is a problem with your kidneys. The blood may be rusty or bright red in color.

  • Frequent urination.

  • Pain during urination.

  • Lower back pain.

When to see a doctor

If you notice that you just have stained body waste and are involved it's going to contain blood, create a meeting together with your doctor to urge it to be checked. conjointly make an appointment with your doctor if you have got different signs or symptoms that worry you.

Does bladder cancer spread fast?

Bladder cancer typically does not spread fast In fact it usually is slow growing and will not spread unless the tumor has reached a significant size or if you have another form of cancer that invades the bladder (metastasizes) Learn more about how bladder cancer spreads or doesn’t spread including how this disease may present with symptoms other than blood in urine You can also read about signs and symptoms of other types of urinary tract cancers such as kidney or prostate cancers.

Can you survive without a bladder?

Bladder control is not an instinctive behavior Young children leak because they don't understand the connection between feeling the urge to urinate and controlling the muscles that allow urine to exit the body As children grow older most continue to have accidents until their bladder which can hold about 600 milliliters (mls) of liquid enlarges enough for them to stay dry during waking hours Some people never fully master bladder control however They suffer from a condition called urinary incontinence in which physical pressure or emotion causes involuntary release of urine; symptoms range from small leaks to flooding of clothing and sometimes beds.

How long can you live after bladder removal?

The bladder is a hollow muscular organ that stores urine until it can be expelled from the body When the nerves that supply bladder function are damaged in an accident or stroke or due to cancer or other illnesses a permanent urinary diversion called a neobladder may be implanted This surgery is performed when all other treatments for impaired bladder nerve control have failed and continued management of your condition requires a full-time indwelling catheter When performing this surgery your surgeon will create an artificial urinary reservoir–a neobladder–from an extra piece of your large intestine (colon) to store urine The.

How long does a cystoscopy take?

A cystoscopy is a type of medical procedure that allows the internal lining of the bladder to be examined directly so that abnormalities can be seen The urologist performing this test will first give general anesthesia and then insert a tube with a camera on its tip into your urethra which runs from your bladder to outside your body A catheter may be inserted through the urethra before inserting the camera This will allow them to flush out your bladder with saline solution during the exam in order to get clear images of any abnormalities The entire procedure lasts around 10 minutes and is deemed safe for most patients.

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

The main cause of bladder cancer is smoking. People who smoke two packs a day have seven times the risk of developing bladder cancer than people who don't. Another common cause is exposure to chemicals in industrial settings though not as much as tobacco use.

Causes Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer begins once cells within the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their deoxyribonucleic acid. A cell' DNA contains directions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to multiply speedily and to travel on living when healthy cells would die. The abnormal cells type a growth that may invade and destroy traditional body tissue. In time, the abnormal cells can separate from and unfold (metastasize) through the body.

Types of bladder cancer

Different types of cells in your bladder will become cancerous. The sort of bladder cell wherever cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. Doctors use this data to work out that treatments may match best for you.

Types of bladder cancer include:

  • Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial malignant neoplastic disease, antecedently known as shift cell carcinoma, happens within the cells that line the within of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand once your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty. These same cells line the inside of the ureters and therefore the urethra, and willcers can kind in those places as well. Urothelial carcinoma is the most typical kind of bladder cancer in the United States. 

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell malignant neoplastic disease is related to chronic irritation of the bladder — for instance, from AN infection or from long use of a urinary catheter. epithelial cell bladder cancer is rare within the United States. It' additional common in elements of the planet wherever a precise parasitic infection (schistosomiasis) could be a common reason behind bladder infections. 

  • Adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that conjure mucus-secreting glands within the bladder. glandular carcinoma of the bladder is incredibly rare. Some bladder cancers embrace over one style of cell. 

Risk factors Bladder cancer

Factors that may increase bladder cancer risk include:

  • Smoking. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes may increase the danger of bladder cancer by inflicting harmful chemicals to accumulate within the urine. Once you smoke, your body processes the chemicals in the smoke and excretes a number of them in your urine. These harmful chemicals may injure the liner of your bladder, which might increase your risk of cancer.

  • Increasing age. Bladder cancer risk increases as you age. Though it can occur at any age, most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are older than 55.

  • Being male. Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are.

  • Exposure to certain chemicals. Your kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from your blood and moving them into your bladder. attributable to this, it's thought that being around sure chemicals could increase the chance of bladder cancer. Chemicals coupled to bladder cancer risk embrace arsenic and chemicals employed in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products. 

  • Previous cancer treatment. Treatment with the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide will increase the danger of bladder cancer. Those that received radiation treatments aimed toward the pelvis for a previous cancer have a better risk of developing bladder cancer. 

  • Chronic bladder inflammation. Chronic or continual urinary infections or inflammations (cystitis), which may happen with long use of a urinary catheter, may increase the danger of epithelial cell bladder cancer. In some areas of the world, squamous cell cancer is coupled to chronic bladder inflammation caused by the parasitic infection referred to as schistosomiasis. 

  • Personal or family history of cancer. If you've had bladder willcer, you're more likely to urge it again. If one among your blood relatives — a parent, sibling or kid — includes a history of bladder cancer, you'll have an Associate in Nursing enlarged risk of the disease, though it's rare for bladder cancer to run in families. A case history of kill syndrome, also called hereditary nonpolyposis body part cancer (HNPCC), can increase the danger of cancer within the urinary system, likewise as in the colon, uterus, ovaries and alternative organs. 

Prevention Bladder cancer

Although there's no warranted thanks to forestall bladder cancer, you'll be able to take steps to assist cut back your risk. For instance:

  • Don't smoke. If you don't smoke, don't start. If you smoke, seek advice from your doctor and a few decide to assist you stop. Support groups, medications and different ways might help you quit. 

  • Take caution around chemicals. If you work with chemicals, follow all safety instructions to avoid exposure.

  • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. Choose a diet wealthy in an exceedingly style of colorful fruits and vegetables. The antioxidants in fruits and vegetables could facilitate scale back your risk of cancer. 

Diagnosis Bladder cancer

The following tests and procedures can be used:

  • Physical exam and health historyA physical exam of the body is conducted to check general signs of health as well as to look for signs of disease. This includes checking for lumps and anything else that seems unusual. The patient's history of health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken into account.

  • Internal exam A doctor will perform an exam of the vagina and/or rectum by inserting lubricated gloved fingers.If the patient finds any lumps, they will be referred for more testing.

  • UrinalysisA test to check the color of urine and the types of cells in it.

  • Urine cytologyA laboratory test in which a sample of urine is examined under a microscope for abnormal cells.

  • CystoscopyA doctor will use a cystoscopy to look inside your bladder and urethra to check for any abnormalities.The cystoscope will be inserted into your urinary tract through your urethra. The doctor may also have a tool to take tissue samples for further examination. A microscope is used to look for signs of cancer.A cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A fluid is used to fill the bladder. The doctor looks at an image of the inner wall of the bladder on a computer monitor.

  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)A series of x-rays are taken of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to see if cancer is present.If cancer is found, a contrast dye is injected into a vein to make it easier to see on an x-ray. This dye will move through the organs and x-rays will be taken to detect any obstructions.

  • Biopsy Pathologists remove cells or tissues from people to look for signs of cancer.A biopsy to test for bladder cancer is usually done during a cystoscopy. This may involve removing the entire tumor.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for a person depend on certain factors.

The prognosis depends on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer (whether it is superficial or invasive bladder cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body).If bladder cancer is caught early, it can often be cured.

  • The different types of bladder cancer cells and how they look under a microscope.

  • We want to know if there is cancer in situ (where it has not yet grown out of control) in other parts of the bladder.

  • The patient's age and general health are factors that will be considered when making the decision about whether or not to perform surgery.

If the cancer is a superficial tumor, also it depends on the following:

  • How many tumors there are.

  • The size of the tumors.

  • Has the tumor come back after treatment?

The treatment options for bladder cancer depend on the stage of the cancer.

Stages of Bladder Cancer

  • After bladder cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread within the bladder or to other parts of the body.

  • Cancer can spread in the body in three ways.

  • Cancer may spread from its original location to other parts of the body.

  • There are several steps that must be followed in order to diagnose and treat bladder cancer.

    • Stage 0 (Noninvasive Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) This is a stage for noninvasive papillary carcinoma and carcinoma in situ.

    • Stage I

    • Stage II

    • Stage III

    • Stage IV

  • Cancer that has been treated in the bladder may come back.

After bladder cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to see if the cancer has spread within the bladder or to other parts of the body.

Doctors use a process called staging to determine if cancer has spread within the bladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body. This information is important in order to plan treatment. Knowing the stage of the disease is important so that you can make informed decisions. Staging can involve testing and procedures.

  • CT scan (CAT scan) An x-ray procedure makes pictures of areas inside the body from different angles. These pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. A CT scan is a type of medical imaging that can be used to diagnose bladder cancer. It may take pictures of your chest, abdomen, and pelvic area.

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) is a procedure that uses a magnet and a computer to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body.

  • A PET scan is a type of scan that uses positron emission tomography to create images of the body.The PET scanner can be used to find tumors in the body. A small amount of radioactive sugar is injected into a vein. The PET scanner will rotate around the body and make a picture of where the sugar is being used in the body. Tumor cells will show up brighter in the picture because they use more sugar than normal cells.Lymph nodes are checked to see if there are malignant tumor cells. This is done by making the cells more active than normal cells.

  • Chest x-rayAn x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest takes a picture. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and be recorded on film, revealing areas inside the body.

  • Bone scanCancer cells are identified by a procedure that involves injecting a small amount of radioactive material into a vein. The radioactive material will travel through the bloodstream and collect in the bones with cancer. This can be detected by a scanner.

Cancer can spread in three ways in the body.

Cancer can spread through tissues in the lymph system and the blood.

  • Cancer cells spread from where they began by growing in nearby areas.

  • Cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.

  • Cancer spreads from where it began by entering the bloodstream. Cancer travels through the bloodstream to other parts of the body.

Cancer can spread from where it began to other parts of the body.

Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body if they break away from the original tumor. This is called metastasis. Cancer cells move through the lymph system and/or the blood, in order to reach new locations.

  • Cancer travels through the lymph system and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

  • Cancer grows in the blood. It travels through the blood vessels and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

The cancer that has spread is of the same type as the original cancer. For example, if bladder cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually bladder cancer cells. This is known as metastatic bladder cancer, not bone cancer.

Cancer deaths are often caused when cancer moves from the original tumor and spreads to other tissues. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place where they first formed to other parts of the body.At Stage 0, cancer cells are found in the bladder tissue lining. Abnormal cells may look like long, thin growths that are growing from the bladder lining. Stage 0a (also called noninvasive papillary carcinoma) may look like long, thin growths that are growing from the inside of the bladder. Stage 0is (also called carcinoma in situ) is a flat tumor on the surface of the bladder tissue. Put a lining in the bladder.

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These cells may become cancerous and spread to nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a and 0 is depending on the type of tumor:

  • Stage 0a is a type of papillary cancer that may look like long, thin growths growing from the lining of the bladder.

  • Cancer in situ (Stage 0) is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.

Stage I

Cancer has spread to the tissues near the bladder's inner lining.

In stage I cancer has spread to the layer of connective tissue near the inner lining of the bladder.

Stage II

Stage II bladder cancer has spread to the layer of muscle tissue near the bladder.

In stage II cancer, the cancer has spread to the layers of muscle tissue in the bladder.

Stage III

In Stage III, there are two stages: Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB.

Stage IV

Cancer in the bladder has spread to one of the following: (1) the abdomen or pelvis; or (2) lymph nodes above the common iliac arteries. Cancer in the bladder has also spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung, liver, or bone.

Stages IVA and IVB are separated by a stage, IV.

  • In stage IVA:

    • Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

    • Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the body above the major iliac arteries.

  • In stage IVB cancer, the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Cancer can come back after being treated for bladder cancer.

The cancer may come back in the bladder or other parts of the body.

Treatment  Bladder cancer

  • Some types of treatment are used to treat patients with bladder cancer.

  • There are five standard treatment methods:

    • Surgery

    • Radiation therapy

    • Chemotherapy

    • Immunotherapy

    • Targeted therapy

  • Clinical trials are being conducted to test new types of treatments.

  • Treatment for bladder cancer may cause side effects.

  • Patients may want to consider participating in a clinical trial.

  • Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

  • Follow-up tests may be needed.

There are different types of treatments for people with bladder cancer.

There are different types of treatments available for people with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard and used currently, while others are being tested in clinical trials to see if they are better than the current treatment. A clinical trial is a research study that helps improve current treatments or gathers information on new ones. If a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, it may become the standard treatment. Patients who are considering taking part in a clinical trial should think about it carefully. Some clinical trials are open to only patients who have not been treated before. I'm starting the treatment.


A surgery of one of the following types may be done:

  • Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration: Surgery in which a cystoscope (a thin lighted tube) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. A tool with a small wire loop on the end is then used to remove the cancer or to burn the tumor away with high-energy electricity. This is known as electrocautery. The leaves will become brightly colored.

  • Radical cystectomy: Surgery to remove the bladder and any lymph nodes and nearby organs that may contain cancer. This surgery may be done when the bladder cancer invades the muscle wall or when superficial cancer involves a large part of the bladder. In men, the nearby organs that are removed are typically the prostate, testes, and bile duct. The prostate, seminal vesicles, and uterus are all parts of the female reproductive system. In women, parts of the uterus (the ovaries and part of the vagina) are sometimes removed during cancer treatment. If the cancer has spread outside of the bladder, surgery may be done to remove just the bladder. This will reduce urinary symptoms caused by the cancer. The surgeon creates a new way for urine to leave the body by removing the bladder.

  • Partial cystectomy: Surgery to remove a part of the bladder. This surgery may be done for patients who have a low-grade tumor that has invaded only one area of the bladder. Because only a part of the bladder is removed patients are able to urinate normally after the surgery. After this surgery, you will recover. This is also called a segmental cystectomy.

  • Urinary diversion: Surgery that creates a new way for the body to store and pass urine.

After surgery to remove cancerous cells, some patients may be given chemotherapy after the surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. This is done to lower the risk that the cancer will come back. Treatment given after surgery to help prevent the cancer from returning is called adjuvant therapy.

Radiation therapy

Cancer treatment using radiation uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine that sends radiation toward the area where cancer is located.


Cancer treatment involves using drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. Drugs can be taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, and they will reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy can be given in different ways, depending on the location of the cancer. Systemic chemotherapy (given throughout the body) mainly affects cancer cells in specific areas, such as the brain or the abdomen. Regional chemotherapy (given only in certain areas) is more effective for bladder cancer, since it is put directly into the bladder. Chemotherapy is given through a tube that is inserted into the urethra. The way it is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Combination chemotherapy is treatment that uses more than one anticancer drug.

See Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer for more information about which drugs are approved for bladder cancer.


Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or created in a laboratory are used to stimulate or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This cancer therapy is a type of biological therapy.

Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that uses different methods to strengthen the body's immune system.

  • Treatment with PD-1 inhibitors and PD-L1 inhibitors: When PD-1 attaches to PD-L1, it stops the T cell from attacking the cancer cell. These inhibitors help keep the body's immune responses in check. Keep PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins from binding to each other so that the T cells can kill cancer cells.

    • Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are types of medications that block the PD-1 receptor.

    • Atezolizumab and durvalumab are types of PD-1 inhibitors.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors help keep the immune system in check. Checkpoint proteins, such as PD-L1 on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells, help keep the immune response from attacking and killing the tumor cells. By blocking the binding of PD-L1 to PD-1, the T cells will not be able to kill the tumor cells (left panel). The inhibitor allows the T cells to kill tumor cells (on the right panel).Immunotherapy uses the body's immune system to fight cancer. This animation explains one type of immunotherapy in which the immune system is used to fight cancer.

  • BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin):An intravesical immunotherapy called BCG may be used to treat bladder cancer. The BCG is put into a solution and inserted through a thin tube into the bladder.

Immunotherapy uses the body's immune system to fight cancer. This animation explains one type of immunotherapy, nonspecific immune stimulation, which is used to treat cancer.

See Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer for more information about these drugs.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells, causing less harm to normal cells than chemotherapy or radiation therapy do.

Some targeted therapies are approved for patients with bladder cancer that has progressed or spread to other parts of the body.

  • Enfortumab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody linked to an anticancer drug. This means that it is a type of antibody-drug conjugate. It may be used in patients whose cancer has become worse after treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin-based therapy).

  • Erdafitinib is a drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. It may be used in patients with bladder cancer who have certain mutations in the FGFR genes and who have experienced a worsening of their condition after treatment with chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin-based therapy).

Ramucirumab is a type of targeted therapy that is being studied in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of bladder cancer. This blocks growth factors that help new blood vessels form. This might stop cancer cells from growing and may kill them. Ramucirumab is an inhibitor of angiogenesis. A monoclonal antibody is a type of antibody.

Some patients may want to take part in a clinical trial.

Some people who are fighting cancer may want to take part in a clinical trial. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. They help find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment for cancer. These trials help us learn more about the best ways to treat cancer.

Clinical trials are important because they help improve cancer treatment in the future. Even when trials do not result in new treatments, they often provide important information that helps guide research forward.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials are only for patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test new ways to treat cancer or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. There are also clinical trials that test whether new treatments work for patients whose cancer has not improved.

Clinical trials are being done in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials that are supported by the National Cancer Institute can be found on the NCI’s clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials that are supported by other organizations can be found on the website.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to determine if cancer is present or to determine its stage may be repeated.Some tests will be repeated to see if the treatment is working. The decision about whether to continue treatment or change it may be based on the results of these tests.

After treatment has ended, some of the tests will still be done from time to time. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has come back (recurred). Sometimes these tests are called follow-up tests or check-ups.

Even if bladder cancer is only superficial, it often recurs. After a diagnosis, regular surveillance of the urinary tract is standard to check for recurrence. If there are any changes, treatment may be started. If the condition is getting worse, tests will be done to see if it has gotten worse. Certain exams and tests might be done on a regular basis during active surveillance. Surveillance might include a ureteroscopy and imaging tests. See staging tests above.

See the Treatment Option Overview section for more information about the various treatments.

The treatment for recurrent bladder cancer depends on the type of cancer and where it has recurred. Treatment may include the following:

Use our clinical trial search to find cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. You can also learn more about clinical trials in general.

To Learn More About Bladder Cancer

For more information about bladder cancer from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:

For cancer-related information and resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:

  1. Child medical and psychological care
  2. Psychological rehabilitation for cancer

Preparing for your appointment

Start by seeing your own family doctor when you have any symptoms or symptoms that worry you, together with blood for your urine. Your doctor may propose checks and methods to investigate your symptoms and signs.

If your physician suspects that you can have bladder cancer, you'll be referred to a medical doctor who specializes in treating illnesses and situations of the urinary tract (urologist). In some instances, you'll be mentioned by other experts, consisting of docs who treat most cancers (oncologists).

Because there is often a lot of statistics to speak about, it is an excellent idea to be well organized. Here's some facts to help you get ready, and what to anticipate out of your health practitioner.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. When you create the appointment, raise if there's something you wish to try to do in advance, love to prohibit your diet.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking along with dosages.

  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it's troublesome to recollect all of the knowledge provided throughout an Associate in Nursing appointment. somebody who accompanies you'll remember one thing that you simply lost or forgot.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions assists you to make the most of some time with your health practitioner. For bladder cancer, a few primary inquiries to ask encompass:

  • Do I have bladder cancer or could my symptoms be caused by another condition?

  • What is the stage of my cancer?

  • Will I need any additional tests?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • Can any treatments cure my bladder cancer?

  • What are the potential risks of each treatment?

  • Is there one treatment that you feel is best for me?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing me?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

  • What will determine whether I should plan for a follow-up visit?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, do not hesitate to ask different questions that arise to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health practitioner is probably to invite you a number of questions. Being ready to reply to them may additionally allow time later to cover different factors you need to deal with. Your doctor might also ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

Bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer in both men and women It is also one of the easiest cancers to cure and it has a high survival rate if detected early According to Dr Jegasothy president of the American College of Physicians "The five-year survival rate for bladder cancer is almost 100 percent." Early diagnosis and treatment can ensure that you'll never have to worry about this disease again. If you're at risk due to your lifestyle or because of your family history make sure that you get screened regularly__especially if you've noticed blood in your urine or any other symptoms indicative of.

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Bladder cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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