Bradycardia : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is bradycardia?

Bradycardia suggests that your rate is slow. This could be fully traditional and fascinating, however generally it is often associated with abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia). If you've got arrhythmia and you've got sure symptoms together with the slow rate, then it suggests that your heartbeat is simply too slow.

A normal resting rate for many individuals is between sixty and a hundred beats per minute (bpm). A resting rate slower than sixty beats per minute is taken into account for arrhythmia. Athletic and senior individuals usually have a rate slower than sixty beats per minute after they square measure sitting or lying down, and a rate but sixty beats per minute is common for several individuals throughout sleep.

What is bradycardia?

Bradycardia is a condition in which the pulse rate of an individual drops to less than 60 beats per minute This can be caused by an intrinsic problem in the heart such as with its electrical system or because of the formation of scar tissue within the heart muscle Some medications may also lead to bradycardia including those for high blood pressure and asthma As people age they are more likely to experience bradycardia due to changes in their circulation systems as well as loss of nerve function.

Bradycardia is a condition in which your heart beats too slowly It ranges from a slow resting heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per minute to a severe bradycardia that can cause you to lose consciousness Bradycardia happens when electrical signals sent by the nervous system to the heart aren't working properly If an abnormality affects just one part of the heart only some parts will contract at slower rates This produces abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) waves and different types of bradyarrhythmias can result from any disturbance in this process The most common type is sinus bradycardia.

  1. Circulatory system

Medical terms

  • Bradycardia may be slower than traditional pulse rate. The hearts of adults at rest sometimes beat between sixty and one hundred times a moment. If you've got cardiac arrhythmia, your heart beats fewer than sixty times a moment.

  • Bradycardia is a significant drawback if the guts rate is extremely slow and therefore the heart cannot pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body. If this happens, you will feel dizzy, terribly tired or weak, and want to breathe. typically cardiac arrhythmia does not cause symptoms or complications.

  • A slow heartbeat isn't a priority. For instance, a resting pulse rate between forty and sixty beats a moment is sort of common throughout sleep and in some folks, notably healthy young adults and trained athletes.

  • If cardiac arrhythmia is severe, an associate deep-seated pacemaker could also be required to assist the guts maintain the associate applicable rate.

  • To understand cardiac arrhythmia, it helps to grasp the heart’s electrical system, that is what makes the guts beat.

  • Your heart includes a natural pacemaker referred to as the sinus node (SA node), that is created of atiny low bunch of special cells. Impulses begin at the SA node and move through the walls within the higher chambers of your heart (atria). The impulses cause the atria to contract and push blood into the lower chambers of your heart (ventricles).

  • Next, the impulse travels down the associated electrical pathway to the Ab node. The Ab node is within the center of your heart, in between the atria and ventricles. The Ab node acts sort of like a gate that slows the electrical signal before it moves into the ventricles.

  • The final part of your heartbeat happens once the electricity moves through a pathway of fibers within the ventricles referred to as His-Purkinje Network. This causes the ventricles to contract and force blood out of the guts to the lungs and body.

This cycle is perennial when your heart beats.

Symptoms Bradycardia

A slower than normal heartbeat (bradycardia) can prevent the brain and other organs from getting enough oxygen, possibly causing these signs and symptoms:

  • Chest pain

  • Confusion or memory problems

  • Dizziness or lightheadedness

  • Easily tiring during physical activity

  • Fatigue

  • Fainting (syncope) or near-fainting

  • Shortness of breath

When to see a doctor

Many things will cause signs and symptoms of arrhythmia. It is important to induce a prompt, correct diagnosis and applicable care. See your health care supplier if you or your kid has symptoms of arrhythmia.

If you faint, have respiratory issues or have pain lasting over a number of minutes, call 911 or emergency medical services. ask for an emergency look after anyone with these symptoms. 

Causes Bradycardia

The chances of obtaining arrhythmia increase as you age, although that’s true of most heart conditions. The causes of arrhythmia will vary greatly from one person to consecutive.

The abnormal rhythm will show up when an attack or as a facet result of surgical process.

Bradycardia can be caused by:

  • Heart tissue damage related to aging

  • Damage to heart tissues from heart disease or heart attack

  • A heart disorder present at birth (congenital heart defect)

  • Inflammation of heart tissue (myocarditis)

  • A complication of heart surgery

  • An underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)

  • Imbalance of chemicals in the blood, such as potassium or calcium

  • Repeated pauses in breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea)

  • Inflammatory disease, such as rheumatic fever or lupus

  • Medications, including sedatives, opioids, and drugs used to treat heart rhythm disorders, high blood pressure and certain mental health disorders

To better perceive the causes of cardiac arrhythmia, it's going to be useful to understand however the center usually beats.

The typical heart has four chambers — 2 higher chambers (atria) and 2 lower chambers (ventricles). inside the higher right chamber of the center (right atrium) could be a cluster of cells known as the sinus node. The sinus node is the heart's natural pacemaker. It produces the signal that starts every heartbeat.

Bradycardia happens once these signals are prevented or are blocked.

Sinus node problems

Bradycardia typically starts within the space of the center referred to as the sinus node. In some folks, sinus node issues cause alternating slow and quick heart rates (bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome).

Heart block (atrioventricular block)

Bradycardia also can occur if the heart's electrical signals do not move properly from the higher chambers (atria) to the lower chambers (ventricles). If this happens, the condition is termed cardiac arrhythmia, or Stokes-Adams syndrome.

Heart blocks constitute 3 main teams.

  • First-degree heart block. In the mildest kind, all electrical signals from the atria reach the ventricles, however the signal is slowed. First-degree arrhythmia seldom causes symptoms and frequently wants no treatment if there is no different drawback in electrical signal. 

  • Second-degree heart block. Not all electrical signals reach the ventricles. Some beats are dropped, resulting in a slower and sometimes irregular heart rhythm.

  • Third-degree (complete) heart block. None of the electrical signals from the atria reaches the ventricles. When this happens, the ventricles will usually beat on their own but at a very slow rate.

Risk factors Bradycardia

Bradycardia is often associated with damage to heart tissue from some type of heart disease. Anything that increases the risk of heart problems can increase the risk of bradycardia. Risk factors for heart disease include:

  • Older age

  • High blood pressure

  • Smoking

  • Heavy alcohol use

  • Illegal drug use

  • Stress and anxiety

Healthy-lifestyle changes or medical treatment may help lower the risk of heart disease.

Complications Bradycardia

Possible complications of bradycardia can include:

  • Frequent fainting

  • Inability of the heart to pump enough blood (heart failure)

  • Sudden cardiac arrest or sudden death

Prevention Bradycardia

Bradycardia are often caused by bound medications, significantly if they're taken at high doses, thus it is vital to require all medications as directed. Though cardiac arrhythmia isn't generally preventable, health care suppliers advocate methods to cut back the chance of developing cardiovascular disease. Take the subsequent wholesome steps:

  • Get regular exercise. Your health care provider may give you recommendations about how much and what type of exercise is best for you.

  • Eat a healthy diet. Choose a healthy, low-fat, low-salt, low-sugar diet that's rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases the risk of developing heart disease.

  • Keep blood pressure and cholesterol under control. Make way changes and take medications as prescribed to manage high force per unit area, polygenic disease and high sterol. 

  • Don't smoke. If you need help quitting, talk to your health care provider about strategies or programs to help.

  • If you drink, do so in moderation. If you select to drink alcohol, do so sparsely. For healthy adults, which means up to at least one drink each day for ladies and up to 2 drinks each day for men. If you cannot manage your alcohol use, see a health care supplier for a couple of programs to quit drinking and manage different behaviors associated with alcoholic abuse. 

  • Manage stress. Intense emotions could have an effect on vital signs. Some ways that to alleviate stress have gotten regular exercise, connecting a support cluster and attempting relaxation techniques, like yoga. 

  • Go to scheduled checkups. Have regular physical exams and report signs or symptoms to your health care provider.

Monitor and treat existing heart disease

If you have already got heart condition, there area unit steps you'll desire lower your risk of developing arrhythmia or another rhythm disorder:

  • Follow the plan. Be sure you understand your treatment plan. Take all medications as prescribed.

  • Report changes immediately. If your symptoms change or worsen or you develop new symptoms, tell your health care provider immediately.

Does bradycardia go away?

Bradycardia is the medical term for a slow heart rate It's usually between 40 and 50 beats per minute but it can also be over 20 beats per minute When bradycardia happens at a normal heart rhythm it's called sinus bradycardia Bradycardia can happen when a person first wakes up in the morning or after physical activity that makes the heart work harder.

How can I raise my heart rate?

The key to raising your heart rate is intensity For exercise this means pushing yourself hard enough so that you can't comfortably continue at the same speed or by increasing the resistance on your cardio machine If you're exercising outdoors without equipment find ways to make it harder: Climb hills on your bike instead of riding across flat land increase the incline while jogging on a treadmill swim closer to shore as if going after prey and sprint from one side of a soccer field to another.

What is a dangerously low heart rate?

A dangerously low heart rate often occurs if the heart malfunctions (arrhythmia) Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that leads to a dangerously low heart rate Sometimes an atrium can misfire when it is supposed to contract The fast action of the beating atrium pulls in more blood than normal so there's less space for the atria to fill with oxygen-rich blood from the lungs As a result your pulse becomes very slow or stops completely An unusually slow heartbeat may also indicate hypothermia lack of sleep and some medications.

How can I raise my heart rate without exercise?

The best way to get your heart rate up without actually having to exercise is to take the stairs instead of an escalator or elevator. Simple things that you do throughout your day can have a big impact on your heart health and you might never realize until it's too late! Even little things like walking fast when grocery shopping can help boost your heart rate For example if you usually stroll through the supermarket in order to keep from getting bored as you shop try doing it at a faster pace This will also allow more time for relaxing after finishing your errands The same works for doing chores around the house - clean dishes.

How can I increase my heart rate naturally?

There are a lot of reasons why people want to increase their heart rate It could be for exercise and weight loss or it could be because you have low blood pressure and your doctor has instructed you to get your heart beating faster than usual Whatever the case is exercising is one of the most obvious answers but there are ways that you can increase your heart rate naturally as well Exercising will mean getting on an elliptical machine at the gym running on a treadmill or even going dancing with friends Regardless of what activity it is that you choose though it's important to keep in mind that exercising can cause.

Home treatment is preferred by many people because they do not have to spend time in a hospital and they can continue their normal daily activities while being treated. Here are some of the conditions that can be treated without admission at home: - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Diagnosis Bradycardia

Your doctor can feel your pulse to induce your vital sign and can use tests to induce a lot of info regarding your vital sign and rhythm. A straightforward ECG will show the rhythm that's inflicting the slow vital sign, however you will ought to wear an associate degree ambulant monitor. The monitor is employed to stay track of your vital sign and rhythm over an extended amount of your time. you may keep track of any symptoms you've got. Your doctor can match up the symptoms with the activity on the monitor to visualize if a cardiac rhythm downside is the cause and if your vital sign is related to your symptoms. If you would like to wear a monitor, you may get details on the way to wear and use it.

To diagnose cardiac arrhythmia, a health care supplier can sometimes perform a physical examination and hear your heart with a medical instrument. He or she could raise you questions about your symptoms and anamnesis.

Your health care supplier could suggest tests to see your vital sign and see if you've got a heart downside which will cause cardiac arrhythmia. Blood tests are also done to see for alternative conditions which will cause slow heartbeats, like associate degree infection, associate degree hypoactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) or associate degree solution imbalance.


An ECG (ECG or EKG) is the main check used to diagnose arrhythmia. associate degree ECG measures the electrical activity of the center. Sticky patches (electrodes) square measure placed on the chest and generally the arms and legs. Wires connect the electrodes to a laptop that displays the results. associate degree EKG will show if the center is thrashing too slow, too quick or not in the slightest degree.

Because associate degree EKG cannot find arrhythmia unless the slow heartbeat happens throughout the check, your health care supplier may advocate a transportable EKG device. moveable EKG devices include:

  • Holter monitor. Carried in a pocket or worn on a belt or shoulder strap, this device records the heart's activity continuously for 24 hours or longer.

  • Event recorder. This device is comparable to a Holter monitor, however it records solely at bound times for a couple of minutes at a time. It's worn longer than a Holter monitor, generally thirty days. You typically push a button once you feel symptoms. Some devices mechanically record once AN irregular regular recurrence is detected.
    A graph is also finished with different tests to know however arrhythmia affects you. These tests include: 

  • Tilt table test. This check might facilitate your health care supplier higher perceived ness however your cardiac arrhythmia causes fainting spells. As you lie flat on a special table, the table is tipped as if you were standing up. A tilt check is finished to check if a modification in position causes fainting. 

  • Stress exercise test. An ECG is also done to watch your heart's activity whereas you ride on a stationary bicycle or walk on a treadmill. If you've got problems with physical exercise, a drug is also given to stimulate the guts in a very method that is kind of like exercise.
    A sleep study is also counseled if your health care supplier thinks that continual pauses in respiration throughout sleep (obstructive sleep apnea) square measure inflicting cardiac arrhythmia. 

Treatment Bradycardia

If you have got arrhythmia however don't have any symptoms, or if the arrhythmia doesn’t happen usually or last long, you'll not would like treatment. typically arrhythmia could be a smart issue and is that the goal of treatment.

If you wish treatment, it'll support the reason behind the condition. If you have an electrical drawback in your heart, you would like a pacemaker to keep your heart beating because it ought to. A pacemaker could be a tiny device that's placed below your skin to watch your heart’s rate and rhythm. If needed, the pacemaker can send AN electrical impulse to your heart to revive a standard pulse rate. Their square measures many sorts of pacemakers. Your doctor can select the correct sort to satisfy your wants.

Treatment for arrhythmia depends on the severity of symptoms and therefore the reason behind the slow pulse rate. If you do not have symptoms, treatment won't be necessary.

Bradycardia treatment could embody life-style changes, medication changes or AN deep-seated device known as a pacemaker. If AN underlying ill health, like thyroid illness or apnea, is inflicting slower than traditional heartbeat, treatment of that condition would possibly correct arrhythmia.


Many medications, together with those wont to treat alternative heart conditions, will cause cardiac arrhythmia. continuously let your health care supplier fathom all the medications you're taking, together with those bought while not a prescription.

If a drug you are taking is inflicting cardiac arrhythmia, your health care supplier could suggest a lower dose or a special medication.

Surgery or other procedures

When different treatments are not attainable and arrhythmia symptoms are severe, a tool referred to as a pacemaker is important to regulate the center rhythm. Pacemakers work only if required. Once the center beats too slowly, the pacemaker sends electrical signals to the center to hurry up the beat.

Having a pacemaker deep-rooted needs an operation. One or a lot of wires are inserted into a significant vein below or close to the clavicle and target-hunting to the center exploitation X-rays as a guide. One finish of every wire is secured at the suitable space within the heart, whereas the opposite finish is hooked up to a tool (pulse generator) deep-rooted below the skin below the clavicle.

A lead-free pacemaker is smaller and generally needs a less invasive surgery to implant the device.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation

Preparing for your appointment

Whether you begin by seeing your medical care supplier or get emergency care, you will likely be stated as a doctor trained in heart conditions (cardiologist) for designation and treatment.

What you can do

If possible, write down the following information and take it with you to your health care provider's appointment:

  • Your symptoms, including those that seem unrelated to your heart, and when they began

  • Important personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes and your medical history

  • Medications, including vitamins and other supplements you take, including doses

  • Questions to ask your healthcare provider

If potential, take on a loved one or friend to assist you bear in mind the data you receive.

For arrhythmia, basic inquiries to raise your health care supplier include:

  • What is likely causing my slow heart rate?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What's the most appropriate treatment?

  • What are the possible complications?

  • How will my heart be monitored?

  • How often will I need follow-up appointments?

  • How will other conditions I have or medications I take affect my heart problem?

  • Do I need to restrict my activities?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • Have you had fainting spells?

  • Does anything, such as exercise, worsen your symptoms?

  • Do you smoke?

  • Are you being treated for heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or other conditions that can affect your heart?

General summary

  1. Bradycardia is an abnormally slow heartbeat Bradycardia can be diagnosed by having a pulse of fewer than 60 beats per minute in an adult or fewer than 80 beats per minute in a young child and should be treated immediately with the number two priority If left untreated bradycardia could lead to cardiac arrest and death The best treatment for bradycardia is to change the underlying cause using whatever measures are necessary such as taking medication if prescribed or getting surgery if indicated.

  2. Bradycardia is slow or irregular heartbeat The heart beats too slowly and with an abnormal rhythm which in some cases may cause symptoms such as dizziness fainting and fatigue When bradycardia causes no symptoms it does not require treatment However if the condition causes other symptoms you should contact your doctor to determine the underlying cause of the problem and whether treatment is necessary Treatment options vary depending on what caused your bradycardia and how severe it is.

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