Burns : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What is Burns?

Burns result from heat exposure that is too great, either from the sun or other forms of radiation or chemical contact. Burns can be minor problems, but they can also be life-threatening emergencies.

The treatment of burns depends on the location and severity of the damage. Sunburns and small scalds can usually be treated at home. If the burn is deep or widespread, it needs immediate medical attention. Some people need treatment at specialized burn centers and may require months-long follow-up care.

What is Burns?

A burn happens once heat, chemicals, sunlight, electricity or radiation damages skin tissue. Most burns happen accidentally. There are units with completely different degrees of burns. Your attention supplier determines the seriousness (degree) of a burn supporting the depth of the burn and therefore the quantity of affected skin. Burns may be painful. Left untreated, a burn will result in infection.

  1. Integumentary system

  1. Skin

  2. Subcutaneous tissue

Medical terms

Burns are a form of thermal injuries caused by exposure to heat. It entails destruction of the skin and other tissues resulting from direct contact with flame, hot objects, steam, or hot liquids. In addition, it can also result from exposure to radiation, such as sunlight, electricity and chemicals. Burns can range from mild to severe, depending on the temperature, duration of contact, depth of tissue damage and overall health of the individual.

How common are burns?

Close to 0.5 1,000,000 folks move to the emergency department per annum with burn injuries. youngsters are a unit at high risk for accidental burns. Every day, over three hundred youngsters receive emergency treatment for burn injuries.

Who may get a burn?

Accidental burns will happen to anyone, though youngsters, teenagers and older folks are the unit most in danger. These age teams are a lot more susceptible to burn injuries from change of state, like spilling a boiling pan of water onto skin. youngsters and youths are a lot of doubtless to fiddle with lighters, matches and fireworks or get sunburns.

Symptoms Burns

The severity of a burn depends on how deep the skin damage is. It can take a day or two for signs and symptoms to develop after a severe burn.

  • 1st-degree burn.This minor burn affects the outer layer of the skin. It may cause redness and pain.

  • 2nd-degree burn.This type of burn affects both the skin's surface and its second layer. It may cause swelling, redness, or splotches on the skin. Blisters may form and pain can be very severe. If this burn is a deep second degree, it may cause scarring.

  • 3rd-degree burn.This burn affects the skin's fatty layer below the skin. The burned area may be black or brown, and the skin may appear leathery. Third-degree burns can destroy nerves and cause numbness.

When to see a doctor

Seek emergency medical assistance for:

  • If you get burns, they are serious. They can cover your hands, feet, face, and groin. They can also affect a major joint or a large area of your body.

  • Very deep burns can affect all layers of the skin or even deeper tissues.

  • If someone has burns, their skin will look leathery.

  • If there are burns on the leaves, they might be charred or have patches of black or brown.

  • Burns caused by chemicals or electricity

  • If you're having difficulty breathing, or if you're getting burns when you breathe, it might be a sign that you need to go to the hospital.

While you are waiting for emergency assistance, take first-aid measures.

Call your doctor if you experience:

  • Indications of infection, such as oozing from the wound, increased pain, redness, and swelling, were observed.

  • If a burn or blister doesn't heal in two weeks, it's a serious injury.

  • New, unexplained symptoms

  • Significant scarring

Causes Burns

Burns are caused by:

  • Fire

  • Hot liquid or steam

  • Hot metal, glass or other objects

  • Electrical currents

  • Radiation, such as that from X-rays

  • UV light from the sun or tanning beds can cause skin cancer.

  • Acids such as lye (a strong acid) or gasoline can be used to dissolve paint or wallpaper.

  • Abuse

Complications Burns

Complications of deep or widespread burns can include: -Swollen, red skin -Blistering and weeping -Inability to move the affected area because of intense pain

  • A bacterial infection can lead to a bloodstream infection (sepsis).

  • Low blood volume (hypovolemia) means that there is a loss of fluid.

  • Hypothermia is a low body temperature.

  • Smoke or hot air can cause breathing problems.

  • Keloids are ridged areas that develop as a result of an overgrowth of scar tissue.

  • Joint problems can occur when scar tissue forms, causing the shortening and tightening of skin muscles or tendons.

Prevention Burns

To reduce the risk of household burns: Please follow these safety guidelines to avoid potential burns: -Wash your hands often with soap and water - especially before you cook or eat -Use pots, pans, and dishes that have been properly seasoned and that have tight-fitting lids - never use a pan that has not been properly heated -Keep ovens and stovetops clean -Avoid using candles and open flames

  • Do not leave food cooking on the stove unattended.

  • Make sure the pot handles are facing the back of the stove when you turn it on.

  • Do not hold or carry a child while cooking on the stove.

  • Do not let hot liquids near children or pets.

  • Don't put electrical appliances near water.

  • Before serving food to a child, make sure the temperature is safe. Don't microwave a baby's bottle.

  • Never cook while wearing clothes that are loose enough to catch on fire over the stove.

  • If a small child is present, block his or her access to sources of heat, such as stoves, outdoor grills, fireplaces, and space heaters.

  • Make sure the car seat is properly fastened before placing a child in it. Find and fasten any hot straps or buckles.

  • Don't leave your iron plugged in when not in use. Store it out of reach of small children.

  • Cover unused electrical outlets with safety caps. Keep cords and wires out of the way so that children can't chew on them.

  • If you smoke, never smoke in bed.

  • Make sure there are working smoke detectors in each room of your home. Change their batteries at least once a year.

  • Make sure you have a fire extinguisher on every floor of your house.

  • Whenever you are using chemicals, always wear protective eyewear and clothing.

  • Do not let children access flammable chemicals like lighter fluid and matches. Use safety latches to keep them out of reach. And do not use lighters that look like toys - they are not safe for children to use.

  • Bath water should be set to a temperature below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48 degrees Celsius) to prevent scalding. Before placing a child in the bath, test the water to make sure it is safe.

Be careful when outdoors, especially if you are near open flames or chemicals that can cause burns.

What is the best ointment for burns?

The best ointment for burns includes three basic ingredients: aloe vera glycerin and antibiotic cream Aloe vera gel is used by many burn victims to help relieve pain from the initial burn as well as the healing process Glycerin helps to draw moisture into the damaged skin layer which will keep it from peeling back from top layers of new skin Antibiotic cream fights infection and prevents scarring To make your own homemade ointment for burns follow these instructions: 1/2 cup aloe vera gel 1 teaspoon glycerin (available at drugstores.

How do you treat 2nd and 3rd degree burns?

A cold-water burn is the least serious type of burn but it's also the most common Cold-water burns result from hot or boiling water that scalds the skin A person with a mild cold water burn might have redness and pain at the affected area Generally a cold-water burn doesn't require medical attention unless blisters develop The treatment for minor burns includes cool damp clothes to minimize swelling and prevent infection To avoid further heat damage don't use ice to treat a mild burn because it can constrict blood vessels and cause more damage to skin tissue.

Should you cover a burn or let it breathe?

The degree of burn and the location of the burn are important factors in deciding whether to cover or dress a burn A superficial second-degree burn should be covered with a sterile non stick dressing such as Telfa or Tegaderm; this will prevent infection from bacteria on your skin or from the air Covering burns also helps keep you from touching the wound unintentionally which can cause further damage to the tissue Burns that penetrate down to deeper layers of your skin -- third-degree burns -- will require surgical management and possibly skin grafts; therefore do not try to cover them yourself with anything other than saline gauze used.

Is Vaseline good for burns?

Vaseline is a pure petroleum jelly It consists of different mineral oils such as liquid petrolatum which has been used for a long time to treat burns and other skin problems Many burns should be treated immediately with extra care so that they will heal faster without leaving any scars or blemishes Filling up the burn wound with Vaseline is one effective way to treat it until you can get to the hospital for professional treatment The first thing that you need to do when treating your burn is to immerse it in cool tap water This helps relieve the pain and prevents further burning from occurring on top of the.

Can I put Neosporin on a burn?

Neosporin is a brand of first aid ointment that contains the active ingredient bacitracin an antibiotic When applied to your skin antibiotics are supposed to prevent infection Applying Neosporin can actually delay healing and make you more vulnerable to infection especially if you have a burn or open wound on your body If you have any irritation or injury that requires treatment with an antibiotic ointment check with your physician before applying any over-the-counter product.

Is toothpaste good for burns?

If your child has suffered a minor burn and you have no other first aid supplies on hand toothpaste can provide relief Although it may seem odd at first the fluoride in toothpaste acts as an antiseptic that reduces pain and aids in healing a minor burn Before applying any kind of paste to a burn wash the skin with soap and water to remove debris Then apply a small amount of toothpaste to the affected area using your fingers or gauze or other clean cloths until the pain subsides.

How do I heal a burn quickly?

Stop the burn from getting any worse Immediately move your hands away from the heat source such as water or a hot pan Don't pull on clothing or other materials stuck to the burned area; remove them carefully by cutting them off if necessary rather than pulling them away If you used cold water to put out the fire don't apply more right after it's cooled; instead wait at least 15 minutes.

Can I put honey on a burn?

Honestly the idea that honey can be used to treat burns is a myth Honey has been linked to burn treatments in folk medicine includes India China and Japan When honey is applied to a person's skin it creates osmotic pressure This causes the moisture in hair follicles and cells to be sucked out dehydrating the skin tissue at an accelerated rate that may actually promote healing Honey has not been proven effective when treating burns however; doctors believe if it did work it would only assist in minor or superficial first degree burns such as mild sunburns or small second degree burns containing limited damage from heat.

Diagnosis Burns

If you get burned, your doctor will look at the severity of your burn by examining your skin. If the burn covers more than 10 percent of your total body surface area, or is very deep, the doctor may recommend that you be transferred to a burn center. The American Burn Association has established specific criteria for burns.

Your doctor will look for other injuries and might order tests like X-rays or other diagnostic procedures.

  1. Patch test

Treatment Burns

Most minor burns can be treated at home. They usually heal within a couple of weeks, though some may require a little more time.

If you have a serious burn, you may need to take medications, wear a wound dressing, and have surgery. The goal of treatment is to control pain, remove dead tissue, prevent infection, reduce scarring, and regain function.

People who have severe burns may need treatment at a specialized burn center. They may need skin grafts to cover large wounds. And they may need emotional support and follow-up care for months, such as physical therapy.

Medical treatment Burns

After you have received first aid for a major burn, your medical care may include medications and treatments that aim to speed up the healing process.

  • Water-based treatments.The care team may use ultrasound to clean and stimulate the wound tissue.

  • Fluids to prevent dehydration.To prevent dehydration and organ failure, you may need intravenous fluids.

  • Pain and anxiety medications.Healing burns can be very painful. You may need morphine and anti-anxiety medications to help with dressing changes.

  • Burn creams and ointments.If you are not being moved to a burn center, your care team may choose from a variety of topical products that help prevent infection and promote wound healing (such as bacitracin and silver sulfadiazine). These products will help prepare the wound to heal quickly.

  • Dressings.Your care team may use various specialty wound dressings to prepare the wound to heal. If you are being transferred to a burn center, your wound will likely be covered only in dry gauze.

  • Drugs that fight infection.If you get an infection, you may need intravenous antibiotics.

  • Tetanus shot.After a burn injury, your doctor might recommend a tetanus shot.

Physical and occupational therapy

If the burned area is large, especially if it covers a joint, you may need physical therapy to help stretch the skin and keep the joint flexible. Other types of exercises can improve muscle strength and coordination. And occupational therapy may be helpful if you have problems with your job. You may experience difficulty doing your usual daily activities.

Surgical and other procedures

You may need one or more of the following techniques:

  • Breathing assistance.If you have been burned on your face or neck, your throat may close off because of the pain. If this seems likely, your doctor may put a tube down your windpipe (trachea) to keep air flowing to your lungs.

  • Feeding tube.People who have extensive burns or are undernourished may need nutritional support. Your doctor may thread a feeding tube through your nose to your stomach. This will provide you with nutrition directly.

  • Easing blood flow around the wound.If a burn scab (eschar) covers the entire limb or chest, it can trap blood and create pressure. Your doctor may need to cut the eschar to relieve this pressure.

  • Skin grafts.A skin graft is a surgery that replaces scar tissue caused by a deep burn. You can use healthy sections of your own skin to do this, or you can use donor skin from someone who has died or from a pig.

  • Plastic surgery.Plastic surgery (reconstruction) can improve the appearance of burn scars and make joints more flexible as a result of scarring.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If someone gets a minor burn, follow these steps:

  • Cool the burn.Apply cold water to the burned area. Do not put ice on the burn - it can cause further damage.

  • Remove rings or other tight items.Make sure to do this quickly and gently in order to prevent the burned area from swelling.

  • Don't break blisters.Blisters protect you from infection by keeping the area clean and free of germs. If the blister breaks, clean the area with water (mild soap is optional). Then apply an antibiotic ointment. If a rash appears, stop using the ointment.

  • Apply lotion.If you experience a burn, apply a lotion to help prevent it from drying out and providing relief.

  • Bandage the burn.Cover the burn with a sterile bandage. Make sure the bandage is loosely wrapped to avoid putting pressure on the burned area. This will help reduce pain and protect the blistered skin.

  • Take a pain reliever.Over-the-counter medications can help relieve pain. These include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve, others), and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).

  • Consider a tetanus shot.Keep your tetanus booster up to date. Doctors recommend getting a tetanus shot at least every 10 years.

Make sure to use sunscreen and moisturizer once the burn has healed. This will help reduce the chances of a re-occurrence.

Coping and support

Coping with a serious burn injury can be difficult, especially if it covers a large area of your body or is visible to other people. Potential scarring, reduced mobility, and possible surgeries add to the challenge.

It can be helpful to join a support group of people who have had serious burns. You may feel more comfortable talking with others who are going through the same thing, and you can find information on local support groups or online. Ask your doctor for more information on supportive groups.

  1. Child medical and psychological care

Preparing for your appointment

If you have a burn that is deep or involves a large area of your body, go to the emergency room. Your doctor may recommend that you see a skin specialist, burn specialist, or other specialist.

If you have a burn that isn't too serious, you may be able to treat it at home. However, if the burn is more serious, you might need to see a doctor. The following information can help you prepare.

What questions do you have for your doctor?

  • Do I need treatment for the burn?

  • What are my treatment options and their benefits and drawbacks?

  • What are some other ways to do what you're suggesting?

  • Can I wait to see if the burn heals on its own? No, you should go to the doctor right away if the burn does not heal on its own.

  • Can I treat the burn with over-the-counter medications? Or do I need prescription medication?

  • What results can I expect?

  • What skin care tips do you have for people who are recovering from a burn?

  • What should I do if I have any questions?

  • What will happen to my skin as it heals?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • How did the burn occur?

  • Do you have other symptoms?

  • Do you have any health conditions that might be related? For example, diabetes.

  • What home burn treatments have you tried?

  • What do you think has happened to the burn?

General summary

  1. and lacerations Immediately cool and flush the burned area with large amounts of cold water for 15 to 20 minutes Don't use ice on a burn; it worsens damage to the skin by causing further tissue destruction Never break blisters or try to wash away any chemicals from a burn wound because this can introduce more germs into the burn site which increases your risk of infection Place sterile dressings for burns to help stop bleeding and prevent infection Don't remove them until they are ready to fall off on their own usually five or six days after injury -- even if they look like they have healed enough If you.

  2. on Your Skin A minor burn can be treated at home with a cool clean water (not ice) compress for 15 to 20 minutes Clean the burn with soap and water and apply an antibiotic ointment as soon you get burned in order to prevent infection If a major burn or chemical burns occur seek medical attention immediately Both may require immediate medical care in addition to being immersed in cold water or being wrapped in a cooling blanket if available Temporary coverings that stick to the skin like Micropore are also effective when used immediately after a burn occurs but should not be the sole treatment applied Acetaminophen.

Next Post Previous Post