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Cervical Cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lining of the cervix. The most common type of cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for 70% of cases. Less common but more difficult to diagnose is adenocarcinoma, which starts higher up in the cervix.

Cervical cancer is expected to be diagnosed in 913 Australians in 2021. The risk of a woman being diagnosed by age 85 is 1 in 162.

The incidence of cervical cancer has decreased since the National Cervical Screening Program began in 1991 and a national Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine program was introduced in 2007.

What is Cervical Cancer?
Cervical Cancer

The likelihood of surviving cervical cancer for at least five years is 74%.

Learn more about how Cancer Council researchers are helping Australia reduce cervical cancer.

Cervical cells that may develop into cancer rarely cause symptoms. The only way to know if there are abnormal cells is to have a cervical screening test. If early changes in cells develop into cervical cancer, the most common signs might include:

  • vaginal bleeding between periods

  • If a woman's menstrual bleeding is longer or heavier than usual, it might be a sign that she is pregnant.

  • pain during intercourse

  • bleeding after intercourse

  • pelvic pain

  • A change in your vaginal discharge could mean that there is more discharge or it may have an unusual color or smell.

  • vaginal bleeding after menopause.

If you are concerned about any of these symptoms, or if they persist, please contact your doctor. This is important for anyone who has a cervix, no matter their sexual orientation.

  1. Female Reproductive System

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes

  3. Uterus

  4. Cervix

  5. Placenta

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Vulva

  2. Clitoris

  3. Vagina

Medical terms

  • Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs within the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the female internal reproductive organ that connects to the vagina. varied strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a task in inflicting most cervical cancer. Once exposed to HPV, the body' system generally prevents the virus from doing harm. In a very little proportion of people, however, the virus survives for years, causative to the method that causes some cervical cells to become cancer cells. you'll be able to cut back your risk of developing cervical cancer by having screening tests and receiving a vaccine that protects against HPV infection. 

  • awareness month in Philippines Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women worldwide In fact it is estimated that over 270 thousand new cases are reported each year and more than 180 thousand die from this disease This makes cervical cancer one of the major health issues with a large disease burden in developing countries Cervical cancer usually develops slowly and may not cause any symptoms early on; symptoms do not appear until the cancer has advanced significantly For this reason regular cervical screening (through cell phone text messages) for women aged 20–65 years is the best way to detect cervical precancers before they develop into invasive cancers.

  • early warning signs Cervical cancer is one of the cancers that affects women not many people know about This is because it usually takes years before a cervical cancer develops and most women are diagnosed only after they have been fighting the disease for quite some time It is also called cancer of the cervix due to the fact it originates in this part of the female reproductive system Although its symptoms are similar to other female reproductive problems this type of cancer must be treated at an early stage since there is no cure yet However if you notice any changes in your body or vaginal discharge as well as irregular bleeding consult your doctor immediately.

Symptoms Cervical cancer

Early-stage cervical cancer typically produces no signs or symptoms. Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause

  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor

  • Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse

When to see a doctor

Make a briefing together with your doctor if you have got any signs or symptoms that concern you. 

Causes Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer begins once healthy cells within the cervix develop changes (mutations) in their deoxyribonucleic acid. A cell' DNA contains the directions that tell a cell what to do. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a group rate, eventually dying at a set time. The mutations tell the cells to grow and multiply out of control, and that they don't die. The accumulating abnormal cells type a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby  tissues and may break aloof from a neoplasm to unfold (metastasize) elsewhere in the body. It isn't clear what causes cervical cancer, however it's bound that HPV plays a role. HPV is extremely common, and most of the people with the virus ne'er develop cancer. This implies different factors — like your atmosphere or your manner decisions — additionally verify whether or not you'll develop cervical cancer. 

Cervical cancer is most commonly caused by persistent infection with some types of the human papillomavirus (HPV); this is the biggest risk factor for cervical cancer. Smoking is also a major risk factor.

Some research suggests that women who have taken contraceptives for a long time are at an increased risk of developing cervical cancer due to HPV. However, this risk is small and taking the pill also has been linked to reducing other cancer risks such as ovarian and uterine cancers.

Other risk factors include:

  • smoking and passive smoking

  • a weakened immune system

  • If your mother was pregnant during the 1940s and 1950s, she may have been given diethylstilbestrol (DES), an artificial form of the female hormone estrogen.

Most women will become infected with genital HPV at some point in their lives. Many women who are infected with the HPV virus never develop cervical cancer; only a few types of HPV cause cervical cancer.

Types of cervical cancer

The type of cervical cancer that you simply have helps confirm your prognosis and treatment. the most styles of cervical cancer are:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cervical cancer begins within the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) lining the outer part of the cervix that comes into the vagina. Most cervical cancers are epithelial cell carcinomas. 

  • Adenocarcinoma. This type of cervical cancer begins within the column-shaped organ cells that line the cervical canal. Sometimes, each kind of cell is concerned with cervical cancer. terribly rarely, cancer happens in alternate cells in the cervix. 

Risk factors Cervical cancer

Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Many sexual partners. The bigger your variety of sexual partners — and also the greater your partner' number of sexual partners — the greater your likelihood of getting HPV. 

  • Early sexual activity. Having sex at an early age increases your risk of HPV.

  • Other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Having other STIs — such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV/AIDS — increases your risk of HPV.

  • A weakened immune system. You may be additional possible to develop cervical cancer if your system is weakened by another health condition and you have got HPV. 

  • Smoking. Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.

  • Exposure to miscarriage prevention drugs. If your mother took a drug known as stilbestrol (DES) whereas pregnant within the 1950s, you'll have an associated risk of a precise variety of cervical cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma. 

Prevention Cervical Cancer

To reduce your risk of cervical cancer:

  • Ask your doctor about the HPV vaccine. Receiving a vaccination to forestall HPV infection could cut back your risk of cervical cancer Associate in Nursing alternative HPV-related cancers. raise your doctor whether or not an HPV immunizing agent is suitable for you. 

  • Have routine Pap tests. Pap tests will discover metastatic tumor conditions of the cervix, in order that they are often monitored or treated so as to stop cervical cancer. Most medical organizations recommend starting routine Pap tests at age twenty one and repeating them each few years. 

  • Practice safe sex. Reduce your risk of cervical cancer by taking measures to forestall sexually transmitted infections, reminiscent of employing safety each time you have got sex and limiting the amount of sexual partners you have. 

  • Don't smoke. If you don't smoke, don't start. If you do smoke, discuss with your doctor concerning methods to assist you quit. 

Diagnosis Cervical cancer


Screening tests will facilitate observing cervical cancer and metastatic tumor cells that will in some unspecified time in the future turn into cervical cancer. Most pointers recommend starting screening for cervical cancer and precancerous changes at age 21.

Screening tests include:

  • Pap test. During a Papanicolaou test, your doctor scrapes and brushes cells from your cervix, that are then examined in an exceedingly science laboratory for abnormalities. A Pap test will discover abnormal cells within the cervix, together with cancer cells and cells that show changes that increase the chance of cervical cancer. 

  • HPV DNA test. The HPV polymer takes a look at testing cells collected from the cervix for infection with any of the categories of HPV that are possibly to guide to cervical cancer. 

Discuss your cervical cancer screening options with your doctor.


A HPV infection can cause cervical cancer. Once the cancer has developed, there are different levels of severity, and each one has its own prognosis. Some have good outcomes while others have poor ones. For example:

Cervical cancer prognosis is dependent on the stage of the cancer. The most common stages of cervical cancer are as follows:

If cervical cancer is suspected, your doctor is probably going to begin with an intensive examination of your cervix. A special magnifying instrument (colposcope) is employed to envision abnormal cells. Throughout the colposcopic examination, your doctor is likely to require a sample of cervical cells (biopsy) for laboratory testing. to get tissue, your doctor might use:

  • Punch biopsy, which involves using a sharp tool to pinch off small samples of cervical tissue.

  • Endocervical curettage, which uses a small, spoon-shaped instrument (curet) or a skinny brush to scrape a tissue sample from the cervix. If the punch diagnostic test or endocervical operation is worrisome, your doctor might perform one in all the subsequent tests: 

  • Electrical wire loop, which uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire to obtain a small tissue sample. Generally this is done under local anesthesia in the office.

  • Cone biopsy (conization), which could be a procedure that enables your doctor to get deeper layers of cervical cells for laboratory testing. A cone diagnostic test could also be tried at a hospital beneath general anesthesia. 


If your doctor determines that you just have cervical cancer, you'll have more tests to work out the extent (stage) of your cancer. Your cancer' stage may be a key consideration in choosing your treatment.

Staging exams include:

  • Imaging tests. Tests reminiscent of X-ray, CT, MRI and antielectron emission imaging (PET) facilitate your doctor verify whether or not your cancer has developed on the far side of your cervix. 

  • Visual examination of your bladder and rectum. Your doctor may use special scopes to see inside your bladder and rectum.

If your screening test results show that you may have cancer, you will be referred to a specialist for further tests.

To diagnose cervical cancer, doctors will perform tests such as:

Colposcopy with biopsy

A colposcopy is a medical procedure that allows the doctor to view the cervix and vagina in detail. A speculum is inserted into your vagina so that the doctor can see abnormalities in the cells located there. The colposcope is placed near your vulva, but it is not used to examine your genitals directly. The procedure is done by a doctor who is specially trained to examine the female reproductive system – usually a gynecologist or nurse practitioner.

If the colposcopist notices any suspicious-looking areas on the cervix, they will usually take a tissue sample (biopsy) from the surface for examination under a microscope by a pathologist.

A large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) or cone biopsy is a test to see if a person has cancer.

If any of the tests show signs of precancerous cells, you may have a large excision procedure or a cone biopsy.

Cervical tissue is removed using LLETZ (a local anesthetic). This procedure is usually done under a local anesthetic.

A cone biopsy is used to gather cells from the cervix if there are abnormal glandular cells or if early-stage cancer is suspected.

After being diagnosed with cervical cancer, you will likely undergo treatment.

After learning you have cervical cancer, you may feel shocked, anxious, or upset. These are all normal reactions. Everyone reacts differently and there is no right way to feel. It may be helpful to talk to family and friends about your feelings. You can also discuss treatment options with your doctor. Talk to your doctor and ask for advice.

Find out more information:

What is the first treatment for cervical cancer?

Surgery is the first treatment for cervical cancer if it is identified and diagnosed early This procedure involves removing the tumor and some of the surrounding area to attempt to eliminate all of the cancerous cells before they spread The goal is to prevent recurrence Radiation therapy may also be used as a primary form of treating cervical cancer if surgery cannot be performed due to other health conditions or tissue proximity issues.

Is there any treatment for cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is treatable but it can be fatal if not caught early Most cases of cervical cancer begin with an abnormal growth of cells on the surface of the cervix There are several types of abnormal growths that may become cancerous but the most common is called a squamous cell carcinoma.

Is cervical cancer highly treatable?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the cervix which connects the uterus and vagina Although cervical cancer can’t be cured completely aggressive treatment can help you to control this cancer so it doesn’t spread or come back later in life Still it is important to remember that cervical cancer can come back even after being treated if you don’t take good care of yourself.

Will hysterectomy cure cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women around the world Although it can be cured if caught in its early stages this type of cancer has a high recurrence rate and is fatal when not treated properly Fortunately cervical cancer almost always responds to chemotherapy and other treatment options While some cases of cervical cancer may require hysterectomy as a treatment option it should only be used in certain situations – such as advanced or recurrent cervical cancer – to avoid complications that might arise from the surgery itself or complications associated with removing organs late into your life Let's take a closer look at these possible.

What are the symptoms of HPV in females?

There are over 100 types of HPV that can infect the genital areas Among them HPV type 16 and 18 are most likely to cause cervical cancer especially in women who have not been vaccinated against the virus Commonly called genital warts external genital warts may appear as a raised bump or cluster of bumps on the vulva (the labia) or around the clitoris or on the vaginal wall perineum (area between vagina and anus) or anus Genital warts may also become invisible when they occur under the skin; these persistent inner warts are still infectious even though you cannot see them.

What age does cervical cancer affect?

Cervical cancer affects women at all stages of life Most cervical cancers occur in the upper part of the vagina which is called the endocervix Cervical cancer usually does not cause symptoms until it has advanced to later stages making preventive measures like regular screenings extremely important In fact cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women around the world today.

Treatment Cervical cancer

guidelines There are many different types of cancers that women can be diagnosed with, and cervical cancer is among the most common. Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the cervix multiply uncontrollably, which leads to the formation of tumors. If these tumors spread, they can cause serious health problems. Fortunately, there are treatments available for cervical cancer that offer a high rate of success and work to prevent further complications. 

Treatment for cervical cancer depends on many factors, akin to the stage of the cancer, different health issues you will have and your preferences. Surgery, radiation, therapy or a mix of the 3 is also used.


Early-stage cervical cancer is often treated with surgery. That operation is best for you'll depend upon the scale of your cancer, its stage and whether or not you'd prefer to take into account turning into pregnant within the future.

Options might include:

  • Surgery to cut away the cancer only. For awfully tiny cervical cancer, it would be doable to get rid of the cancer entirely with a cone biopsy. This procedure involves cutting away a round shape piece of cervical tissue, however going away the remainder of the cervix intact. This selection could make it possible for you to think about getting pregnant within the future. 

  • Surgery to remove the cervix (trachelectomy). Early-stage cervical cancer may well be treated with a radical trachelectomy procedure, that removes the cervix thusme|and a few} encompassing tissues. The womb remains after this procedure, so it's going to be potential to become pregnant, if you choose. 

  • Surgery to remove the cervix and uterus (hysterectomy). Most early-stage cervical willcers are treated with a panhysterectomy operation that involves removing the cervix, female internal reproductive organ, a part of the duct and near  humor nodes. A hysterectomy can cure early-stage cervical cancer and stop recurrence. However, removing the uterus makes it not possible to become pregnant. Minimally invasive hysterectomy, which involves creating many tiny incisions within the abdomen instead of one massive incision, is also a choice for early-stage cervical cancer. People that bear minimally invasive surgery tend to recover a lot quickly and spend less time in the hospital. However, some analysis has found minimally invasive hysterectomy may be less effective than ancient hysterectomy. If you're considering minimally invasive surgery, discuss the advantages and risks of this approach along with your surgeon. 


Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, adore X-rays or protons, to kill cancer cells. therapy is usually combined with therapy because the primary treatment for regionally advanced cervical cancers. It can even be used when surgery if there's an inflated risk that the cancer can return back. 

therapy is given:

  • Externally, by directing a radiation beam at the affected area of the body (external beam radiation therapy)

  • Internally, by placing a device filled with radioactive material inside your vagina, usually for only a few minutes (brachytherapy)

  • Both externally and internally

If you haven't started climacteric yet, radiation might cause menopause. If you would possibly wish to contemplate changing into pregnant when radiation treatment, raise your doctor about ways in which to preserve your eggs before treatment starts.


Chemotherapy may be a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. It may be given through a vein or taken in pill form. generally each way is used. For domestically advanced cervical cancer, low doses of therapy are often combined with radiation therapy, since chemotherapy might enhance the results of the radiation. Higher doses of chemotherapy may well be suggested to assist management symptoms of terribly advanced cancer.

Targeted therapy

Targeted drug treatments specialize in specific weaknesses given at intervals between willcer cells. By obstructing these weaknesses, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Targeted drug medical care is typically combined with chemotherapy. it'd be a choice for advanced cervical cancer.


Immunotherapy could be a drug treatment that helps your system to fight cancer. Your body' disease-fighting immune system won't attack cancer as a result of the cancer cells turning out proteins that build them undetectable by the immune system cells. therapy works by meddling thereupon process. For cervical cancer, immunotherapy may be thought-about once the cancer is advanced and different treatments aren't working.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized treatment that focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a significant illness. Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your other doctors to produce an additional layer of support that enhances your in progress care. Once palliative care is employed at the side of all of the opposite applicable treatments, folks with cancer could feel higher and live longer. Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care groups aim to boost the standard of life for people with cancer and their families. this way of care is obtainable aboard curative or different treatments you will be receiving. 

Types of treatments.

Disease stage is important in determining the treatment. For early or non-bulky disease (less than 4 cm), treatment may include surgery with radiation therapy afterwards.

If the tumor is small, a cone biopsy may be sufficient; in some cases, hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) is required.

For locally advanced disease, a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy is used.

For metastatic disease, the treatment is chemotherapy (a platinum/fluorouracil combination) or palliative care alone.

Treatment Team

Depending on your treatment, your treatment team may include a number of different health professionals. These might include:

  • A GP (General Practitioner) is a doctor who looks after your general health and works with specialists to coordinate treatment.

  • A gynecological oncologist is a healthcare professional who diagnoses and treats cancers of the female reproductive system.

  • A radiation oncologist is the doctor who prescribes and oversees radiation therapy treatments.

  • Medical oncologist is responsible for prescribing and coordinating the course of chemotherapy.

  • Cancer care coordinators help to coordinate your care with the multidisciplinary team and support you during treatment.

  • A dietitian recommends a eating plan for people who are undergoing treatment and recovery.

  • People who work in allied health professions- such as social workers, pharmacists, and counselors- can also help you.

Screening for cervical cancer

The Pap smear test has been replaced by the new Cervical Screening Test.

The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer have decreased in Australia since the introduction of the National Cervical Screening Program in 1991. This program offered a free Pap smear test to women between the ages of 18 and 70 every two years.

Starting on 1 December 2017, the Pap smear test is being replaced by a new cervical screening test. Most women aged 25-74 will be tested every five years under the new program. If you have previously had a Pap smear test, you should have your first HPV test two years after your most recent Pap test. You may have a negative HPV result and you can wait five years before your next screening test. The changes in the test recognize the introduction of a vaccine against specific strains of HPV in 2006. This will be part of the new National Cervical Screening Program. The new program is designed to more accurately detect changes in cervical cancer. The HPV vaccination program is intended to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer in teenage boys and girls.

If you want to have a cervical screening test, you must be at least 30 years old and have never had a cervical screening test or are overdue one by two years.

For more information on HPV and testing, visit the Cancer Council website.

You can learn more about the renewed cervical cancer screening program on the Australian government department's screening website. This is why it is so important for women to have their cervical screening test. Australia is scheduled to be the first country to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health issue.

To learn more about cervical cancer and how to prevent it, click here to watch the video.

Preventing cervical cancer

HPV vaccine

This vaccine protects against specific types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers. Gardasil 9 was developed to protect against nine types of HPV which cause around 90% of cervical cancers. Through the National Immunization Program, most girls and boys aged 12-13 and under are vaccinated against this virus. The HPV vaccine will be given to you in school-based programs. The first dose is given as two injections. The vaccine is most effective if the second dose is given 6-12 months after the first.

Learn more about the HPV vaccine here.

Having the HPV vaccine does not mean that you should not have regular cervical cancer screenings. If you have been vaccinated against HPV, you should have your first screening at age 25 and then every five years. For more information, please visit the Cancer Council's cervical screening page.

The likely outcome of cervical cancer.

Your doctor cannot predict the exact course of your disease, since it will depend on your individual circumstances. However, based on the type of cervical cancer you have, your doctor may give you a prognosis for the likely outcome of the disease. Additionally, based on your test results and the rate of tumor growth Your age, fitness level, and medical history will affect your growth.

Cervical cancer can be cured when it is detected early. Most women who have early cervical cancer will be cured.

If you plan to get pregnant, be sure to talk to your doctor before treatment begins for cervical cancer. Treatment may make it more difficult or impossible to conceive.

Coping and support

No one is often ready for a cancer diagnosis. You can, however, attempt to manage the shock and concern you're feeling by taking steps to manage what you'll be able to do concerning your situation. Everybody deals with a cervical cancer diagnosis in his or her own way. With time, you'll discover what helps you cope. till then, you can begin to require control by making an attempt to:

  • Learn enough about cervical cancer to make decisions about your care. Write down your queries and raise them at successive appointments together with your doctor. Get an admirer or friend to return to appointments with you to require notes. raise your health care team for additional sources of information. 

  • Find someone to talk with. You may feel comfy discussing your feelings with a devotee or family member, otherwise you may like meeting with a proper support group. Support teams for the families of cancer survivors are also available. 

  • Let people help. Cancer treatments can be exhausting. Let friends and family know what types of help would be most useful for you.

  • Set reasonable goals. Having goals helps you feel in control and can give you a sense of purpose. But choose goals that you can reach.

  • Take time for yourself. Eating well, relaxing and getting enough rest can help combat the stress and fatigue of cancer.

  • Clinical trials.Clinical trials are studies to investigate ways to treat cancer.

Preparing for your appointment

Make a briefing along with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you. If you're thought to own cervical cancer, you will be spoken to by a doctor who specializes in treating cancers that have an effect on the feminine genital system (gynecologic oncologist). Here's some info to assist you make preparations for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions, such as not eating solid food on the day before your appointment.

  • Write down your symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason why you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down your key medical information, including other conditions.

  • Write down key personal information, including anything that increases your risk of STIs, such as early sexual activity, multiple partners or unprotected sex.

  • Make a list of all your medications, vitamins or supplements.

  • Ask a relative or friend to accompany you, to help you remember what the doctor says.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What treatments are available, and what side effects can I expect?

  • What is the prognosis?

  • How often will I need follow-up visits after I finish treatment?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions that occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Being able to answer them may build time to travel over points you would like to pay longer on. you will be asked:

  • What symptoms are you experiencing? How severe are they?

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms? Have they changed over time?

  • Have you had regular Pap tests since you became sexually active? Have you ever had abnormal Pap test results in the past?

  • Have you ever been treated for a cervical condition?

  • Have you ever been diagnosed with an STI?

  • Have you ever taken medications that suppress your immune system?

  • Do you or have you ever smoked? How much?

  • Do you want to have children in the future?

General summary

  1. Cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. It develops in the cervix, which connects your uterus to your vagina and forms a “neck” between them. Cancers that start in the cells of the cervix are called cervical cancers, or cervical carcinomas. Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women — and it’s one of the most preventable forms of cancer. 

  2. Most cervical cancers can be effectively treated with either surgery or radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy x rays to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors The course of treatment varies depending on the stage of the cancer and individual factors such as age and general health Some chemotherapy may also be given especially after surgery to further reduce the risk that the cancer will return (recur) Although no medication available today can prevent new cervical cancers once you have been diagnosed with one research is under way for drugs that might work this way in the future.

Cervical Cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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