Dry macular degeneration (AMD): Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is Dry macular degeneration (AMD) ?

There are 2 basic kinds of macular degeneration: “dry” and “wet.''Approximately eighty fifth to ninetieth of the cases of devolution are the “dry” (atrophic) kind.“Dry” age-related devolution doesn't involve any discharge of blood or bodily fluid. Loss of vision should occur. Patients with this “dry” type might have sensible vision (20/40 or better) however substantial practical limitations, together with unsteady vision, problem reading attributable to their restricted space of vision, restricted vision at the hours of darkness or below conditions of reduced illumination

In the “dry” style of devolution, the deterioration of the membrane is related to the formation of tiny yellow deposits, called drusen, below the macula. This development ends up in a dilution and drying out of the macula, causing the macula to lose its operation . quantity|the quantity|The number} of vision loss is directly associated with the situation and amount of retinal dilution caused by the drusen.

The early stage of dry age-related devolution is related to lowest vision defect and is characterized by giant drusen and pigmentary abnormalities within the macula. Drusen are accumulations of noncellular , amorphous dust underlying to the basement membrane of the retinal pigment animal tissue . Nearly all individuals over the age of fifty years have a minimum of one tiny adherent in one or each eye . Solely eyes with giant drusen are in danger for late age-related devolution .

This form of devolution is way additional than the “wet” style of devolution, and it tends to progress additionally slower than the “wet” kind. However, an exact proportion of the “dry” style of devolution turns to “wet” with the passage of time. There's no known cure for the “dry” style of devolution.

  1. Eye

  2. Cornea

  3. Iris

  4. Ciliary body

  5. Lens

  6. Retina

Medical terms

  • Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition that affects the central portion of the retina, the macula. This is the portion of the eye that is responsible for providing clear, sharp images. The condition results in a progressive loss of vision in the center of the visual field. AMD is one of the leading causes of vision loss in people over the age of 60.

  • Dry macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye condition that affects the macula, a part of the retina that is responsible for providing sharp central vision. It is a leading cause of vision loss among individuals over the age of 55. The primary symptoms of dry AMD are blurred vision, difficulty reading or recognizing faces, and an overall decrease in vision. Early diagnosis and management of this condition are important to slow down its progression and preserve vision.

  • Some things that square measure joined to AMD square measure out of your management, just like the genes that your folks passed all the way down to you. Others, like smoking, diet, or high pressure level, square measure belongings you will do one thing concerning.

  • Dry macular degeneration is a common eye disorder among people over fifty It causes blurred or reduced central vision due to thinning of the macula The macula is the part of the retina responsible for clear vision in your direct line of sight

  • Macular degeneration often begins in one or both eyes and then changes to affect both eyes over time Over time your vision may worsen and cause you to lose the ability to read drive a car recognize faces and more However this doesn't mean you'll lose all of your sight Vision loss is typically central [affected by damage in the center of the eye] meaning that it affects many parts of your vision at once rather than just affecting one specific part Some people retain their peripheral vision while others have only mild central vision loss

  • Early detection and self-care may delay vision loss due to dry macular degeneration

  • As the name suggests, age-related degeneration (AMD) is very common in older people. however it is not simply age that raises your possibilities of obtaining the sickness.

  • Their square measures 2 sorts of AMD, dry and wet. each will result in vision issues, therefore learn the maximum amount as you'll concerning the causes of the sickness and therefore the steps you'll want to keep your eyes healthy.


About eighty fifth to ninetieth of individuals with age-related devolution have dry AMD.

The condition is coupled with bits of fat and macromolecule referred to as drusen. they'll collect underneath your membrane -- a layer of tissue at the rear of your eye that processes light-weight. Nobody is aware of wherever the drusen returns from, however they're thought to be items of waste from the membrane that aren’t ready to be properly discarded and recycled.

If you are over the age of fifty you almost certainly have some onerous drusen in your eyes. These squares measure traditional and harmless, particularly if they don't seem to be in your macula -- the tiny space at the middle of your tissue layer. But soft, large, and centrally placed macular drusen don't seem to be. {they square measure|they're} those that are joined with losing your vision.

Drusen in early AMD squares measure quite tiny. They get larger because the condition moves from early to intermediate to advanced. In advanced-stage AMD, Drusen square measures larger and has a lot of variance. They keep YOU from reaching your eye.

The vision loss from dry AMD happens slowly and frequently isn't as severe as that from wet AMD. however dry AMD will generally grow to be the wet kind. Up to five of individuals World Health Organization have dry AMD in each eye can get wet AMD during a year, whereas thirteen to eighteen can cotton on in three years.


Wet AMD sometimes gets worse rather more quickly than dry AMD.

  1. Wet macular degeneration

If you've got this kind, further blood vessels begin to create in your eye beneath the macula. These new vessels tend to leak blood and alternative fluid into your eye, which causes injury. It is not clear precisely why the vessels type, though some specialists suppose it should be a part of an attempt to induce elimination of the drusen.

Symptoms Dry macular degeneration

Macular degeneration symptoms usually develop gradually without pain They may include:

  • Visual distortions such as straight lines seeming bent

  • Vision symptoms that result in reduced central vision

  • The need for brighter light when reading or doing close-up work

  • In dimly lit restaurants it is difficult to adjust to the low light levels

  • Increased blurriness of printed words

  • Colors are less intense or bright

  • Difficulty recognizing faces

  • Blurry spot in one's field of vision

Dry macular degeneration can affect one or both eyes If only one eye is affected you may not notice any changes in your vision because your good eye may compensate for the weak eye And the condition rarely causes blindness

Dry macular degeneration is one of two types of age-related macular degeneration It can progress to wet (neovascular) macular degeneration which is characterized by blood vessels that grow under the retina and leak The dry type is more common but it usually progresses slowly (over years) Long-term exposure to light such as staring at the computer screen all day long is more likely to cause a relatively sudden change in vision resulting in serious vision loss

When to see a doctor

See your eye doctor if:

  • You notice changes in your central vision

  • Your ability to see colors or fine details becomes impaired

Changes in your vision may be the first warning signs of macular degeneration especially if you are aged 60 or older

Causes Dry macular degeneration

Research indicates that dry macular degeneration is influenced by heredity and environmental factors

Dry macular degeneration develops when your eyes age This condition affects the macula — an area of the retina that is responsible for clear vision in your direct line of sight Over time tissue in your macula may thin and lose cells responsible for vision

Risk factors Dry macular degeneration

1. Age (older than 60) 2. Family history of macular degeneration 3. Smoking and other forms of tobacco use (cigarettes cigars chewing tobacco or snuff) Decreased blood flow to the eyes and dry eye syndrome are associated with smoking and other forms of tobacco use Also patients who smoke have a higher incidence of age-related macular degeneration than those who do not smoke Patients with diabetes have an increased risk for developing age

  • Age.This disease is most common in people over 60.

  • Family history and genetics.This disease has a hereditary component Researchers have identified several genes that are related to developing the condition

  • Race.Macular degeneration is more common in Caucasians than any other race

  • Smoking.Smoking cigarettes or being regularly exposed to smoke significantly increases your risk of macular degeneration

  • Obesity.Being obese may increase your chance that early or intermediate macular degeneration will progress to the more severe form of the disease

  • Cardiovascular disease.People who have had certain diseases that affected their heart and blood vessels may be at higher risk of macular degeneration

Complications Dry macular degeneration

People with macular degeneration that has progressed to central vision loss have a higher risk of depression and social isolation With profound loss of vision people may see visual hallucinations (Charles Bonnet syndrome) Dry macular degeneration may progress to wet macular degeneration which is more common in older adults The chances of developing dry-AMD are greater for women than men and for younger than for older adults If left untreated glaucoma can cause rapid vision loss

Prevention Dry macular degeneration

It's important to have regular eye exams to identify early signs of macular degeneration The following measures may help reduce your risk of developing dry macular degeneration:

  • Manage your other medical conditions.If you have cardiovascular disease or high blood pressure take your medication and follow your doctor's instructions for controlling the condition

  • Don't smoke.Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to develop macular degeneration Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking

  • Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularlyLosing weight can be done in two ways The first is to reduce the number of calories you eat each day and increase the amount of exercise you get each day The second way is to take dietary supplements that contain a source of fiber such as psyllium husk which helps with lowering cholesterol levels

  • Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetablesChoose a healthy diet that is full of a variety of fruits and vegetables These foods contain antioxidant vitamins that reduce your risk of developing macular degeneration

  • Include fish in your diet.Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish may reduce the risk macular degeneration Nuts such as walnuts also contain omega-3 fatty acids

Dry macular degeneration clinical trials

Macular degeneration is a serious eye condition that results in blurry vision especially when looking at objects straight ahead It occurs when the macula which is located at the center of the retina and responsible for sharp central vision deteriorates Macular degeneration can affect one or both eyes and usually develops slowly over time as a result of aging or genetics The three types of macular degeneration are wet dry and mixed Dry macular degeneration (DD) causes gradual loss of sight in the center portion of your field of vision where you see fine details such as facial expressions Losing this area.

Dry macular degeneration vitamins

Dry macular degeneration is a condition in which the central part of the retina called the macula begins to thin which then results in loss of sight It's believed that dry macular degeneration usually occurs due to aging long exposure to ultraviolet rays and certain health conditions like high cholesterol or thyroid disorders Previous eye surgeries are also some risk factors for dry macular degeneration.

Can dry macular degeneration be treated?

Dry macular degeneration can be treated One treatment involves an injection of a solution called triamcinolone directly into the retina which thickens and strengthens it and helps prevent further visual impairment This is known as intravitreal steroid injection therapy or IVST Another treatment uses laser photocoagulation to treat retinal holes in the eye after which fluid is drained from the area using a needle Both methods may improve vision for some patients with dry AMD but are considered experimental at this time and are not widely available since they are still being tested by researchers There is no medication that has been proven effective in.

Can dry macular degeneration be reversed?

Dry macular degeneration is more common than wet macular degeneration and it affects more people In this form of the condition dead cells accumulate in a central part of the retina called the macula which can lead to vision loss if left untreated Fortunately dry macular degeneration can be treated with prescription medications that suppress abnormal growths on or near the retina.

What percentage of dry macular degeneration patients go blind?

Without treatment more than half of dry age-related macular degeneration patients go blind Untreated wet macular degeneration leads to blindness in about 20 percent of people within two years and 70 percent of individuals in five years With treatment however this number drops to less than 5 percent of people who are treated by the end of year one and less than 10 percent within five years.

Which is worse: dry or wet macular degeneration?

Dry macular degeneration is worse than wet because the blood vessels that supply the retina become fragile causing them to leak fluid If left untreated dry macular degeneration can lead to permanent vision loss and blindness While treatments for wet macular degeneration are available in most cases there is no cure for dry macular degeneration other than a transplant of healthy retinal cells.

Dry macular degeneration treatment focuses on improving your vision or maintaining what you have left While there is no cure for dry macular degeneration there are ways of preventing it from getting worse and improving the quality of life The best way to protect your vision against dry macular degeneration is by following the proper eye care routine.

Diagnosis Dry macular degeneration

Your doctor may do several other tests including:

  • Examination of the back of your eye. Your eye doctor will put drops in your eyes to dilate them and use a special instrument to examine the back of your eye He or she will look for a mottled appearance that's caused by drusen — yellow deposits that form under the retina People with macular degeneration often have many other problems: blurred vision double vision sensitivity to light and even blindness Gray patches on the skin due to a lack of oxygen which can be dangerous to the eyes and cause blindness

  • Test the center of your vision on both eyesAmsler grids are used to test for defects in the center of your vision Macular degeneration may cause some of the straight lines on the grid to appear faded broken or distorted

  • Fluorescein angiography. During this test your doctor injects a colored dye into your arm The dye travels through your blood vessels to the back of your eye A special camera takes several pictures as the dye travels through the blood vessels of your eye and shows if you have retinal changes or abnormal blood circulation Fluid-filled macular degeneration is a sign of wet macular degeneration

  • Indocyanine green angiography.This test uses an injection of a dye It can be used in conjunction with fluorescein angiography to identify specific types of macular degeneration

  • Optical coherence tomography.This noninvasive imaging test is a detailed cross-sectional image of the retina It displays areas of the retina that are thinning and thickening in your eye These may be caused by blood vessel leaks and fluid accumulation from leaking blood vessels in and under your retina

Treatment Dry macular degeneration

Currently there is no cure for dry macular degeneration There are many clinical trials in progress If your condition is diagnosed early you can take steps to help slow its progression such as eating a healthy diet and not smoking

Low vision rehabilitation

Age-related macular degeneration doesn't usually affect your peripheral vision and usually does not cause total blindness But it can reduce or eliminate your central vision — which is necessary for driving a car reading and recognizing people’s faces It may be beneficial to wear glasses or contact lenses that correct the condition To work with a low vision rehabilitation specialist your eye doctor and other trained in low vision rehabilitation can help you find ways to adapt to changing vision

Surgery to implant a telescopic lens

For selected individuals with advanced dry macular degeneration in both eyes one option for improving vision may be surgery to implant a telescopic lens in one eye The telescopic lens looks like a tiny plastic tube and is equipped with lenses that magnify your field of view It is useful to improve both your distance and close-up vision but it has a very narrow field of view

  1. Rehabilitation of Vision

Lifestyle and home remedies

Even after receiving a diagnosis of dry macular degeneration you can take steps that may help slow vision loss

  • Don't smoke.If you smoke ask your doctor for help to quit

  • Choose a healthy diet. Fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants such as lutein and zeaxanthin which may help eye health Foods containing high levels of zinc also may be beneficial for people with macular degeneration High-protein foods such as beef pork and lamb have particular value in patients with macular degeneration Non Meat sources include milk cheese yogurt and whole-grain cereals and whole-wheat bread
    An alternative choice is healthy unsaturated fats such as olive oil or flaxseed oil Studies have shown that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids such as found in salmon tuna and walnuts may lower the risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) But the same benefit is not seen with taking omega-3 supplements omega-3 supplements such as fish oil pills

  • Manage your other medical conditions.If you have a cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure take your medication as prescribed and follow your doctor's instructions for controlling the condition

  • Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularlyIf you need to lose weight cut down on the number of calories you eat each day and increase the amount of exercise you do

  • Have routine eye exams.In between eye exams you should do an Amsler grid test This will help identify if your condition develops into wet macular degeneration which can be treated with drugs

Vitamin supplements

People with intermediate or advanced disease taking a high-dose formulation of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may help reduce the risk of vision loss Research from the AREDS2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2) shows benefit in a formulation that includes:

  • 500 milligrams (mg) of vitamin C

  • 400 International units (IU) of vitamin E

  • 10 mg of lutein

  • 2 mg of zeaxanthin

  • 80 mg of zinc (as zinc oxide)

  • 2 mg of copper (as cupric oxide)

The evidence does not show benefit for people with early-stage dry macular degeneration Ask your doctor if taking supplements is right for you

Coping and support

These suggestions may help you cope with changes:

  • Ask your eye doctor to check your eyeglass prescriptionIf you wear contact lenses or glasses check your prescription If it is not up to date ask for a new prescription If it doesn't help call a low vision specialist

  • Use magnifiers.Various magnifying devices can help you with reading and other close-up work such as sewing Magnifying devices include handheld magnifying lenses or magnifying lenses that you wear like glasses
    You may also use a closed circuit TV system that uses a video camera to magnify reading material and project it on a screen

  • Change your computer display to show a more visually appealing layout Then add an audio system with music movies etcTo adjust the font size in your computer settings you may have to adjust the settings for both your monitor and your computer You may also add speech output systems or other technologies to your computer

  • Electronic reading aids and voice interfaces help you to read more effectively and efficientlyTablet computers and smartphone apps are available that can help people who are vision impaired These devices may also come with voice recognition software that can be a helpful tool for low-vision individuals

  • Choose special appliances made for low visionSome televisions have extra-large numbers These may make it easier to read the display or you may want to sit closer to the screen

  • Use brighter lights in your home.Better lighting helps with vision and the ability to read and other daily activities It may also reduce the risk of falling

  • Consider your transportation options. If you drive check with your doctor to see if it is safe to continue doing so Be extra careful in certain situations such as driving at night in heavy traffic or in bad weather Use public transportation or ask family members to help especially with night driving Make arrangements to use local taxi service such as a rickshaw when necessary Volunteer drivers or ridesharers can join vanpools carpools or shuttle services

  • Get support.Having macular degeneration can be a difficult experience You may need to make changes in your life and you may go through many emotions as you adjust Consider talking to a counselor or joining a support group Spend time with supportive family members and friends

Preparing for your appointment

To check for macular degeneration an eye exam is necessary Make an appointment with a doctor who specializes in eye care — an optometrist or an ophthalmologist He or she can perform a complete eye exam

What you can do

Before your appointment:

  • If you need to make an appointment ask if you need to do anything in order to prepare

  • Describe any symptoms you are experiencing including those that seem unrelated to your vision problem

  • List all medications and vitamins and supplements you take including the doses and possible interactions

  • Ask a family member or friend to go with you to your eye exam The exam will cause dilation of the pupils for a time afterward so you may need someone to drive or accompany you after your appointment

  • List questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask your doctor for macular degeneration include:

  • Do I have dry or wet macular degeneration?

  • How advanced is my macular degeneration?

  • Is it safe for me to drive?

  • Will I experience further vision loss?

  • Can my condition be treated?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?

  • Will taking a vitamin or mineral supplement help prevent further vision loss?

  • How can I keep track of my vision?

  • What changes in my symptoms warrant calling you? What are the criteria that prompt you to call me? How do I know if these new symptoms are a worsening of normal symptoms or something more serious? Is this a change that warrants calling my doctor right away?

  • What aids might be helpful to me?

  • How can I protect my eyes from injury?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor will ask you a number of questions such as:

  • When did your vision problem first occur?

  • The condition affects one or both eyes

  • Do you have trouble seeing things near to you at a distance or both? If so this may be due to your eyesight

  • Do you smoke or did you used to smoke? If so, how much?

  • What types of foods do you eat?

  • Are you taking any other medications such as cholesterol-lowering drugs, blood pressure or diabetes treatments?

  • Do you have a family history of macular degeneration?

General summary

  1. Try to remember that dry macular degeneration is a condition which we do not fully understand There are several factors that influence the development of this disease most importantly how well you care for your sight (e.g taking supplements eating a healthy diet and engaging in regular exercise) Secondly it is thought that there may be other conditions present alongside dry macular degeneration So if you look after yourself eat sensibly and lead an active lifestyle then you can help prevent the deterioration of your eyesight.

  2. Dry macular degeneration is a condition that results in the deterioration of cells in the center of the retina called photoreceptors This condition usually occurs when there's breakdown of collagen within these cells due to aging and natural wear-and-tear As this process continues people with dry macular degeneration perceive colors more poorly The worst symptoms are blurry vision poor night vision and distorted color perception It is also common for patients to have areas of blurred vision or blind spots that don't heal or grow back on their own With early diagnosis and treatment vision loss can be slowed down and visual.

  3. eye supplements Dry macular degeneration occurs when the macula in your eye — responsible for sharp central vision — becomes damaged most commonly due to aging When this happens you may see “spots” or blurry areas in your vision and struggle with reading writing and recognizing faces Certain natural compounds like lutein and zeaxanthin can help reduce the risk of developing dry macular degeneration by protecting the retina from damage caused by harmful blue light exposure while also improving retinal function through antioxidant support.

  4. Dry macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye condition that results in the deterioration of the macula, which is a small spot near the center of the retina. It is the leading cause of vision loss among elderly individuals and can make it difficult to read, drive, and see facial features. The exact cause of AMD is not known, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as smoking or being exposed to ultraviolet radiation. There is no cure yet for AMD, but treatments such as vitamins and medication can be used to slow down the progression of the disease.

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