Elevated blood pressure : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What is Elevated blood pressure?

Having slightly elevated blood pressure is not a big deal. It is called prehypertension. Elevated blood pressure may turn into high blood pressure unless you make lifestyle changes. Getting more exercise and eating healthier foods will help you feel better.

Even children can have elevated blood pressure if they are overweight or obese.

What is Elevated blood pressure
Elevated blood pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a risk factor for heart attack, stroke, and heart failure. Some research suggests that long-term hypertension may lead to cognitive decline. Weight loss and exercise can often control it. High blood pressure may lead to lifelong good health.

  1. Blood

Medical terms

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is the increased pressure of blood against your artery walls.  The heart pumps out blood filled with oxygen and nutrients and your arteries carry that blood to the rest of your body.  The higher your blood pressure is, the harder your heart has to work.  The top number is called the systolic pressure and represents the pressure as your heart beats.

  • High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure, the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries, is consistently too high. Elevated blood pressure is a systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 80 mm Hg or higher. If you have elevated blood pressure, you have a higher risk of developing heart disease, kidney disease, hardening of the arteries, eye damage, and stroke.  Your doctor may refer to elevated blood pressure as prehypertension.

  • Elevated blood pressure affects a significant number of people in the United States. According to the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about one third of adults in the US have high blood pressure. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, means that the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries is too high. The heart has to work harder to pump the blood through the arteries.

  1. Normal blood strain. Blood pressure is a hundred and twenty/eighty mm Hg or decrease.

  2. Elevated blood stress. The top wide variety stages from one hundred twenty to 129 mm Hg and the bottom quantity is beneath (not above) eighty mm Hg.

  3. Stage 1 hypertension. The pinnacle wide variety degrees from 130 to 139 mm Hg or the bottom range is between 80 to 89 mm Hg.

  4. Stage 2 high blood pressure. The pinnacle number is a hundred and forty mm Hg or higher or the bottom wide variety is ninety mm Hg or better.

Elevated blood strain is taken into consideration in a class, now not a real health situation like excessive blood pressure (hypertension). But extended blood pressure has a tendency to get worse over time except it's well managed. That's why it's important to often check and control your blood strain. Healthy lifestyle habits, inclusive of regular workout and a healthful eating regimen, can help save you and manage excessive blood pressure (hypertension).

Symptoms Elevated blood pressure

Having high blood pressure doesn't always cause symptoms. The only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to monitor your blood pressure regularly. Have your blood pressure checked at each doctor's visit — or use a home blood pressure monitoring device.

When to see a doctor

Everyone age 3 and older should have their blood pressure tested by a doctor at least once a year. If your blood pressure is high or you have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, you might need to have more readings than this every year.

Causes Elevated blood pressure

Any factor that causes pressure against the artery walls can lead to elevated blood pressure. This can happen as a result of the buildup of fatty deposits in your arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to high blood pressure.

A variety of other conditions can lead to high blood pressure, including:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea

  • Kidney disease

  • Adrenal disease

  • Thyroid disease

Certain medications can cause blood pressure to rise temporarily. These include birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers, and some prescription drugs. Drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines can also cause this effect.

Risk factors Elevated blood pressure

Risk factors for elevated blood pressure include:

  • Obesity or being obese. Obesity makes you much more likely to have excessive blood pressure. High blood strain is a risk aspect for heart ailment and strokes.

  • Family history of excessive blood strain. You're much more likely to develop accelerated blood pressure if you have a discern or sibling with the condition.

  • Not being bodily active. Not exercising can motivate weight gain. Increased weight raises the danger of improved blood pressure.

  • Diet high in salt (sodium) or low in potassium. Sodium and potassium are  nutrients that the frame wishes to control blood stress. If you have too much sodium or too little potassium in your eating regimen, you can increase blood pressure.

  • Tobacco use. Smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco or being around smoke (secondhand smoke) can increase blood pressure.

  • Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol. Alcohol use has been connected with multiplied blood pressure, in particular in men.

  • Certain chronic situations. Kidney disease, diabetes and sleep apnea, amongst others, can boom the threat of multiplied blood pressure.

  • Age. Simply aging increases the danger for elevated blood strain.

  • Race. Elevated blood stress is in particular commonplace among Black human beings and usually develops at an earlier age than it does in white humans.

Complications Elevated blood pressure

High blood pressure is likely to get worse and lead to hypertension (high blood pressure). Hypertension can damage your organs and increase the risk of several conditions, including a heart attack, heart failure, stroke, aneurysm, and kidney failure.

Prevention Elevated blood pressure

The same healthy lifestyle changes that are recommended to treat high blood pressure also help prevent hypertension. You've heard it before — eat healthy foods, use less salt, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, drink less alcohol, and manage stress and quit smoking. Start changing your habits today. You can start by improving your diet and exercising regularly.

Diagnosis Elevated blood pressure

A blood pressure test determines if your blood pressure is elevated. This is often done by having you wear an inflatable cuff around your arm and measuring the pressure with a gauge.

A blood pressure reading is given in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The first number measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats (systolic pressure). The second number measures the pressure in your arteries between beats (diastolic pressure).

  1. Blood analysis

  2. Blood count

  3. Blood typing

Your blood pressure is considered normal if it is 120/80 millimeters of mercury or lower. Other blood pressure measurements fall into one of the following categories:

  • Elevated blood pressure.High blood pressure is a systolic pressure that ranges from 120 to 129 millimeters of mercury and a diastolic pressure that is below 80 millimeters of mercury. High blood pressure tends to worsen over time unless steps are taken to control it.

  • Stage 1 hypertension.Stage 1 hypertension is a blood pressure that is between 130 and 139 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or 80 and 89 millimeters of mercury.

  • Stage 2 hypertension.Stage 2 hypertension is a blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or 90 mm Hg or higher.

To make a diagnosis of high blood pressure, two or more blood pressure readings taken at separate times must be above the average. The first reading should be taken in both arms to determine if there is a consistent increase in blood pressure. If the two readings are different, the reading from the arm with the higher number should be used.

Your doctor may recommend a six-hour or 24-hour blood pressure monitoring test called ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. This device measures your blood pressure at regular intervals over six or 24 hours and provides a more accurate picture of blood pressure changes over an extended period of time. A day and night are about the same length on average. However, these devices are not available in all medical centers and insurance may not cover them.

Your doctor might recommend that you use a home blood pressure monitor. If so, they should show you how to use it properly.

  1. Angiocardiography

  2. Angiography

Treatment Elevated blood pressure

If you have high blood pressure or diabetes, kidney disease, or cardiovascular disease your doctor may recommend medications in addition to lifestyle changes.

If you have high blood pressure and don't have any other conditions that raise your heart disease risk the benefits of medication are less clear.

If you have hypertension, your doctor may prescribe medications to lower your blood pressure and suggest lifestyle changes such as reducing salt intake and exercising.

  1. Rehabilitation of body fat percentage
  2. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation

Lifestyle and home remedies

As your blood pressure increases, your risk of cardiovascular disease also increases. That's why it's important to make a commitment to healthy lifestyle changes in order to control your blood pressure.

  • Eat healthy foods.Eat a healthy diet.Eating fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish, and low-fat dairy foods is healthy. Get plenty of potassium from natural sources to help lower blood pressure. Avoid saturated fat and trans fat.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Losing weight can help you control your blood pressure and reduce your risk of health problems related to being overweight or obese. On average, each kilogram (2.2 pounds) of weight loss can lower your blood pressure by about 1 millimeter of mercury (mm Hg). If you are overweight or have obesity, losing weight may also help reduce your risk of other health problems. If you lose weight, your blood pressure may drop more significantly for every kilogram of weight lost.

  • Use less salt (sodium). Don't use the salt shaker. Also try to reduce your intake of processed meats, canned foods, commercial soups, frozen dinners, and breads that have a high sodium content. Read labels and keep track of your sodium intake. Try to limit your sodium intake by at least 1,000 milligrams every day. The ideal intake of calcium is 1500 mg a day or less.

  • Increase physical activity.Physical activity can help lower your blood pressure, reduce stress, and keep your weight under control.
    The Department of Health and Human Services recommends that most healthy adults get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Alternatively, you can do moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity activity together. He should have two days a week of school.

  • Limit alcohol.If you want to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. This means up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. One drink equals 12 ounces (355 milliliters) of beer, 5 ounces (148 milliliters) of wine, or 1.5 ounces (44 milliliters) of 80-proof liquor.

  • Don't smoke.Smoking harms blood vessel walls and speeds up the process of hardening of the arteries.If you want to quit smoking, ask your doctor for advice.

  • Manage stress.Reduce stress as much as possible. Try different techniques to relax, such as deep breathing and meditation. Getting enough sleep and exercise can also help.

Preparing for your appointment

If you think you may have high blood pressure, see your family doctor to have your blood pressure checked.

You do not need to make any special preparations for your test. Avoid caffeine and exercise for at least thirty minutes before it, and avoid tobacco for the same amount of time before having your blood pressure measured.

Before your doctor's appointment, you should bring a list of all the medications you are taking, as well as any vitamins and supplements. This will help your doctor know what might be affecting your blood pressure. Make sure to keep taking any prescribed medications as directed by your doctor, even if you think they might change your blood pressure.

Here are some things to help you prepare for your appointment.

What you can do

Make a list of:

  • Your symptoms,Please bring any unrelated incidents or concerns that you may have to the appointment, regardless of when they began.

  • Key personal information,If you have a family history of high blood pressure, cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, or diabetes, and any major stresses or recent life changes, you may be at an increased risk for these conditions.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

For questions about blood pressure, you should ask your doctor including:

  • What tests do I need?

  • Do I need to take medication?

  • What foods should I eat or avoid?

  • What is an appropriate level of physical activity?

  • How often do I need to have my blood pressure checked? Your doctor will decide how often you need to have your blood pressure checked.

  • Should I monitor my blood pressure at home? Yes, you should monitor your blood pressure at home to make sure it is in a healthy range.

  • What are some of the other health conditions that I have? How can I best manage them together?

  • Can I have brochures or other printed material? What websites do you think I should visit?

If you have any questions, don't be afraid to ask them.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a few questions, including:

  • What are your typical food and exercise habits?

  • Are you drinking alcohol? How many drinks do you have in a week?

  • Do you smoke?

  • When was the last time your blood pressure was checked? What was your blood pressure reading then?

General summary 

  • Elevated blood pressure is a condition when the force of your blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. You can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms.
  • Elevated blood pressure is a condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high. This condition can lead to many health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Treating elevated blood pressure can help prevent these health problems.  There are many different treatments for elevated blood pressure, such as lifestyle changes and medications.

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