Hay fever : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


 What is Hay fever?

Allergic inflammation, additionally referred to as pollinosis, is associated aversion that causes sneeze, congestion, fretful nose and raw throat. Pollen, pet dander, mold and insects will result in pollinosis symptoms. pollinosis will cause you to feel awful, however you'll be able to realize relief with modus vivendi changes, allergic reaction medications and therapy (allergy shots).

Allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is associated with small particles within the air referred to as allergens. After you suppress allergens through your nose or mouth, your body reacts by cathartic a natural chemical referred to as amine. Many indoor and outdoor allergies cause pollinosis. Common causes embrace dirt mites, mold, pet dander and spore from trees and plants.

Symptoms of pollinosis embrace sneeze, nasal congestion and irritation of the nose, throat, mouth and eyes. {allergic inflammation|rhinitis|coryza|hypersensitivity reaction} isn't a similar to infectious rhinitis, otherwise referred to as the respiratory disorder. pollinosis isn't contagious.

What is Hay fever?
Hay fever

You can have pollinosis any time of the year. seasonal allergies occur within the spring, summer and early fall once trees and weeds bloom and spore counts are higher. Perennial allergies will happen year-around. They result from irritants that are perpetually around, like pet dander, cockroaches and dirt mites.

Hay fever is extremely common. Within the US, around V-J Day, twenty percent of the population has rhinitis. Voluminous kids and adults have pollinosis each year.

  1. Integumentary system

Medical terms

  • Hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, is an allergic reaction caused by exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust, and animal dander. It is characterized by symptoms such as sneezing, itching, and congestion of the nose and eyes. Sufferers may also experience fatigue, headaches, and a general feeling of discomfort. Allergies occur when the immune system overreacts to the allergen by releasing histamines, which cause inflammation and irritation of the nasal passages and other respiratory areas.

  • Hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis, is an allergic reaction to pollens and other substances in the air. Symptoms of hay fever range from mild irritation to extreme discomfort and include sneezing, a runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, or a sore throat. Hay fever can be debilitating and can affect people from spring to early autumn. Treatment for hay fever includes medications to reduce the symptoms of an allergic reaction as well as avoidance of the allergen in the air.

  • If you like spring blossoms and colorful fall leaves, however dread the sneezes, itchy eyes, and liquid (or stuffy) nose that return beside them, then you will have pollinosis.That’s the common term for seasonal allergies. The correct name is coryza, which implies inflammation within your nose. Pollinosis symptoms principally have an effect on your nose, however conjointly the eyes, skin, and roof of the mouth.Allergies, together with pollinosis, result once your system attacks a usually harmless substance that you simply stumble upon within the atmosphere. within the case of seasonal pollinosis, these embrace grass, tree, and weed pollens yet as outside molds.Hay fever, conjointly referred to as coryza, causes cold-like signs and symptoms, like a liquid nose, itchy eyes, congestion, reflex and sinus pressure. however not like a chilly, pollinosis is not caused by a plague. pollinosis is caused by associate allergic response to outside or indoor allergens, like spore, dust mites, or small flecks of skin and secretion shed by cats, dogs, and different animals with fur or feathers (pet dander).Besides creating you miserable, pollinosis will have an effect on your performance at work or college and customarily interfere along with your life. however you do not need to place up with annoying symptoms. you'll be able to learn to avoid triggers and realize the proper treatment.

Symptoms Hay fever

Hay fever symptoms will seem throughout the year. outside allergies are worse within the spring, summer and early fall. In hot weather, weeds and flowers bloom, and spore counts are higher. Indoor allergies, like those who result from pet dander and mud mites, will go downhill in winter as a result of folks who spend longer inside.

Hay fever signs and symptoms can include:

  • Runny nose and nasal congestion

  • Watery, itchy, red eyes (allergic conjunctivitis)

  • Sneezing

  • Cough

  • Itchy nose, roof of mouth or throat

  • Swollen, blue-colored skin under the eyes (allergic shiners)

  • Postnasal drip

  • Fatigue

Seasonal factors

Your pollinosis signs and symptoms might begin or worsen at a specific time of year. Triggers include:

  • Tree pollen, which is common in early spring.

  • Grass pollen, which is common in late spring and summer.

  • Ragweed pollen, which is common in fall.

  • Dust mites, cockroaches and dander from pets can be bothersome year-round (perennial). Symptoms caused by dander might worsen in winter, when houses are closed up.

  • Spores from indoor and outdoor fungi and molds are considered both seasonal and perennial.

Hay fever or common cold?

Signs and symptoms can be similar, so it can be difficult to tell which one you have.


Signs and symptoms



Hay fever

Runny nose with thin, watery discharge; no fever

Immediately after exposure to allergens

As long as you're exposed to allergens

Common cold

Runny nose with watery or thick yellow discharge; body aches; low-grade fever

One to three days after exposure to a cold virus

Three to seven days

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if:

  • You can't find relief from your hay fever symptoms

  • Allergy medications don't provide relief or cause annoying side effects

  • You have another condition that can worsen hay fever symptoms, such as nasal polyps, asthma or frequent sinus infections

Many people — particularly youngsters — get allergic to rhinitis, in order that they may not obtain treatment till the symptoms become severe. however obtaining the correct treatment would possibly supply relief. 

Causes Hay fever

When you have allergic rhinitis, your system identifies a harmless mobile substance as harmful. Your system then produces antibodies to the current harmless substance. the following time you are available in contact with the substance, these antibodies signal your system to unharness chemicals like amine into your blood, that cause a reaction that results in the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Allergic rhinitis happens once your body’s system reacts to associate thorns within the air. The irritants (allergens) are so small that you will simply inhale them through your nose or mouth.

Allergens square measure harmless to most of the people. however if you have got allergic rhinitis, your system thinks the substance is intrusive. The system tries to guard your body by cathartic natural chemicals into your blood. The most chemical is termed amine. It causes secretion membranes within the nose, eyes and throat to become inflamed and unquiet as they work to eject the substance.

Seasonal and perennial allergies may end up from several allergens, including:

  • Dust mites that live in carpets, drapes, bedding and furniture.

  • Pollen from trees, grass and weeds.

  • Pet dander (tiny flakes of dead skin).

  • Mold spores.

  • Cockroaches, including their saliva and waste.

Food allergies can also cause inflammation in the nose and throat. If you think you’re having an allergic reaction to something you ate, get medical help right away. Food allergies can be life-threatening.

Risk factors Hay fever

The following can increase your risk of developing hay fever:

  • Having other allergies or asthma

  • Having atopic dermatitis (eczema)

  • Having a blood relative (such as a parent or sibling) with allergies or asthma

  • Living or working in an environment that constantly exposes you to allergens — such as animal dander or dust mites

  • Having a mother who smoked during your first year of life

Complications Hay fever

Problems that may be associated with hay fever include:

  • Reduced quality of life. Hay fever will interfere along with your enjoyment of activities and cause you to be less productive. For several individuals, pollinosis symptoms result in absences from work or faculty. 

  • Poor sleep. Hay fever symptoms can keep you awake or make it hard to stay asleep, which can lead to fatigue and a general feeling of being unwell (malaise).

  • Worsening asthma. Hay fever can worsen signs and symptoms of asthma, such as coughing and wheezing.

  • Sinusitis. Prolonged sinus congestion thanks to allergic rhinitis could increase your susceptibleness to redness — Associate in Nursing infection or inflammation of the membrane that lines the sinuses. 

  • Ear infection. In children, hay fever often is a factor in middle ear infection (otitis media).

Prevention Hay fever

There's no thanks to avoid obtaining pollinosis. If you have got pollinosis, the simplest factor to try is to minimize your exposure to the allergens that cause your symptoms. Take hypersensitivity reaction medications before you are exposed to allergens, as directed by your doctor.

How long does hay fever last?

Hay fever or allergic rhinitis is an allergy When people with hay fever come into contact with the substances they're allergic to their bodies produce antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE) in response to the allergen These antibodies trigger other white blood cells known as mast cells and basophils to release inflammatory chemicals that cause signs and symptoms like a runny nose and sneezing.

How can I permanently fix hayfever?

Hay fever is a common condition affecting up to one in five UK adults and children Among the treatments available for hay fever are antihistamines nasal sprays and decongestants However these medications can cause side-effects and often do not provide long-term relief from symptoms The best way of avoiding hay fever symptoms is by keeping your immune system healthy This means eating a balanced diet that's low in fat and salt getting enough exercise and cutting down on stress Also try to avoid pollen triggers if possible such as grasses or trees at certain times of year If you feel like your hay.

Why is hayfever worse at night?

There are a number of reasons why hayfever is worse at night Firstly allergens tend to be more concentrated in the daytime so it may be that dust particles are dispersed further from the source during the day and this affects your sensitivity to them Secondly most people sleep for longer periods at night than during the day allowing less time for their bodies to recover from any allergic reaction Thirdly grass pollen reacts with nitrogen oxides in sunlight which causes them to release small amounts of chemicals that can cause an allergic reaction This reaction doesn't happen in darkness as there's no light present Finally some people report.

Does Vaseline stop hay fever?

Vaseline is one of the most popular homemade remedies for instant relief from persistent symptoms of hayfever such as itchy eyes and sneezing It is a good choice because it contains no chemicals or additional fragrances that may irritate sensitive skin Vaseline also helps to moisturize chapped and dry skin leaving your body feeling soft and supple all day long Despite these positive aspects there is no scientific evidence supporting the idea that Vaseline can effectively relieve hayfever symptoms This lack of proof might be attributable to the fact that sufferers use Vaseline in many different ways – some apply it.

How do you sleep with hay fever?

Hay fever symptoms such as sneezing itchy and runny nose watery red eyes and post-nasal drip are triggered by pollen from trees and grasses If you have hay fever the best treatment is avoidance of outdoor allergens But if you want to enjoy your yard or go for a walk on a warm spring day there are ways to keep symptoms under control For starters try to avoid being outside when the air is thick with pollen - generally from mid-morning or so until late in the afternoon Also follow all allergy medication instructions regarding timing; taking your medication too early can make symptoms worse.

Does showering help hay fever?

Research has shown that showering no more than twice a day is enough to cleanse the skin and other bodily surface areas of bacteria and other contaminants associated with infectious disease In fact some research indicates that showering too much may be harmful because it strips the skin of natural oils that act as a barrier against germs But studies also indicate certain materials in hair or clothing such as dandruff or pet dander can act as allergens Showering after contact with these things will wash them off and help prevent hay fever symptoms in some people.

Diagnosis Hay fever

Occasional allergies aren’t simply one thing you've got to measure with. Consulting AN medico is the simplest thanks to diagnose and treat coryza symptoms and assist you realize relief.

Your medico might begin by taking a close history, trying to find clues in your lifestyle which will facilitate pinpoint the reason behind your symptoms. You’ll be asked, among alternative things, concerning your work and residential environments (including whether or not you've got a pet) your family’s anamnesis and therefore the frequency and severity of your symptoms.

Sometimes coryza is sophisticated by many medical conditions, like an abnormality (curvature of the bone and animal tissue that separate the nostrils) or nasal polyps (abnormal growths within the nose and sinuses). Any of those conditions are created worse by catching a chill. Nasal symptoms caused by one downside are tough to treat, usually requiring the cooperation of AN medico and another specialist, like AN ear-nose-and-throat doctor (ear, nose, and throat specialist surgeon).

Your medico might suggest a diagnostic test, within which little amounts of suspected allergens are introduced into your skin. Skin testing is the best, most sensitive, and usually least dear approach of characteristic allergens.

Your doctor will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and possibly recommend one or both of the following tests:

  • Skin prick test. You're watched for associate degree hypersensitivity once little amounts of fabric that may trigger allergies are a unit pricked into the skin of your arm or higher back. If you are allergic, you develop a raised bump (hive) at the positioning of that matter. hypersensitivity reaction specialists typically are a unit best equipped to perform hypersensitivity reaction skin tests. 

  • Allergy blood test. A blood sample is sent to a lab to measure your immune system's response to a specific allergen. Also called the radioallergosorbent test (RAST), this test measures the amount of allergy-causing antibodies in your bloodstream, known as immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies.

Treatment Hay fever

There's presently no cure for pollinosis, however the general public area unit is ready to relieve symptoms with treatment, a minimum of to a definite extent.

The most effective thanks to management pollinosis would be to avoid exposure to spores. However, it's totally troublesome to avoid spores, significantly throughout the summer months once you wish to spend longer outdoors.

Treatment choices for pollinosis embody antihistamines, which might facilitate stopping AN allergy from occurring and corticosteroids (steroids), that facilitate to cut back inflammation and swelling.

It's best to limit your exposure to substances that cause your pollinosis the maximum amount as potential. If your pollinosis is not too severe, over-the-counter medications could also be enough to alleviate symptoms. For worse symptoms, you would like prescription medications.

Many people get the simplest relief from a mix of allergic reaction medications. you would possibly have to be compelled to attempt some before you discover what works best.

If your kid has pollinosis, speak together with your doctor concerning treatment. Not all medications are approved to be used in kids. browse labels rigorously.

Medications for hay fever include:

  • Nasal corticosteroids. These prescription nasal sprays facilitate stop and treat the nasal inflammation, nasal itch and fluid nose caused by allergic rhinitis. For several folks they are the foremost effective allergic rhinitis medications, and they are usually the primary kind of medication prescribed.
    Examples embody mometasone (Nasonex) and budesonide (Rhinocort), each out there by prescription, and Fluticasone (Flonase hypersensitivity reaction Relief), budesonide (Rhinocort hypersensitivity reaction) and Aristopak (Nasacort Allergy twenty four Hour), out there over the counter. The prescription nasal spray azelastine associated fluticasone (Dymista) combines a medicament with a steroid.Nasal corticosteroids square measure a secure, semi permanent treatment for many folks. facet effects will embody unpleasant smell or style and nose irritation. Steroid facet effects square measure rare. 

  • Antihistamines. These preparations are typically given as pills. However, there are medicated nasal sprays and drops. Antihistamines will facilitate skin sensation, sternutation and a liquid nose however have less result on congestion. They work by interfering with a symptom-causing chemical free by your system throughout Associate in Nursing sensitivity (histamine).
    Over-the-counter pills embody loratadine (Claritin, Alavert), cetirizine (Zyrtec Allergy) and fexofenadine (Allegra Allergy). The prescription medicament nasal sprays azelastine (Astelin, Astepro) and olopatadine (Patanase) will relieve nasal symptoms. Medicinal eye drops like ketotifen fumarate (Alaway) facilitate relief of eye itching and eye irritation caused by allergic rhinitis. 

  • Decongestants. These medications are offered in over-the-counter and prescription liquids, tablets and nasal sprays. Over-the-counter oral decongestants embrace alkaloids (Sudafed, Afrinol, others). Nasal sprays embrace adrenergic drug coordination compounds (Neo-Synephrine) and oxymetazoline (Afrin).
    Oral decongestants will cause a variety of facet effects, as well as magnified vital signs, insomnia, irritability and headache. do not use a medicine nasal spray for quite 2 or 3 days at a time as a result of it will really worsen symptoms once used ceaselessly (rebound congestion). 

  • Cromolyn sodium. This is available as an over-the-counter nasal spray that must be used several times a day. It's also available in eye-drop form with a prescription. It helps relieve hay fever symptoms by preventing the release of histamine. Most effective when you start using it before you have symptoms, cromolyn sodium doesn't have serious side effects.

  • Leukotriene modifier. Montelukast (Singulair) may be a prescription pill taken to dam the action of leukotrienes — system chemicals that cause allergic reaction symptoms like excess secretion production. It's particularly effective in treating allergy-induced respiratory disease. It's usually used once nasal sprays cannot be tolerated or for gentle respiratory disease.
    Montelukast will cause headaches. In rare cases, it's been coupled to psychological reactions like agitation, aggression, hallucinations, depression and unsafe thinking. look for medical recommendations directly for any uncommon psychological reaction. 

  • Nasal ipratropium. Available during a prescription nasal spray, ipratropium helps relieve severe liquid nose by preventing the glands in your nose from manufacturing excess fluid. It is not effective for treating congestion, sneezing or symptoms.
    Mild facet effects embody nasal condition, nosebleeds and inflammatory disease. Rarely, it will cause more-severe facet effects, like blurred vision, lightheadedness and troublesome micturition. The drug isn't counseled for folks with eye disease or men with associate degree enlarged prostate. 

  • Oral corticosteroids. Corticosteroid pills such as prednisone sometimes are used to relieve severe allergy symptoms. Because the long-term use of corticosteroids can cause serious side effects such as cataracts, osteoporosis and muscle weakness, they're usually prescribed for only short periods of time.

Other treatments for hay fever include:

  • Allergy shots (immunotherapy). If medications do not relieve your pollinosis symptoms or cause too severe side effects, your doctor might advocate allergic reaction shots (immunotherapy or decrement therapy). Over 3 to 5 years, you may receive regular injections containing little amounts of allergens. The goal is to induce your body to become accustomed to the allergens that cause your symptoms, and reduce your desire for medications.
    Immunotherapy may well be particularly effective if you are allergic to cat dander, dust mites, or spores made by trees, grass or weeds. In kids, therapy might facilitate stopping the event of respiratory disorder. 

  • Under-the-tongue (sublingual) allergy tablets. Rather than getting shots, you have tiny amounts of allergen in pill form dissolve in your mouth, usually daily.

  • Rinsing your sinuses. Rinsing your nasal passages with distilled, sterile saline (nasal irrigation) may be fast, cheap and effective thanks to relieving nasal congestion. removal flushes out mucous secretion and allergens from your nose.
    Look for a squeeze bottle or a neti pot — a little instrumentation with a spout designed for nose removal — at your pharmacy or food store. To form up the saline irrigation answer, use water that is distilled, sterile, antecedently stewed and cooled, or filtered employing a filter with AN absolute pore size of one micrometer or smaller. even be bound to rinse the irrigation device when every use with equally distilled, sterile, antecedently stewed and cooled, or filtered water and leave the receptive dry. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

It's not attainable to avoid allergens utterly, however you'll cut back your symptoms by limiting your exposure to them. If you recognize what you are allergic to, you'll avoid your triggers.

Pollen or molds

  • Close doors and windows during pollen season.

  • Don't hang laundry outside — pollen can stick to sheets and towels.

  • Use air conditioning in your house and car.

  • Use an allergy-grade filter in your home ventilation system and change it regularly.

  • Avoid outdoor activity in the early morning, when pollen counts are highest.

  • Stay indoors on dry, windy days.

  • Use a dehumidifier to reduce indoor humidity.

  • Use a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in your bedroom and other rooms where you spend a lot of time.

  • Avoid mowing the lawn or raking leaves.

  • Wear a dust mask when cleaning the house or gardening.

Dust mites

  • Use allergy-proof covers on mattresses, box springs and pillows.

  • Wash sheets and blankets in water heated to at least 130 F (54 C).

  • Use a dehumidifier or air conditioner to reduce indoor humidity.

  • Vacuum carpets weekly with a vacuum cleaner equipped with a small-particle or HEPA filter.

  • Spray insecticide designed to kill dust mites (acaricides) and approved for indoor use on carpets, furniture and bedding.

  • Consider removing carpeting, especially where you sleep, if you're highly sensitive to dust mites.


  • Block cracks and crevices where roaches can enter.

  • Fix leaky faucets and pipes.

  • Wash dishes and empty garbage daily.

  • Sweep food crumbs from counters and floors.

  • Store food, including pet food, in sealed containers.

  • Consider professional pest extermination.

Pet dander

  • Keep pets out of your home, if possible.

  • Bathe dogs twice a week, if possible. The benefit of bathing cats hasn't been proven. Keep pets out of your bedroom and off furniture.

Alternative medicine

While there isn't much evidence about how well alternative treatments work, a number of people try them for hay fever. These include:

  • Herbal remedies and supplements. Extracts of the ligneous plant Petasites hybridus might facilitate forestall seasonal allergic reaction symptoms. If you are attempting Petasites hybridus, take care to use a product that is labeled "PA-free," that indicates that it's had doubtless cyanogenic substances removed.
    There's some restricted proof that spirulina and Tinospora cordifolia additionally is also effective. Although their edges are unclear, alternative flavored remedies for seasonal allergies embody capsicum pepper plant, honey, antioxidants and animal oil. 

  • Acupuncture. Some people claim that acupuncture can help with seasonal allergy symptoms. There's limited evidence that these treatments work, but there's also little evidence of harm.

Preparing for your appointment

You're probably to start out by seeing your GP or a medical aid supplier. However, in some cases once you decide to line up a briefing, you will be spoken to by a physician or alternative specialist.

Here's some info to assist you steel oneself against your appointment:

  • Write down your symptoms, when they occur and what seems to trigger them. Include symptoms that might seem unrelated to hay fever.

  • Write down recent life changes, such as a move to a new home or new part of the country.

  • List medications, vitamins and supplements you take.

  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help you remember information from your doctor.

  • Write down questions for your doctor.

For hay fever, some questions to ask include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • Is my condition likely to go away on its own?

  • What is the best course of action?

  • What other approaches can you suggest?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I should follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What seems to trigger your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • Do any of your closest relatives (such as a parent or sibling) have hay fever or other allergies?

  • Do your symptoms interfere with work, school or sleep?

What you can do in the meantime

If you do not see your doctor directly, over-the-counter remedies might ease symptoms. a variety of medicines are obtainable which will facilitate relief of your allergic rhinitis symptoms. They embrace pills, liquids, nasal sprays and eye-drops.

General summary

  1. There are many effective treatments for hayfever Many people are prescribed a course of antihistamines to take at the onset of symptoms; these medications can usually reduce mild symptoms and alleviate symptoms altogether in some cases It is also possible to get tested for allergies that might be causing your hay fever symptoms and then go on an allergy-specific treatment plan.

  2. Hay fever is an allergic reaction to airborne pollens or dust that can cause sneezing, itching, and watery eyes. It is a common condition, with estimates showing that more than 25 million Americans are affected. Different pollens cause different reactions in hay fever sufferers. Trees such as birch, oak, and elm are more likely to trigger symptoms in the spring, while grasses cause most of the problems in late spring and early summer.

  3. Hay fever is an allergy to certain pollens or airborne allergens. It occurs when the body has an exaggerated reaction to the pollen, causing an immune system response. Symptoms of hay fever can include itchy eyes, sneezing, a runny nose, and sinus pressure. In some cases, hay fever can worsen asthma and cause respiratory distress due to inflammation of airways.

  4. Hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen, which can cause a variety of symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy, watery eyes. The condition is most common in spring and summer when plants are in bloom and pollen levels are high, but it can also occur during other times of the year. In some cases, hay fever can also cause fatigue, coughing, headaches, and itchy skin. Treatment for hay fever includes medications such as antihistamines and corticosteroids that reduce the body's reaction to pollen, as well as avoiding the triggers of hay fever itself.

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