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Merkel cell carcinoma : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What is Merkel Cell Carcinoma?

Merkel Cell Carcinoma is a cancer that affects the Merkel cells in the skin. It is most commonly found on the face, neck, and trunk.

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer that usually appears as a flesh- colored or bluish-red nodule, often on your face, head or neck. Merkel cell carcinoma is additionally known as system carcinoma of the skin.

What is Merkel Cell Carcinoma?
Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Merkel cell carcinoma most frequently develops in older people. Long sun exposure or a weak system could increase your risk of developing Merkel cell carcinoma.

  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which cancer cells form in the skin.

  • Sun exposure and a weak immune system increase the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma.

  • Merkel cell carcinoma usually appears as a single, painless lump on sun-exposed skin.

  • Tests that examine the skin are used to diagnose Merkel cell carcinoma.

  • The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for a person depend on certain factors.

  1. Ntegumentary system

  1. Mammary glands

  2. Skin

  3. Subcutaneous tissue

Medical terms

  • Merkel cell carcinoma tends to grow quickly and to unfold quickly to different components of your body. Treatment choices for Merkel cell carcinoma often depend upon whether or not the cancer has spread beyond the skin.

  • Merkel cell carcinoma begins in the outer layers of the skin specifically in cells known as Merkel cells These are located between the epidermis and dermis which are skin layers that together constitute the thickness of human skin These lesions may appear anywhere on the body but most often occur on areas exposed to sunlight such as the face ears and arms This form of cancer is rare with only one in every million people diagnosed with it each year The disease affects more men than women but has a tendency to affect Caucasians more than other races People aged 50-70 years old are at greatest risk for.

  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer that can cause the development of lesions on the upper layer of skin It most often affects the head or neck area and may also appear on areas where sun exposure is common such as the arms legs and face But Merkel cell carcinoma can occur anywhere on your body People with light-colored skin are at higher risk for developing this cancer because their bodies cannot repair damage from sunlight very well Other risk factors include having a history of non-melanoma skin cancers and kidney failure Treatment options vary depending on each patient's individual circumstances but typically begin with.

Symptoms Merkel cell carcinoma

The first sign of Merkel cell cancer is sometimes a fast-growing, painless nodule (tumor) on your skin. The nodule could also be skin-colored or might seem in reminder red, blue or purple. Most Merkel cell carcinomas appear on the face, head or neck, however they'll develop anywhere on your body, even on areas not exposed to sunlight.

When to see a doctor

If you notice a mole, freckle or bump that's dynamic in size, form or color, growing rapidly, or hemorrhages simply once minor trauma, love to wash your skin or shave, create an arrangement together with your doctor.

Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which cancer cells form in the skin.

Merkel cells are located in the top layer of the skin. These cells are near the nerve endings that receive touch sensation. Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare type of skin cancer that forms when Merkel cells grow. Merkel cell carcinoma usually begins in areas of the skin that are regularly exposed to the sun, such as the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk.

This illustration shows the anatomy of the skin, including the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Merkel cells are found in the layer of basal cells at the deepest part of the epidermis and are connected to nerves.

Merkel cell carcinoma usually grows quickly and spreads to nearby lymph nodes. It may also spread to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs, brain, bones, or other organs.

Merkel cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer, after melanoma.

Causes Merkel cell carcinoma

It's not clear what causes Merkel cell cancer. Merkel cell carcinoma begins within the Merkel cells. Merkel cells are found at the bottom of the outermost layer of your skin (epidermis). Merkel cells are connected to the nerve endings in the skin that are answerable for the sense of touch.

Researchers recently discovered that a typical virus plays a task in inflicting most cases of Merkel cell carcinoma. The virus (Merkel cell polyomavirus) lives on the skin and doesn't cause any signs or symptoms. simply however this virus causes Merkel cell carcinoma has nevertheless to be determined. Given that the virus is extremely common and Merkel cell cancer is very rare, it seems that different risk factors play a role within the development of this cancer.

Merkel cell carcinoma is more likely to occur in people who are sun-exposed or have a weak immune system.

Risk factors for Merkel cell carcinoma include: having a family history of the disease, being in the military, being younger than 50 years old, having certain skin conditions such as eczema or dermatitis herpetiformis, and using harsh soaps or detergents. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.Carcinoma is a type of cancer that includes the following: 1.A tumor that is cancerous and can grow and spread throughout the body. a cancer that originates in the skin or some other organ in the body

  • The more sunlight you are exposed to.

  • Tanning beds and psoralen and UV A therapy can damage your skin if it is exposed to artificial sunlight, such as from tanning.

  • Having a weakened immune system due to diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia or HIV infection.

  • Taking drugs that decrease the activity of the immune system might be necessary after an organ transplant.

  • Having cancer of another type.

  • Being 50 years old or older male or white.

Merkel cell carcinoma usually appears as a single, painless lump on sun-exposed skin.

Changes in the skin can be caused by Merkel cell carcinoma or another condition. If you notice changes in your skin, please consult a doctor.

Merkel cell carcinoma usually appears as a single, large lump on sun-exposed skin.

  • Fast-growing.

  • Painless.

  • Firm and dome-shaped or raised.

  • Red or violet in color.

How do you get rid of Merkel cell carcinoma?

We do not have any home remedies or over-the-counter (OTC) medications that will cure Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) Treatment however can successfully eradicate MCC from the body Options include surgery radiation therapy and chemotherapy Since MCC is a rare cancer specific treatment recommendations are generally made based on what works for similar cancers If you haven’t had cancer before and were recently diagnosed with MCC it is important to seek treatment as soon as possible since the survival rate decreases significantly when this type of skin cancer spreads to other parts of your body.

Is Merkel cell carcinoma life threatening?

Merkel cell carcinoma also known as MCC is a fast-growing and dangerous form of skin cancer The American Cancer Society estimates that nearly 5,000 Americans are diagnosed with this rare type of skin cancer each year MCC typically develops on the face or neck but it can develop on the extremities as well As of 2017 information on specific treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma is still being researched However radiation therapy may be used to slow the growth of an existing tumor and help keep existing tumors stable while further treatment options are discussed Radiation therapy often causes normal cells around a tumor to die as.

How fast does Merkel cell carcinoma spread?

When you have Merkel cell carcinoma or MCC your doctor will likely monitor the condition with a physical exam If you're diagnosed with MCC before it spreads beyond your skin your doctor may recommend taking part in a clinical trial During this type of study researchers test potential treatments for your condition by comparing them to standard care that's currently available to people without cancer Although you are not guaranteed to receive treatment through a clinical trial this option offers hope for future therapies for cancer patients and their families.

Does Merkel cell carcinoma hurt?

Merkel cell carcinoma does not cause pain The cancer can spread to the skin causing a rash that is itchy and aggravated by scratching but that doesn't hurt This relapsing form of Merkel cell carcinoma can be treated with radiation therapy or other treatments that destroy cells in the skin so they cannot grow into new tumors.

How does the Merkel cell start?

What are the signs and symptoms? Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer that starts in the Merkel cells of the epidermis which are a type of skin cell The disease more commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the head or neck but it can also grow on parts of your body that have not been hurt by ultraviolet light; for example below your waist.

Does Merkel cell carcinoma grow fast?

The cancerous cells can grow both fast and slowly Both are dangerous forms of metastasizing Fast-growing carcinomas have a shorter survival rate as they are more likely to spread quickly than the slow-growing forms These types of cancer also have a higher complication rate with things like bleeding or fluid retention even if they do not spread far from the original location of the skin cancer tumor.

Diagnosis Merkel cell carcinoma

Tests and procedures that examine the skin can help diagnose Merkel cell carcinoma.

These tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and health historyA physical exam of the body is conducted to check general signs of health and look for indications of disease. A patient's health history, including any medical conditions or treatments they have had in the past, will be taken into account.

  • Full-body skin examA doctor or nurse looks for bumps or spots on the skin that look unusual in color, size, or shape. The doctor or nurse will also check the size, shape, and texture of the lymph nodes.

  • Skin biopsyPathologists look for signs of cancer on the skin cells that have been removed during a skin cancer exam.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and the treatment options vary depending on certain factors.

The prognosis and treatment for this condition depends on a lot of factors, including:

  • The stage of the cancer (how big the tumor is and whether it has spread to other parts of the body).

  • Where the cancer is in the body.

  • Whether cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

  • The patient's age and general health should be considered when making a medical decision.

The prognosis for this condition also depends on how deeply the tumor has grown into the skin.

Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

  • After Merkel cell carcinoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

  • Cancer can spread in the body in three ways.

  • Cancer may spread from its original location to other parts of the body.

  • Merkel cell carcinoma has the following stages:

    • Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)

    • Stage I

    • Stage II

    • Stage III

    • Stage IV

  • Cancer can recur after it has been treated in the form of Merkel cell carcinoma.

If Merkel cell carcinoma is diagnosed, tests are done to see if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

The process used to determine if cancer has spread to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. Knowing the stage is important so that you can plan your treatment.

The staging process may include the following tests and procedures:

  • CT scan (CAT scan) A procedure that makes pictures of areas inside the body from different angles using a computer and an x-ray machine. The pictures may be colored to help show up organs or tissues more clearly. A CT scan of the chest can also be performed. The abdomen can be used to detect primary small cell lung cancer or to find Merkel cell carcinoma that has spread to lymph nodes. A CT scan of the head and neck may also be used to find Merkel cell carcinoma that has spread. Tomography is a type of imaging that uses X-rays to create pictures of the inside of the body.

  • A PET scan is a type of scan that uses positron emissions to look at the body.PET scanning is a procedure that uses radioactive sugar to find cancer cells in the body. A small amount of sugar is injected into a person's vein, and the PET scanner rotates around the body to create a picture. Cancer cells show up brighter in the picture because they use more glucose than normal cells.Normal cells are more active and take up more glucose than cancer cells do.

  • Lymph node biopsyThere are several types of lymph node exams used to determine the stage of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    • A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgery to remove lymph nodes near a tumor.During surgery, the sentinel lymph node will be removed. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node in a group of lymph nodes to receive lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor.The cancer is likely to spread to the lymph node closest to the primary tumor first. The removal of the sentinel lymph node will help prevent the cancer from spreading. A blue dye is injected near the tumor.The lymph flows through the lymph ducts and reaches the lymph nodes. The first lymph node to receive the substance or dye is removed. If cancer cells are not found, it may be that the tumor has not grown significantly since the last time it was checked. It is necessary to remove more lymph nodes in order to determine if the cancer has spread. Sometimes a sentinel lymph node is found in more than one group of nodes.A radioactive substance and/or blue dye is injected near the tumor (first panel). This allows the presence of the material to be detected visually or with a probe that detects radioactivity (middle panel). The first lymph nodes to take up the material are called "sentinel nodes." The scientist checked for cancer cells (the last panel).

    • Lymph node dissection A surgery in which a sample of tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. For a regional lymph node dissection some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. For a radical lymph node dissection all or many of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. The tumor area will be removed. This is also called a lymphadenectomy.

    • Core needle biopsyPathologists use a wide needle to remove a sample of tissue from an individual. This procedure is used to look for cancer cells.

    • Fine-needle aspiration biopsyA sample of tissue is removed using a thin needle. A pathologist looks at the tissue under a microscope to see if there are any cancer cells.

  • Immunohistochemistry A laboratory test that uses antibodies to identify specific markers in a tissue sample. After the antibodies bind to the antigen, the enzyme or fluorescent dye is activated, and you can see the results. A test that can be used to diagnose cancer and to differentiate between different types of cancer is seen under a microscope.

There are three ways cancer can spread in the body.

Cancer can spread through the body by way of the lymphatic system and the blood.

  • Cancer spreads from where it began by growing into new areas.

  • Cancer spreads from where it began by entering the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.

  • Cancer spreads from its original location by entering the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.

Cancer can spread to other parts of the body if it has broken away from where it began (the primary tumor). Cancer cells move through the lymph system or blood, which is called metastasis.

  • The cancer spreads through the lymph system and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

  • Cancer spreads through the blood. The cancer gets into the blood and travels through the blood vessels to form a tumor in another part of the body.

The cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is the same type of cancer as the original cancer. For example, if Merkel cell carcinoma spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually cancerous Merkel cells. The disease is metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, not liver cancer.

Cancer deaths are often caused when cancer cells move from the original tumor and spread to other parts of the body. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from where they first formed to other parts of the body.

Merkel cell carcinoma goes through the following stages:

Tumor sizes are often measured in centimeters (cm). Common food items that can be used to show tumor size in cm include: a pea (1 cm), a peanut (2 cm), a grape (3 cm), a walnut (4 cm), an egg (6 cm), a peach (7 cm), and a grapefruit (10 cm or 4 inches).

Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)

Abnormal Merkel cells are found in the top layer of skin in stage 0. These cells may become cancerous and spread to nearby normal tissue.

Stage I

In stage one, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

Stage II

The second stage of Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into stages IIA and IIB.

  • In stage IIA, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

  • In stage IIB, the tumor has spread to nearby tissues such as connective tissue muscle cartilage or bone.

Stage III

Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into two stages: Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB.

In stage IIIA, one of the following is found: -A lesion on the chest that is red, swollen, and painful to the touch. -A fever over 101 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • A tumor may be any size and may have spread to nearby tissues. A lymph node cannot be felt during a physical exam, but cancer is found in the lymph node by sentinel lymph node biopsy or after the lymph node is removed and checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. Cancer is a disease; or

  • A swollen lymph node is felt during a physical exam, and/or it can be seen on an imaging test. If the lymph node is removed and examined under a microscope, then cancer is found in the node. The origin of the cancer is unknown.

In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size.

  • If cancer is found in the lymph node, it may have spread to nearby connective tissue and muscle tissue. A swollen lymph node is felt during a physical exam and/or seen on an imaging test. When the lymph node is removed and checked under a microscope, cancer may be found in it; or

  • Cancer is in a lymph vessel between the primary tumor and nearby lymph nodes. Cancer may have spread to other lymph nodes.

Stage IV

In stage IV, the tumor has spread to other parts of the body other than the primary tumor or to areas not close to the primary tumor.

Merkel cell cancer can return after it has been treated.

The cancer may come back in the skin, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body. It is common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur.

Treatment  Merkel cell carcinoma

  • Some people have treatment options for Merkel cell carcinoma.

  • There are four types of standard treatment used to remove ink from paper: -Wiping the ink away with a cloth or paper towel -Scrubbing the ink away with a soap or detergent solution -Bleaching the ink away with a bleach solution -Pouring hot water over the paper and blotting it with a cloth

  • Clinical trials are testing new types of treatments.

  • Some treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma may have side effects.

  • Some patients might want to take part in a clinical trial.

  • Patients can enter clinical trials at any stage of their cancer treatment.

  • Follow-up tests may be needed.

There are different types of treatments for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

There are different types of treatments that are available for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. Some treatments are currently used and some are being tested in clinical trials. A clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information about new treatments. Clinical trials are tests that doctors do to see if a new treatment is better than the standard treatment. If clinical trials show that a new treatment is better, then the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Some clinical trials are only open to patients who have cancer. You have not yet started treatment.

There are four types of standard treatment for this problem:


Merkel cell carcinoma may be treated with one or more of the following surgical procedures:

  • The cancer is cut out of the skin along with some surrounding tissue. A sentinel lymph node biopsy may be done during the wide local excision procedure. If cancer is found in the lymph nodes, a lymph node dissection may also be done.

  • Surgical Procedure: Lymph node dissection. During this procedure, the lymph nodes in the area of the tumor are removed. The lymph nodes can be removed either regionally or totally. The lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. This is also called a lymphadenectomy.

After surgery to remove any cancer that can be seen at the time, some patients may receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy after the surgery to lower the risk that the cancer will come back. This is called adjuvant treatment. decorative use.

Radiation therapy

Cancer treatment using radiation uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy is used to treat Merkel cell cancer by sending radiation toward the area of the body with cancer. Carcinoma is a type of cancer that can also be used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.


Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. This can be done by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach all of the cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is a treatment used to fight cancer throughout the body.


Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to help the body's natural defenses against cancer. This cancer treatment is a type of biological therapy.

Some types of immune cells, such as T cells and some cancer cells, have certain proteins on their surface that block immune responses. When cancer cells have a lot of these proteins, they will not be attacked and killed by T cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors help to stop the spread of cancer. The blocking of these proteins allows the ability of T cells to kill cancer cells to be increased.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are two types of therapy that help the body's immune system.

  • Treatment with PD-1 inhibitors and PD-L1 blockers keeps the immune system from attacking healthy cells. PD-1 is a protein on the surface of T cells that helps keep the body's responses in check. When PD-1 attaches to PD-L1, it stops the cell from attacking cancerous cells. Treatment with these inhibitors and blockers keeps the immune system from attacking healthy cells. When PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins attach to each other, this allows the T cells to kill cancer cells. Pembrolizumab (a type of PD-1 inhibitor) and avelumab (a type of PD-L1 inhibitor) are used to treat advanced Merkel cell carcinoma. Nivolumab is being studied as a type of PD-1 inhibitor to treat some cancers. Merkel cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that most often affects the skin.

An immune checkpoint inhibitor helps keep the immune response in check. PD-L1 is a protein found on tumor cells and T cells. When PD-L1 binds to PD-1, this keeps T cells from attacking the tumor. The inhibitor allows the T cells to kill tumor cells (on the right panel).Immunotherapy uses the body's immune system to attack cancer cells. This animation explains one type of immunotherapy that uses inhibitors of the immune system to treat cancer.

  • CTLA-4 inhibitors are a type of medication that help keep the body's immune system in check. When CTLA-4 attaches to another protein called B7 on a cancer cell, it stops the T cell from attacking the cancer. CTLA-4 inhibitors attach to CTLA-4 and allow the T cell to kill the cancer cell. Ipilimumab is a type of cancer treatment that inhibits the activity of CTLA-4. This might be useful in treating advanced Merkel cell carcinoma.An immune checkpoint inhibitor helps to control the body's immune responses. Checkpoint proteins such as B7-1/B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and CTLA-4 on T cells help keep the immune response in check. When the TCR binds to an antigen and MHC proteins on the APC, it activates the T cell. B7-1/B7-2 binds to the APC on the T cell, which enables it to be activated. However, binding of B7-1/B7-2 to CTLA-4 keeps the T cells in an inactive state, preventing them from attacking tumor cells in the body (left panel). By blocking the binding of B7-1/B7-2 to CTLA-4, an immune checkpoint inhibitor can allow the T cells to attack the tumor . This antibody allows the T cells to be active and to kill tumor cells (on the right panel).

See Drugs Approved for Merkel Cell Carcinoma for more information about these medications.

Clinical trials are testing new treatments.

Information about clinical trials is available on the National Cancer Institute website.

Some treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma may have side effects.

See our Side Effects page for information about side effects that can happen during cancer treatment.

Some patients may want to take part in a clinical trial.

Some patients who are taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of cancer research. Clinical trials are done to see if new cancer treatments are safe and more effective than the standard treatment.

Treatments for cancer that are in use today were based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Clinical trials give patients the opportunity to help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even if trials do not result in any new treatments, they often provide important information that helps advance research.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Clinical trials can include patients who have not yet received treatment, those whose cancer has not improved, or those testing new methods to stop cancer from recurring or reducing the side effects of treatment.

Clinical trials are happening in many parts of the country. You can find information about clinical trials that NCI supports on our clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials that other organizations support can be found on the website.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to determine if someone has cancer or how far the cancer has spread may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue treatment or change it may be based on the results of these tests.

Some of the tests will continue to be done after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has come back (reoccurred). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

About PDQ

The PDQ database is a comprehensive source of information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, and supportive care. This passage has both health professional and patient versions. The professional versions include detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand language that is up to date and accurate with regards to cancer information. There are also Spanish versions available.

The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not statements of the NCI or NIH, but they are a resource of information about cancer treatments.

Purpose of This Summary

This PDQ cancer information summary is current and provides information about the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma. It is not a health care guideline, so it does not provide formal instructions for making decisions about your health care.

Reviewers and Updates

The editorial boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These summaries include experts in cancer treatment and related fields, and they are reviewed regularly for changes. The latest edition of each summary is always available. This passage is updated on _____.

The information in this patient summary was taken from the latest version of the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed.

Clinical Trial Information

A clinical trial is a study that tries to answer a scientific question such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial tries to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. Clinical trials are conducted to gather information about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial reveals that a new treatment is more beneficial than the current standard of care, the new treatment may become the norm. Patients should discuss participation in a trial with their doctor. Some clinical trials are open to people who have not started treatment.

You can find clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute's website. For more information, call the Cancer Information Service (CIS) at NCI's.

  1. Child medical and psychological care
  2. Psychological rehabilitation for cancer

Preparing for your appointment

If you've got a mole, freckle or bump on your skin that concerns you, begin by creating a meeting along with your doctor. If your doctor suspects that you just might have skin cancer, you'll seemingly be referred to a skin specialist (dermatologist).

As a result, appointments are often brief, and since there's often loads to discuss, it's a decent plan to be well-prepared. Here's some data to assist you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that will appear unrelated to the rationale that you regular the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.

  • Consider taking along a family member or friend. Sometimes it is often tough to recollect all the knowledge provided throughout an associate appointment. somebody who accompanies you'll remember one thing that you just incomprehensible or forgot.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time along with your doctor is limited, thus making an inventory of queries will assist you build the foremost of some time together. List your questions from most vital to least important just in case time runs out. For Merkel cell carcinoma, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?

  • What kinds of diagnostic tests do I need? How are these tests performed?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • How will you check my response to treatment?

  • How likely is my condition to recur? What treatment options would be available in that case?

  • What follow-up tests will I need to monitor for recurrence?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the queries that you've ready to raise your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions throughout your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Being able to answer them might reserve time to travel over points you wish to pay longer on. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first notice your symptoms?

  • How have your symptoms changed over time?

  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?

  • Have you spent a lot of time in the sun, or have you used tanning beds?

  • Do you have a history of other skin conditions, such as skin cancer or psoriasis? What treatments have you received for those conditions?

  • Have you been diagnosed with any immune system disorders? If so, what treatments have you received?

  • Have you been diagnosed or treated for any other health conditions?

General summary

  1. Yes in most cases when Merkel cell carcinoma is found at an early stage and treated the cancer can be cured If it has spread beyond the original site or metastasized then treatment will not be curative but may extend life The type of treatment depends on where the cancer originated and how advanced it is as well as individual factors.[3] Treatment consists generally of removing any visible tumor followed by radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancerous cells (internal excision) Adjuvant chemotherapy may also be required to destroy any hidden remnants Standard treatment for MCC runs about six months from diagnosis to death with many people.

Merkel cell carcinoma : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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