JavaScript is not enabled!...Please enable javascript in your browser

جافا سكريبت غير ممكن! ... الرجاء تفعيل الجافا سكريبت في متصفحك.


Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC): Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What is Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)?

Nasopharyngeal cancer is a rare type of head and neck cancer that starts in the upper part of your throat behind your nose.

Your nose and throat are located at the base of your skull. When you breathe, air flows through your nose and into your throat, and then into your lungs.

Nasopharyngeal cancer is also called nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This type of cancer develops in the part of the throat near the nose.

What is Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC)?
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 

Nasopharyngeal cancer affects the tissue that connects the rear of your nose to the back of your mouth. This space is named the cavum, and it’s settled simply on top of the roof of your mouth, at the bottom of your skull. After you respire through your nose, air flows through your nose, nasopharynx and into your throat before it reaches your lungs. bodily cavity cancer begins once cells during this area begin to grow out of control.

bodily cavity cancer (also called NPC) may be a rare growth of the top and neck that originates within the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is located at the terribly back of the nose close to the Eustachian tubes (Figure). bodily cavity cancer is very common in geographical regions and is frequently, however not always, caused by EBV (EBV).

  1. Nasal cavity

  2. Pharynx

Medical terms

  • Nasopharyngeal (nay-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul) carcinoma is cancer that occurs in the bodily cavity that is found behind your nose and higher than the rear of your throat. cavity malignant neoplastic disease is rare within the United States. It happens far more often in different elements of the planet — specifically Southeast Asia. cavity carcinoma is troublesome to sight early. That in all probability as a result of the nasopharynx isn't simple to look at and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mimic those of other, more-common conditions. Treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma typically involves radiation therapy, therapy or a mix of the two. you'll work together with your doctor to see the precise approach reckoning on your explicit situation. 

  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) also known as nasopharyngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer that originates in the nasal cavity located at the back of the nose behind the nasal passage opening The exact cause of NPC remains unknown However researchers believe that certain viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in causing this cancer to develop Other risk factors for contracting NPC include smoking alcohol consumption family history and radiation therapy exposure.

  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma also known as cancer of nasopharynx or NPC is a type of pseudotumor originating in the epithelial lining of the nose that usually presents as a rapidly growing mass associated with pain and nasal obstruction This type of tumor has a high rate of metastasis to regional lymph nodes and distant sites like lung The male : female ratio for NPC is about 3:2 Epidemiological risk factors include infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and consumption of salted fish from endemic areas such as southern China Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Symptoms Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a very aggressive form of cancer that starts in the back of the throat near or behind the nose In advanced stages the cancer can spread to other parts of the head and neck as well as to lymph nodes bones and skin The five-year survival rate for patients with stage 4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma is less than 10 percent While some treatments are available to help control symptoms related to this type of cancer there currently aren't any cures for this highly aggressive disease Treatment options include radiation therapy chemotherapy and surgery — if it's detected at an earlier stage

In its early stages, cavity malignant neoplastic disease might not cause any symptoms. doable noticeable symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma include:

  • A lump in your neck caused by a swollen lymph node

  • Blood in your saliva

  • Bloody discharge from your nose

  • Nasal congestion or ringing in your ears

  • Hearing loss

  • Frequent ear infections

  • Sore throat

  • Headaches

When to see a doctor

Early cavum malignant neoplastic disease symptoms might not continuously prompt you to ascertain your doctor. However, if you notice any uncommon and protracted changes in your body that don't appear right to you, adore unusual nasal congestion, see your doctor. 

Causes Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Scientists aren't sure what exactly causes nasopharyngeal cancer. However, the cancer is strongly linked to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

Not everyone who has EBV will develop nasopharyngeal cancer. In the United States, most people who have had an EBV infection never experience long-term problems. Scientists are still investigating how EBV leads to nasopharyngeal cancer, but it may be related to genetic material (DNA) from the person's immune system. The virus is affecting the DNA in the cells of the nasopharynx, which causes cells to grow and divide abnormally, leading to cancer.

If you eat a diet high in salty or cured fish or meat, the risk for cancer goes up. Tobacco and alcohol may also increase this risk, although the link to cancer is not clear. Some scientists believe that chemicals in these things further damage the DNA in cells.

Cancer begins once one or additional sequence mutations cause traditional cells to grow out of control, invade encompassing structures and eventually unfold (metastasize) to different components of the body. In cavity cancers, this method begins within the squamous cells that line the surface of the nasopharynx. Specifically, what causes the gene mutations that cause nasopharyngeal carcinoma isn't known, although factors, like the Epstein-Barr virus, that increase the chance of this cancer are identified. However, it isn't clear why some folks with all the risk factors ne'er develop cancer, whereas others who don't have any apparent risk factors do.

Risk factors Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Researchers have known some factors that seem to extend your risk of developing cavum carcinoma, including:

  • Sex. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is more common in men than it is in women.

  • Race. This type of cancer additionally affects individuals in components of China, geographical region associate degreed northern Africa. Within the United States, Asian immigrants have the next risk of this sort of cancer than do American-born Asians. Inuits in American states even have an inflated risk of cavum cancer. 

  • Age. Nasopharyngeal cancer can occur at any age, but it's most commonly diagnosed in adults between the ages of 30 and 50.

  • Salt-cured foods. Chemicals free in steam once prepared preserved foods, adore fish ANd preserved vegetables, might enter the nasal cavity, increasing the chance of bodily cavity carcinoma. Being exposed to those chemicals at an early age may increase the risk even more 

  • Epstein-Barr virus. This common virus typically produces delicate signs and symptoms, similar to those of a cold. generally it will cause infectious mononucleosis. The Epstein-Barr virus is additionally connected to many rare cancers, together with bodily cavity carcinoma. 

  • Family history. Having a family member with nasopharyngeal carcinoma increases your risk of the disease.

  • Alcohol and tobacco. Heavy alcohol intake and tobacco use can raise your risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Complications Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma complications can include:

  • Cancer that grows to invade nearby structures. Advanced cavity malignant neoplastic disease will cause complications if it grows giant enough to invade close structures, admire the throat, bones and brain. 

  • Cancer that spreads to other areas of the body. Nasopharyngeal cancer often unfolds (metastasizes) on the far side of the nasopharynx. The majority with cavum carcinoma have regional metastases. meaning cancer cells from the initial tumor have migrated to close areas, equivalent to humor nodes within the neck. Cancer cells that spread to alternative areas of the body (distant metastases) most typically travel the bones, lungs and liver. 

Prevention Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

No positive means exists to forestall bodily cavity carcinoma. However, if you're involved regarding your risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, you will contemplate avoiding habits that are related to the disease. For instance, you may opt to trim on the number of preserved foods you eat or avoid these foods altogether.

Tests to screen for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

In the US and in alternative areas wherever the illness is rare, routine screening for bodily cavity cancer isn't done. However, in areas of the globe where nasopharyngeal carcinoma is very common — for instance, in some areas of China — doctors could provide screenings to folks thought to be at high risk of the disease. Screening may involve blood tests to discover the Epstein-Barr virus.

How long is treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer?

The exact duration of treatment depends on the extent stage and type of nasopharyngeal cancer Treatment varies from simple observation to surgery chemotherapy and radiation therapy Your doctor will determine a course of action based on your specific case as well as factors including your age overall general health whether you have other medical conditions besides nasopharyngeal cancer and the availability of effective therapies for your disease.

How do they remove nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare cancer that begins in the upper part of the throat just behind the nose It can occur anywhere from one to 15 or 20 years after having had an Epstein-Barr virus infection like mononucleosis Because it is so rare and because there are no early symptoms (with three notable exceptions) most cases are discovered too late for treatment However treatments have improved in recent years Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has never been linked with smoking or chewing tobacco and there’s little evidence that suggests people who drink alcohol are at higher risk although they may be.

What is the best treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

Locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) is a rare cancer with few treatment options The standard of care in Western countries involves multi-agent chemotherapy often with bevacizumab as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin and radiation therapy to the neck area This can lead to tumor shrinkage but does not result in long-term disease control for most patients who ultimately relapse and die from their disease Therefore novel therapeutic approaches are needed.

Is nasopharyngeal carcinoma curable?

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma or NPC as it is commonly called can be cured when detected early Factually it is one of the most curable cancers which carry at least a 90% cure rate with the right treatment and surgery There are several factors that would determine how effective treatment would reach 100% These factors include: age gender stages of NPC at diagnosis and possibly where you live Another factor could be whether or not the cancer has spread outside your nasopharynx to other parts of your body before its discovery.

Who has nasopharyngeal carcinoma classification?

According to the American Cancer Society people who have a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in their family should be regularly screened for any signs and symptoms indicating the presence of this illness If someone does develop symptoms that indicate the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma medical tests will be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Diagnosis Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and medical history, and may perform a physical exam that includes a detailed look at your ears, nose, and throat. If you have trouble speaking or swallowing, for example, your doctor may refer you to an otolaryngologist, a doctor who specializes in these areas.

The doctor or nurse will feel your neck to see if there is a lump. Most patients with nasopharyngeal cancer have an indication that the cancer has spread to their lymph nodes.

A flexible lighted tube may be put through your mouth or nose to help the doctor view the nasopharynx more clearly. This procedure is called a nasopharyngoscopy. It helps the doctor check for abnormalities, such as growths bleeding or other problems.

If your doctor thinks the exam results are abnormal, he or she may recommend a biopsy. This is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope.

A biopsy may be taken during the nasopharyngoscopy if you notice a lump in your neck. The biopsy may be done by inserting a very thin hollow needle into the lump.

Imaging tests can help spot nasopharyngeal cancer or determine if it has spread. Imaging tests may include: -A CT scan to look for cancer in the nasopharynx (a part of the throat just below the nose) -An MRI scan to look for cancer in other parts of the body.

Tests to diagnose nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Tests and procedures used to diagnose nasopharyngeal carcinoma include:

  • Physical exam. Diagnosing bodily cavity malignant neoplastic disease typically begins with a general examination. Your doctor can raise questions on your symptoms. He or she could endure your neck to sympathize with swelling in your body fluid nodes. 

  • Exam using a camera to see inside your nasopharynx. If bodily cavity cancer is suspected, your doctor could suggest a nasal examination. This check uses a thin, versatile tube with a camera on the top to examine within your cavum and appearance for abnormalities. The camera could also be inserted through your nose or through the gap within the back of your throat that leads up into your nasopharynx. Nasal endoscopy may need native anesthesia. 

  • Test to remove a sample of suspicious cells. Your doctor may also use the endoscope or another instrument to take a small tissue sample (biopsy) to be tested for cancer.

Tests to determine the extent of the cancer

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, your doctor orders alternative tests to work out the extent (stage) of the cancer, like imaging tests. 

Imaging tests might include:

Once your doctor has determined the extent of your cancer, a Roman numeral that signifies its stage is assigned. The stages of cavity cancer vary from I to IV. The stage is employed in conjunction with many alternative factors to work out your treatment set up and your prognosis. A lower numeral means that the cancer is little and confined to the bodily cavity. A better numeral means cancer has developed on the far side of the nasopharynx to body fluid nodes within the neck or to other areas of the body.

Treatment Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

If you're diagnosed with cavum  cancer, you would like regular follow-ups along with your medical team before, during, and once treatment. You and your doctor work along to plot a treatment plan supporting many factors, appreciating the stage of your cancer, your treatment goals, your overall health and also the facet effects you're willing to tolerate. Treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer sometimes begins with irradiation or a mix of radiation and chemotherapy.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, equivalent to X-rays or protons, to kill willcer cells. Radiation for bodily cavity cancer is sometimes administered during a procedure known as external beam radiation. Throughout this procedure, you're positioned on a table and an oversized machine is maneuvered around you, directing radiation to the precise spot wherever it can target your cancer. For tiny nasopharyngeal tumors, radiation therapy could also be the sole treatment necessary. In different situations, radiation therapy may be combined with chemotherapy. radiation carries a risk of facet effects, as well as temporary skin redness, hearing disorder and dry mouth. a kind of internal radiation therapy, known as (brachytherapy), is usually utilized in perennial bodily cavity carcinoma. With this treatment, radioactive  seeds or wires are positioned within the neoplasm or terribly on the brink of it. radiation to the top and neck, particularly once combined with chemotherapy, typically causes severe sores in the throat and mouth. Generally these sores make it troublesome to eat or drink. If this occurs, your doctor could suggest inserting a tube into your throat or stomach. Food and water are delivered through the tube till your mouth and throat recover.


Chemotherapy may be a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Therapy medicine is often given in pill form, administered through a vein or both. therapy could also be wont to treat cavum malignant neoplastic disease in 3 ways:

  • Chemotherapy at the same time as radiation therapy. When the 2 treatments are combined, therapy enhances the effectiveness of radiation therapy. This combined treatment is termed concomitant therapy or chemoradiation. However, aspect effects of chemotherapy are accessorial to the side effects of radiation therapy, creating concomitant therapy harder to tolerate. 

  • Chemotherapy after radiation therapy. Your doctor may advocate therapy once irradiation or after concomitant therapy. therapy is employed to attack any remaining cancer cells in your body, together with those who may have broken aloof from the first growth and unfold elsewhere. Some difference of opinion exists on whether or not extra chemotherapy truly improves survival in people with cavity carcinoma. Many of us who bear chemotherapy after concomitant therapy are unable to tolerate the facet effects and should discontinue treatment. 

  • Chemotherapy before radiation therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy is chemotherapy treatment administered before actinotherapy alone or before concomitant therapy. additional analysis is required to work out whether or not neoadjuvant chemotherapy will improve survival rates in folks with bodily cavity carcinoma. What chemotherapy medicine you receive and the way usually are going to be determined by your doctor. The aspect that affects your seemingly expertise can rely upon the drugs you receive. 


Surgery isn't typically used as a treatment for cavum carcinoma. Surgery is also accustomed to removing cancerous liquid body substance nodes within the neck. In bound cases, surgery may be used to get rid of a growth from the nasopharynx. This sometimes needs surgeons to form AN incision in the roof of your mouth to access the world to remove the cancerous tissue. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

Coping with dry mouth

Radiation therapy for bodily cavity cancer often causes dryness (xerostomia). Having a dry mouth is often uncomfortable. It also can result in frequent infections in your mouth and issues eating, swallowing and speaking, and may increase issues with the health of your teeth. raise your doctor whether or not you ought to see a tooth doctor if you expertise dry mouth complications. you will notice some relief from dry mouth and its complications if you:

  • Brush your teeth several times each day. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and gently brush your teeth many times every day. Tell your doctor if your mouth becomes too sensitive to tolerate mild brushing.

  • Rinse your mouth with a warm saltwater solution after meals. Make a mild solution of warm water, salt and baking soda. Rinse your mouth with this solution after each meal.

  • Keep your mouth moistened with water or sugarless candies. Drink water throughout the day to stay your mouth moistened. conjointly attempt dry gum or sugarless candies to stimulate your mouth to supply saliva. 

  • Choose moist foods. Avoid dry foods. Moisten dry food with sauce, gravy, broth, butter or milk.

  • Avoid acidic or spicy foods and drinks. Choose foods and drinks that won't irritate your mouth. Avoid caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. Tell your doctor if you've got dry mouth. He or she may give treatments to assist you take care of more-severe signs and symptoms of dry mouth. Your doctor might also refer you to a specialist who will assist you realize foods that are easier to eat if you're experiencing dry mouth. 

Coping and support

Everyone deals with a cancer diagnosis in his or her own way. you may experience shock and worry once your diagnosis. permit yourself time to grieve. A cancer diagnosis can cause you to feel as if you've got very little management, thus taking steps to empower yourself and control what you'll do concerning your health. attempt to:

  • Learn enough to feel confident making decisions. Write down queries and raise them at consecutive appointments together with your doctor. Get a devotee or loved one to return to appointments with you to require notes. raise your health care team for any sources of data. Gather enough information in order that you are feeling assured in creating selections concerning your treatment. 

  • Find someone to talk to. You may realize it helps to possess somebody to speak to concerning your emotions. This might be a detailed friend or loved one who could be a smart listener. others who may give support embody thereforecial employees and psychologists — raise your doctor for a referral. speak together with your pastor, rabbi, Muslim or different non secular leader. Others with cancer can give a novel perspective, so contemplate connecting a support cluster — whether or not it' in your community or online. Contact the Yank Cancer Society for a lot of data on support groups. 

  • Take time for yourself when you need it. Let folks apprehend after you need to be alone. Quiet time to assume or write in a very journal will assist you arrange all the emotions you're feeling. 

  • Take care of yourself. Prepare yourself for treatment by creating healthy style selections. For instance, if you smoke, quit smoking. Eat a spread of fruits and vegetables. Get exercise once you feel up to it, however discuss with your doctor before beginning a brand new exercise program. try and get enough sleep so you wake feeling refreshed. ask your doctor if you're having trouble sleeping. try to manage stress by prioritizing what's necessary to you. These healthy choices will create it easier for your body to agitate the facet effects of treatment. 

Preparing for your appointment

If your doctor suspects or has diagnosed bodily cavity cancer, you will be spoken to by a doctor who focuses on treating cancer (oncologist) or to a doctor who specializes in ear, nose and throat issues (otolaryngologist). As a result, appointments are often brief, and it can be troublesome to recollect everything you would like to discuss. It's an honest plan to be well-prepared. Here are some suggestions for obtaining ready, and what to expect from your doctor

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing. Include all of your symptoms, even if you don't think they're related.

  • Make a list of any medications or vitamin supplements you take. Write down doses and how often you take them.

  • Take a family member or close friend with you. You may learn loads of knowledge during your visit, and it is troublesome to recollect everything. somebody who accompanies you'll facilitate with details that you just incomprehensible  or forgot. 

  • Take a notebook or notepad with you. That way you can write down important information, such as treatment options.

  • Prepare a list of questions to ask your doctor. Knowing earlier than time what you wish to raise your doctor will assist you create the foremost of your restricted time together. List your most significant queries first, just in case time runs out. For cavum carcinoma, some basic inquiries to ask include: 

  • What kinds of tests will I need?

  • Do I need to do anything to prepare for these tests?

  • Other than nasopharyngeal cancer, are there any possible causes for these symptoms?

  • What type of nasopharyngeal cancer do I have?

  • Has the cancer spread beyond the nasopharynx? Beyond the lymph nodes?

  • What stage is my cancer?

  • What is the usual treatment for this stage of cancer?

  • Do you recommend that radiation and chemotherapy be done at the same time?

  • How successful is each treatment on its own and when combined?

  • What are the side effects of radiation?

  • What are the side effects of chemotherapy?

  • Is surgery an option?

  • I have other health issues. How will this affect them?

  • How should I prepare for treatment?

  • Which course of action do you recommend?

  • What are the odds of recurrence?

  • Should I modify my diet in any way?

  • What is my prognosis?

  • Are any clinical trials available to me?

And if your doctor says something that's not clear, don't hesitate to ask.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor can probably have a variety of queries for you. If you're able to answer them, it's going to save time for additional questions. Some potential questions your doctor may raise include:

  • When did you first notice these symptoms?

  • How often do you experience these symptoms?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Does anything improve your symptoms?

  • Does anything make your symptoms worse?

  • What is your typical diet?

  • Have you ever been diagnosed with the Epstein-Barr virus or mononucleosis?

General summary

  1. Undifferentiated Carcinoma is a cancer that has not yet developed into either a tumor or a cell type It is Cancer Cell which has no specific cell characteristics A doctor will order several tests to determine the exact stage at diagnosis The stage of your cancer will be based on how quickly the undifferentiated carcinoma spreads and whether it has metastasized to other regions of the body If there are advanced stages of this cancer treatment might include chemotherapy and in some instances radiation therapy as well as surgery if the cancer is localized.

  2. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a type of head and neck cancer that forms in the upper throat behind the nose The survival rate is generally high for most patients but recurring cancer can develop many years after treatment The specific survival rate depends on several factors including the stage of diagnosis the amount of time between diagnosis and treatment and the effectiveness of treatments The five-year survival rate for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients ranges from 55 percent to 80 percent.

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC): Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

usa-good- clinic

    No comments
    Post a Comment